Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters

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Disclaimer, This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government While this. document is believed to contain correct information neither the United States Government nor any agency. thereof nor Navigant Consulting Inc Navigant nor any of their employees makes any warranty express or. implied or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy completeness or usefulness of any information. apparatus product or process disclosed or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product process or service by its trade name trademark. manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement recommendation or favoring by the. United States Government or any agency thereof or Navigant The views and opinions of authors expressed. herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof or. The work described in this report was funded by U S Department of Energy under Contract No GS 10F 0200K. Order No DE DT0006900,Acknowledgements, Cambridge Engineering Inc Marc Braun Jim Melchers Kevin Jerome Keith DeBold. Langendorf Supply Co Inc Ken Arnsmeyer and Bryan Talley. Navigant Consulting Inc William Goetzler Robert Zogg Dan Chwastyk Collin Weber and Rebecca Legett. United States Department of Energy DOE Better Buildings Alliance Amy Jiron Kristen Taddonio Jason. Koman Charles Llenza and Arah Schuur,For more information contact techdemo ee doe gov. DRAFT Report Do not cite or distribute Page i, The Better Buildings Alliance is a U S Department of Energy. DOE effort to promote energy efficiency in U S commercial. buildings through collaboration with building owners operators and. managers Members of the Better Buildings Alliance commit to. addressing energy efficiency needs in their buildings by setting. energy savings goals developing innovative energy efficiency. resources and adopting advanced cost effective technologies and. market practices,DRAFT Report Do not cite or distribute Page ii.
Table of Contents,I Executive Summary,II Introduction 1. A Problem Statement 1,B Opportunity 1,C Technical Objectives 2. D Technology Description 3,D 1 Technology Efficiency 3. D 2 Operating Hours 4,D 3 Units Analyzed in Demonstration 5. III Methodology 8, A Demonstration Site Description and Technology Installation 8.
B Measurement and Data Collection Plan 10,IV Results 13. A Gas Consumption Results Without Adjusting for RTU Consumption Gross Savings 13. B Gas Consumption Results Adjusting for RTU Consumption Net Savings 13. C Electricity Consumption 14,D Combined Energy Impacts 15. E Equipment Placement and Operating Time 16,F Thermal Stratification and Infiltration 17. G Economic Analysis 18, G 1 Estimated Annual Operating Cost by Fuel Type 18. G 2 Payback for Early Replacement Scenario Full Cost 20. G 3 Payback for New Construction or Replace on Burnout Scenario Incremental Cost 20. H Evaluating Runtime Estimates 21,V Summary Findings and Recommendations 22.
A Overall Technology Assessment at Demonstration Facility 22. B Market Potential and Recommendations 22,VI Acronyms 25. VII References 25,Appendix A Instrumentation Summary 26. Appendix B Methodology to Estimate Rooftop Unit Consumption 27. Appendix C Methodology to Estimate Consumption from Utility Meter Readings 28. DRAFT Report Do not cite or distribute Page iii,List of Figures. Figure 1 Heating load hours in the United States 1994 ARI map cited in Sachs 2003 14 5. Figure 2 Aerial view of demonstration site color enhanced 8. Figure 3 Internal floor plan of demonstration site 9. Figure 4 Placement of heating equipment at demonstration site 9. Figure 5 Placement of monitoring equipment at demonstration site 11. Figure 6 Temperature readings at various heights 18. Figure 7 RTU operating time vs HDD data 27,List of Tables. Table 1 Summary of Demonstration Results i, Table 2 Classification of Non Centralized Gas Fired Space Heating Equipment 3.
Table 3 Summary of Thermal and Seasonal Efficiency for Gas Fired Heaters 4. Table 4 Summary of Existing and New Heating Equipment 6. Table 5 Key Monitoring Points for Analysis 10,Table 6 Additional Data Sources for Analysis 11. Table 7 Gas Consumption Savings of New and Existing Gas Heaters without RTU Adjustment 13. Table 8 Gas Consumption Savings of New and Existing Gas Heaters with RTU Adjustment 14. Table 9 Electricity Consumption of New and Existing Gas Heaters 15. Table 10 Combined Energy Impacts of New and Existing Gas Heaters 16. Table 11 Operating Runtimes of New and Existing Gas Heaters 17. Table 12 Estimated Annual Operating Cost Natural Gas 19. Table 13 Estimated Annual Operating Cost Electricity 19. Table 14 Estimated Annual Operating Cost and Savings 20. Table 15 Payback Analysis for Early Replacement Scenario 20. Table 16 Payback Analysis for New Construction or Replace on Burnout Scenario 21. Table 17 Projections of Seasonal Equipment Operating Hours 21. Table 18 Summary of Utility Gas Consumption Values 28. DRAFT Report Do not cite or distribute Page iv,I Executive Summary. For many buildings that do not require space cooling non centralized equipment such as unit heaters provide. space heating to building occupants Unit heaters are a major source of energy use nationally accounting for. nearly 18 of primary space heating energy use for commercial buildings and most prominently appear in. warehouses distribution centers loading docks etc 1 Several high efficiency gas fired space heating or gas. heater2 technologies exist that consume significantly less energy than a conventional gas heater and can. produce substantial energy savings if widely adopted This report discusses a field demonstration to analyze the. energy savings for one of these technologies 100 outside air high discharge temperature heating and. ventilation HTHV direct fired gas heaters under normal use conditions at a warehouse outside of St Louis. The project successfully demonstrated the energy savings of 100 outside air HTHV direct fired gas heaters. from improved thermal efficiency reduced temperature stratification higher discharge temperature and. positive pressurization over a standard efficiency unit heater meeting federal and state appliance standards We. conducted the demonstration over the majority of the 2013 2014 heating season October 2013 through mid. March 2014 at a single story warehouse with approximately 41 667 sq ft of heated warehouse and loading. space and approximately 24 ft high ceilings We monitored new high efficiency and existing standard efficiency. units operating side by side in alternating months to better understand how site specific attributes affect. energy consumption We collected data including equipment operating hours temperatures throughout the. building door openings and other factors, Table 1 summarizes the results of the demonstration and the estimated savings for natural gas consumption. source energy consumption and utility cost Because the energy consumption of heating equipment depends on. outdoor conditions we normalized the energy consumption in therms over the monitoring period according to. the number of heating degree days HDD in each monitoring period such that technologies are compared on a. therms HDD basis After accounting for rooftop unit consumption of a small office space the building consumed. 1 67 therms HDD when operating the new gas heaters and 2 10 therms HDD when operating the existing gas. heaters on a normalized basis over the monitoring period resulting in an average gas savings of approximately. 20 Because the new gas heaters utilize a high pressure blower to reduce stratification increased fan. electricity consumption offsets the thermal savings resulting in source energy savings of 15 Despite higher. electricity consumption converting to the new high efficiency gas heaters would save the demonstration site. 965 or 15 of their heating related utility costs for an average year at average utility rates for the site of. 0 8 therm and 0 08 kWh The natural gas savings provided by the new gas heaters would result in a system. payback of approximately 7 8 years over standard efficiency equipment in a new construction or replace on. burnout scenario with an effective useful lifetime of approximately 15 20 years. U S Department of Energy DOE Unit Heater Spreadsheet November 2001. http www1 eere energy gov buildings appliance standards commercial docs doe heaters xls. Gas heater is a generic term referring to several categories of non centralized heating equipment Within this. categorization indirect fired non condensing unit heaters represent the baseline technology with several options. representing higher efficiency technologies,DRAFT Report Do not cite or distribute Page. Table 1 Summary of Demonstration Results,Existing Gas.
Units Efficiency Savings,Gas Heaters,Gas Consumption Therm HDD 1 67 2 10 20. Source Energy,MBtu HDD 0 19 0 22 15,Consumption,Seasonal Utility Costs Year 4 955 6 227 15. This field study successfully demonstrated the energy savings and operational benefits of 100 outside air. HTHV direct fired gas heaters As evidenced by the temperature readings near the floor and ceiling the new gas. heaters reduced stratification and maintained more uniform temperature distribution Because heated air. naturally rises to the ceiling conventional technologies create a temperature gradient in high bay buildings. When this occurs the occupied areas near the floor take longer to reach their designated temperatures. increasing equipment runtime and energy consumption High pressure blower fans found in HTHV direct fired. technologies more readily circulate the heated air to the floor reducing the temperature gradient between floor. and ceiling In addition to space heating savings by bringing in 100 outside air the technology could also. satisfy minimum ventilation requirements for high performance buildings. If deployed widely high efficiency gas heaters would significantly decrease natural gas consumption related to. space heating for semi conditioned spaces such as warehouses loading areas distribution centers and. manufacturing facilities As evidenced this field study demonstrates high efficiency gas heaters could save from. 11 3 or more in space heating energy consumption Applied to the national existing unit heater stock higher. efficiency models could save 0 03 0 04 quads4 of source energy once accounting for increased electricity usage5. While installation costs utility rates thermostat settings and climate region may vary these payback estimates. the results of this demonstration suggest relatively good payback periods in moderate or cold climates. Because unit heaters and other non centralized heating systems offer low upfront cost and easy installation. compared to central heating systems building owners heating ventilation and air conditioning HVAC. contractors and design professionals commonly use the systems throughout semi conditioned spaces. Nevertheless the attributes that make this equipment segment so popular i e low cost easy installation long. lifetime of 15 20 years encourage professionals into only considering first cost and pose a barrier to more. expensive higher efficiency options Raising awareness of the availability and the potential lifetime energy. savings of high efficiency gas heaters may encourage more industry professionals to evaluate high efficiency gas. heaters for their buildings and determine whether the systems offer an acceptable payback based on climate. operations building design etc Additionally system designers have difficulty using popular building modeling. tools to evaluate strategies that affect outside air infiltration temperature stratification and other features By. 11 savings from thermal efficiency of 90 vs standard efficiency of 80 for gravity vent units Field test results showed. gas savings of 20 and source energy savings of 15 once accounting for increased electricity consumption. Quadrillion 10 Btu, Commercial space heating consumption in 2013 estimated at 2 2 quads yr from the Energy Information Administration s. EIA Annual Energy Outlook AEO 2010 Unit heater consumption estimated to be 18 of all commercial space heating. consumption and 65 of the floor area served by unit heaters uses gas fired equipment ADL 2011 Energy Consumption. Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems Volume I Chillers Refrigerant Compressors and Heating Systems. Assumes 11 15 source energy savings as detailed in Footnote 3. DRAFT Report Do not cite or distribute Page i, failing to capture these additional benefits the modeling programs limit the savings potential of these. technologies for potential projects, We recommend the following actions promoting adoption of high efficiency products including.
For Developers of Building Energy Modeling Tools, Design specific equipment modules for high efficiency products or include high efficiency as a standard. option within the modeling software, Improve software capabilities to more effectively model the energy impacts of building stratification and. infiltration to better predict the energy savings of 100 outdoor air direct fired heating technologies. For DOE and Other Efficiency Organizations, Assess further the energy impact of 100 outdoor air direct fired technologies when used as. October 2014 Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters Prepared for Better Buildings Alliance Building Technologies Office Office of Energy Efficiency and

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