Family Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity Acculturation

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www scholink org ojs index php jecs Journal of Education and Culture Studies Vol 1 No 2 2017. 1983 cited in John 1988 tribes in the United States with different tribes having similar and diverse. customs traditions and languages John 1988 There are also many different subgroups of people. described as Hispanic or Latino living in the United States Bean Tienda 1987 Zambrana. Dorrington 1998 with the different subgroups having diverse as well as similar cultural beliefs and. practices despite sharing a common language Zuniga 1998 The same is the case for Asian Americans. and Pacific Islanders Barringer Gardner Levin 1993 Even among EuroAmericans there are as. many subgroups as there are countries and languages in Europe Mindel Habenstein Wright. The extent to which people from the same ethnic or cultural group or subgroups share common beliefs. customs and practices has been debated by anthropologists and psychologists for more than 100 years. e g Berry Poortinga Segall Dasen 2011 Schwartz 1978 An individual oriented approach to. culture de Munck 2000 Schwartz 1978 suggests that within any ethnic group or subgroup there are. variations in the degree to which members share the same beliefs customs and practices where. variations in beliefs and practices are shaped and influenced by many factors including but not limited. to contact with peoples ideas materials and practices of other ethnic and cultural groups e g Nanda. 1 1 Personal Beliefs and Practices, Acculturation has been extensively studied in the United States as a factor influencing the beliefs and. practices of people from different ethnic groups e g Chun Akutsu 2003 Clark Hofsess 1998. Landrine Klonoff 1996 McAdoo 1993 Acculturation refers to the extent to which people from. one ethnic or cultural group come to assume or adopt the beliefs customs and practices of another. ethnic or cultural group Birman 1994 Chun Organista Mar n 2003 Acculturation has most often. been used to describe the consequences of contact with Europeans where nonwestern societies were. forced or drawn into contact with Eurocentric thinking and ways of life Nanda 1994 An extensive. body of research indicates that acculturation not only influences changes in personal cultural beliefs. customs and practices e g Bornstein Cote 2013 Buriel DeMent 1997 Ghuman 1997 Harris. Verven 1998 Rivera Sinclair 1997 but also explains differences within ethnic groups or. subgroups Landrine Klonoff 1996, In contrast to acculturation enculturation refers to the processes and experiences leading to acquisition. or maintenance of the cultural beliefs customs and practices of one s own ethnic or cultural group or. subgroup Gavelek Kong 2012 Laughlin 1989 Little Soldier 1985 Nanda 1994 The term refers. to the extent to which individuals identify with their ethnic culture feel a sense of pride in their. cultural heritage and participate in traditional cultural activities Zimmerman Ramirez Washienko. Walter Dyer 1998 p 296 The enculturation concept seems especially useful in studies of. individuals from the same ethnic group who do and do not enmesh themselves in cultural traditions and. customs and how doing or not doing so is a factor explaining variations in personal beliefs customs. and practices Collins 1989 LeVine 1990 Poole 1994,Published by SCHOLINK INC. www scholink org ojs index php jecs Journal of Education and Culture Studies Vol 1 No 2 2017. Family Socioeconomic Status SES has also been found to be related to differences in personal beliefs. customs and practices Abell Clawson Washington Bost Vaughn 1996 Willingham 2012 as. well as related to measures of acculturation and enculturation Negy Woods 1992 Yoon Hacker. Hewitt Abrams Cleary 2012 Yurchak 2004 As noted by Hill 2006 these particular personal. and family characteristics are likely to be intertwined and related to one other in quite complex ways. Not surprisingly family SES family ethnicity acculturation and enculturation have all been identified. as factors influencing personal beliefs customs and practices Calzada Brotman Huang Bat Chava. Kingston 2009 McAdoo 1993 Mindel et al 1988b Powell 2003 Rohner R P Rohner E C. 1 2 Parenting Beliefs and Practices, Families from different SES and ethnic and cultural backgrounds have generally been found to differ in. their beliefs about desirable child behavior e g Bornstein Bradley 2012 Degotardi Torr Cross. 2008 Kohnstamm Halverson Havill Mervielde 1996 Leyendecker Harwood Comparini. Yal inkaya 2005 beliefs about how children come to learn desired behaviors e g Leyendecker. Lamb 1999 and the parenting roles for promoting child acquisition of those behaviors e g Rohner. R P Rohner E C 1982 According to Harkness and Super 1996a the culturally regulated. customs of child rearing and care and the implicit theories parents use for rearing their children. contribute to variations in how parenting beliefs and practices are shaped and influenced Numerous. studies have demonstrated the role acculturation plays in influencing parenting beliefs and practices. e g Gutierrez Sameroff Karrer 1988 Patel Power Bhavnagri 1996 Thiel de Bocanegra. 1998 The influences of enculturation on parenting beliefs and practices are well recognized Masten. 1999 Pachter Harwood 1996 Super Harkness 1997 although measures of enculturation are. noticeably missing in the parenting beliefs literature and therefore the relationships between. enculturation and parenting beliefs and practices,1 3 Purpose of the Study.
The purpose of the study described in this paper was to ascertain the relationships between family SES. family ethnicity acculturation enculturation and parent beliefs about desired child behavior child. learning methods and parenting roles in promoting desired behavior The study was conducted as part. of a line of research and practice investigating young children s everyday learning opportunities e g. Dunst Hamby Trivette Raab Bruder 2000 2002 Dunst Raab 2004 and how intrafamily and. extrafamily factors including but not limited to family SES family ethnicity acculturation and. enculturation contribute to variations in child learning and development e g Dunst et al 2001 Dunst. Bruder Trivette Hamby 2005 2006 Trivette Dunst Hamby 2004. The study differed from other investigations of parenting beliefs in a number of ways First in contrast. to studies that have typically included families from only 2 or 3 ethnic or cultural groups the study. described in this paper included families from seven different ethnic and cultural backgrounds Second. measures of both acculturation and enculturation were used in order to determine their relationships. Published by SCHOLINK INC, www scholink org ojs index php jecs Journal of Education and Culture Studies Vol 1 No 2 2017. with parenting beliefs Harkness Super 1996b Sigel 1985 Sigel McGillicuddy DeLisi. Goodnow 1992 Third different kinds of parent beliefs were studied permitting more explicit. investigation as to whether SES ethnicity acculturation and enculturation had like or unlike effects on. different kinds of parent beliefs, The investigation was guided by ecological systems theory Bronfenbrenner 1979 1992 which. acknowledges the fact that beliefs and practices are multiply determined These explanatory factors. include but are not limited to the variables examined in this investigation Our interest in sociocultural. factors as determinants of parent beliefs is based on theory and research focusing on belief behavior. linkages between parenting attitudes behaviors and practices Garc. a Coll et al 1996 Sigel et al, 1992 The importance of parent beliefs as the focus of investigation is based on the observation that. there is a great deal of evidence that behavior can appropriately be seen as the expression of beliefs. that are to a large extent culturally organized Harkness Super 1996a p 16. 2 1 Participants, Participants were 195 mothers 94 and 13 other family members 6 rearing children birth to 6. years of age in seven United States Alaska California Connecticut Hawaii North Carolina New. Mexico Wisconsin A purposive sampling procedure was used to insure as much variability as. possible in terms of family ethnicity family SES child age and place of residence urban rural. The participants ethnic and cultural backgrounds were African American African Descent N 35. Asian Asian American N 19 Caucasian White N 50 Hispanic Latino N 49 Native. American Alaskan Natives N 30 Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian N 15 and peoples from the. Middle Eastern region of the world N 9 The ethnicities of 85 of the participants spouses or. partners or the family members with whom they resided were the same as their own. The ages of the participants ranged between 18 and 53 years M 32 33 SD 6 72 The number of. years of formal schooling completed by the participants ranged between zero and 24 M 13 12 SD. 3 42 Three fourths of the sample were married or living with a partner 75 whereas the other. participants were single and never married 15 or separated divorced or widowed 10 Half of. the participants worked outside the home either part time 21 or full time 30. The participants family SES scores Hollingshead 1975 ranged between 8 and 66 M 35 64 SD. 14 19 with nearly two thirds 63 of the sample comprising the three lowest Hollingshead SES. strata An investigator developed adequacy of financial resources scale developed from other measures. Bowman 1993 McLoyd Jayaratne Ceballo Borquez 1994 found that 26 of the participants. families reported difficulties meeting financial obligations and another 44 indicated they worried. about their financial situations, The respondents children included 125 boys 60 and 82 girls 40 The children s average age was.
Published by SCHOLINK INC, www scholink org ojs index php jecs Journal of Education and Culture Studies Vol 1 No 2 2017. 37 months SD 20 They ranged in age from 1 month to 107 months The children included those. with and without developmental delays and those receiving and not receiving specialized early. childhood intervention,2 2 Measures, Participants completed an Acculturation and Enculturation Questionnaire AEQ and a Parent Beliefs. Questionnaire PBQ Both scales were developed specifically for this study The AEQ items are. derived from measures of acculturation Cuellar Harris Jasso 1990 King 1992 Kumable Nishida. Hepworth 1985 and enculturation Wilbert 1976 Zimmerman Ramirez Valles Washienko Walter. Dyer 1996 in the published and unpublished literature Questionnaire content and wording were. modified so as to be applicable to participants from the ethnic and cultural backgrounds in the study. The PBQ includes three sections assessing parent beliefs about 1 behaviors considered important for. children to learn 2 how children come to learn desired behavior and 3 parenting roles in promoting. child acquisition of those behaviors The content of the scale as well as the measurement procedures are. modifications of methods used extensively in cross cultural research on child development and. parenting roles and styles Chao 1994 Garc,a Coll 1990 Garc. a Coll Meyer Brillon 1995 Lin, Fu 1990 McGillicuddy DeLisi 1982 Okagaki Divecha 1993 Sigel 1986 Both the AEQ and. PBQ were administered in interview formats in the participants preferred languages. 2 2 1 Acculturation and Enculturation Questionnaire. This scale includes 13 items measuring three dimensions of acculturation language preference use. affiliate behavior preferences and contact with people from the respondents family place of origin. and 7 items measuring different dimensions of enculturation image affinity pride etc The scale also. includes a series of questions for ascertaining a respondent s ethnic and cultural group and subgroup. membership, The language preference use items assess the extent to which a respondent s ethnic or nonethnic.
language was used for speaking reading writing and thinking A single item measured a respondent s. preferred language The affiliate behavior preferences items assess the extent to which the ethnicities of. a respondent s peers and friends growing up when socializing at school or at work and at religious or. spiritual gatherings are the same or different from their own The family place of origin items assess. the extent to which a respondent and his her parents were reared in their country of origin or on tribal. lands for Native Americans and visited or had contact with people family from the respondent s. country of origin The items were all scored on 5 point Likert rating scales where higher scores. indicated a greater degree of acculturation A principal components factor analysis of the acculturation. items with oblique rotation produced a three factor solution 93 where a second order factor. analysis yielded a single acculturation score that justified summing the item scores to obtain a total. scale score Spector 1992, The enculturation items assess the extent to which a respondent shows pride in his her ethnicity or. culture the accomplishments of peoples from his her ethnic or cultural background participates in and. Published by SCHOLINK INC, www scholink org ojs index php jecs Journal of Education and Culture Studies Vol 1 No 2 2017. maintains practices associated with his her ethnicity talks with and learns from others family members. elders etc of the same ethnic or cultural background about his her heritage openly communicates. about the respondent s ethnicity or culture with people from other ethnicities and maintains a sense of. Relationships between family socioeconomic status and ethnicity acculturation an d enculturation and parent beliefs about desired child behavior child learning methods and parenting roles in children s learning desired behavior were examined in a study of 207 parents of preschoolers from seven ethnic and cultural groups Different

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