Factors Contributing To School Dropout Among The Girls A-Free PDF

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European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences Vol 3 No 2 2015. ISSN 2056 5852, the findings of Holcamp 2009 also support our argument when the author found that some. socio cultural factors highly impact girls dropout rate though those factors also contribute to. boys dropout rate but to a lesser extent Therefore we can argue that some particular factors. produce poor educational outcome which consequently increase the dropout rate for girls. Therefore from this viewpoint the main objective of this paper is to clarify which factors. contribute to the increase in the dropout rate particularly among girls which are not quite clear in. past reviews on the dropout issue Dropout rate does not occur through a single factor it is a. composition of several factors A number of studies have been conducted on girls dropout issue. based on particular regions societies and cultural perspectives in various parts of the world In. this paper we accumulate the factors and illustrate a conceptual model of dropout for girls which. can give further opportunity to researchers to view the relevant factors on girls dropout issue. For better demonstration we have divided all the factors into four groups which are 1 economic. factors 2 household level factors 3 school level factors and 4 cultural factors. ECONOMIC FACTORS,Parental Investment, Parental investment for children s well being can sometimes become gender biased Although. parents are altruistic to the gender of their children they do not invest in education equally for all. In this regard there are considerable evidences in the literature Glick Sahn 2000 Kingdon. 2005 supporting this view whereby that there is gender bias or pro male bias in case of parental. investment in children In addition Leung and Zhang 2008 found that parents preference for. sons encourage more of them to invest for in their sons well being to take care of parents in the. future In fact parental gender bias investment occurs particularly when parents have. limited lower income and resource causing girls to leave school earlier than boys For instance. Fuller and Laing 1999 and Grant and Hallman 2006 found an association between a family s. financial strength and the likelihood of the daughter s dropout in South Africa. Schooling Costs, Direct and indirect schooling costs are important factors for the education of children and some. research indicate that schooling costs especially school fees are a central reason for early. dropout from schools Schooling costs are sometimes linked to the gender of the children as. parents are sometimes become unwilling to pay schooling fees for their daughters For instance. Brown and Park 2002 investigated that in rural China parents incapability to pay compensate. school fees was the reason for the dropout of 47 of girls while only 33 of boys dropout in. elementary schools in junior secondary high school fees were half for the girls but only 8 for. the boys Hunter and May 2002 found that school fees were significant reason for the dropout. rate of 27 of boys but 30 of girls before secondary school graduation in South Africa From. the families perspective Shovan Ghosh Susmita Sengupta 2012 observe that in poor. households in India the costs of schooling for girls are likely to be higher while the benefits. more tenuous for them than the boys The authors also observe that though direct costs are. similar for boys and girls parents are less willing to spend on girls Lloyd et al 2000 also. found that in Kenya higher school fees increases the likelihood of dropping out for girls but not. Progressive Academic Publishing UK Page 26 www idpublications org. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences Vol 3 No 2 2015. ISSN 2056 5852,HOUSEHOLD LEVEL FACTORS,Household Work. There is substantial literature regarding how a child work impacts on educational outcome. regardless of the gender of the children Many studies observe that girls sometimes begin. working at an earlier age than boys especially in rural areas and girls also tend to do more work. in the household than boys Studies indicate that female students tend to drop out of school to. take care of their younger siblings Brock Cammish 1997 Another study found that if. children less than 6 years old are present at home elder sisters are more likely to drop out. Canagarajah Coulombe 1997 Another research indicates that if mothers work and get. wage outside of the home Female children take some responsibilities of the household which. causes them to drop out Fuller Liang 1999 In general girls take more load of household. chores than the boys and on the other hand rural girls do more household works than urban girls. Ersado 2005,Female Involvement in Household Chores.
Fuller and Liang 1999 argue that the advantage of having females as household heads may be. the result of increased autonomy of the females when males are absent in the decision making. process Shahidul 2013 examine data in Bangladesh and found that if a mother participates in. the household s decision making process the dropout rate of girls is decreased Though female. headship eventually gives advantage to girls studies sometimes show controversial results This. is because many studies found that single female headed households face greater financial and. time constraints than two parent households in general which may impact differently on. children s academic achievement Guo Harris 2000 Pong et al 2003 In fact children in. households headed by married women have higher educational attainment while children of. widows are more likely to work,SCHOOL LEVEL FACTORS. Extra curricular Activities, There are several evidence that shown participation in extra curricular activities varied by gender. and girls are usually less participative than boys For instance Jacqueline et al 2012. investigated gender dynamics in the valuing of extra curricular activities and their survey results. show a significant difference in the proportion of participation in extra curricular activities of. male and female students Results show that approximately 76 of male students participate in. extracurricular activities compared to only 48 of female students Sometime girls participation. in extra curricular activities constrained by the lack of facilities in schools For instance Osiki. Jonathan Ohiorenuan 2008 observes that 90 of the schools in the study area had extra. curricular facilities for the boys but the facilities for the girls were either not available or were. provided minimally This occurs in schools in most developing countries especially in the rural. Another foremost constraint is that some societies consider sports as a male activity For instance. in Senegal participation in sports is socially and culturally prohibited for Muslim women. Hewett 2010 In England during the secondary school cycle Muslim women face restrictions. Progressive Academic Publishing UK Page 27 www idpublications org. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences Vol 3 No 2 2015. ISSN 2056 5852, by their culture and religion to participate in sports activities in schools Benn 2002 Carroll. Hollinshead 1993 In fact Muslim culture does not permit some kit requirements of sports or. outdoor games such as wearing short skirts shorts and tee shirts and public changing and. Female Teacher in School, Several studies examined the impact of female teachers on the educational achievement of girls. Solotaroff et al 2007 found that in Afghanistan lack of female teachers is an obstacle to girls. participation and enrollment in schools Afghan people believe that girls should not be taught by. male teachers however female teachers are not available in Afghan society which is the. foremost reason for the low rate of female education Solotaroff et al 2007 presented that in. Pakistan girls usually drop out early because of lacking of female teachers in schools In these. societies parents tend to stop their daughters education before adulthood as female teachers are. not available in schools Though parents are sometimes reluctant to send girls to schools based. on their religious feelings in fact female teachers are effective in achieving educational outcome. for female students In this respect a number of studies have attempted to examine the effect of. having female teachers in schools For instance many studies found that having female teachers. in the school has a positive impact on female students academic achievement outcomes Carrell. et al 2010 Hoffman Nixon 2009 Rothstein 1995 Robinson 1999 Therefore lack of. female teachers in school negatively impacts on girls dropout outcome. Absenteeism, Research also indicates that irregular attendance can be a precursor for dropping out from.
school regardless of the gender of the pupils However it can be argued that school absenteeism. can be somewhat negatively more effective for early dropout from school female students In this. regard Manacorda 2012 also argues that girls are at a greater risk of absenteeism repetition. and dropout and have lower educational achievement than boys in upper primary school There. are some causes for girls dropout because of absenteeism For instance teenage pregnancy. among girl is commonly associated with frequent absence from school initially then permanent. and or temporary dropout Girls also can more drop out because of absenteeism due to child. labour or household work This is because a good deal of literature on household work found. that girls do more household work than boys which may increase non attendance in schools for. girls Moreover availability of toilets and access to feminine hygiene supplies impact on girls. absenteeism In this regard Gran 2013 indicates that female students were more likely to be. absent if their toilets at school were dirty In addition Ngales 2005 found that in Ethiopia. female students were often absent in class during menstruation and frequent absence led them to. drop out from school,Feminine Facilities in Schools. Inadequate sanitation facilities in schools massively affect girls dropout because this inadequacy. indicates that schools are not safe for girls Lizettee 2000 observes that though lack of facilities. and poor hygiene affect both girls and boys sanitation in schools has a strong negative impact. on girls Parents expect safe and separate sanitation for their daughters in schools In fact. Progressive Academic Publishing UK Page 28 www idpublications org. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences Vol 3 No 2 2015. ISSN 2056 5852, especially for girls entering adulthood they need to have separate and adequate facilities for. their menstruation time in school without proper facilities it would discourage them from being. in school and consequently they tend to drop out Lizettee 2000 Birdsall et al 2005 argue. that girls privacy issue in schools is foremost a factor which forces girls to drop out from schools. UNICEF 2009 further notice that separate hygienic toilets should be made available for boys. and girls when designing the facilities of a school UNICEF 2006 observe that in Africa the. lack of basic sanitation is the cause decreasing enrollment of girls in secondary schools but girls. spend more time in schools when sanitation facilities are adequate UNICEF 1998 further. observe that if the toilets are shared by girls and boys or are closely located in schools a. significant number of girls drop out because of harassment and lack of privacy. Teachers Attitude, Much research have examined how teachers attitudes toward female students are linked to. dropout issue Colclough et al 2000 found that in Ethiopia teachers in school more positively. viewed boys than girls because they usually expect girls to quit school early Teachers attitude. and their teaching practices have foremost impact in sustaining girls in schools According to. Nekatibeb 2002 study from several countries in Sub Saharan Africa indicate that both female. and male teachers believed that boys were academically better than girls This study also found. that most teachers tend to pay more attention to boys in the classroom than girls Research by. Fawe 2001 shows that teachers were not conscious in using their language toward girls in the. classroom They also viewed girls as less intelligent to those boys and that girls are just there to. marry early According to Njau and Wamahiu 1994 in a study on dropout rates in Sub Saharan. Africa it was found that the foremost cause of higher rate of girls dropout was the attitude of. teachers towards girls in class Teachers tend to favour to boys than girls in terms of academic. performance and achievement which led to dropout,School Distance. School distance is an important determinant of school dropout for female students Juneja 2001. observes that if school distance is considered too far from home young girls tend to drop out. more due to for the vulnerability to sexual harassment Colclough et al 2000 Nekatibeb 2002. Parents are afraid for the safety of their children when they have to travel longer distances to. school Ainsworth et al 2005 found that the likelihood of attending secondary school for girls. decreases with the greater the distance compared to the nearer secondary schools Nekatibeb. 2002 also determinants that school distance is the foremost obstacle for girls education in. many countries in Africa A large number of studies in African regions report that school. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SCHOOL DROPOUT AMONG THE GIRLS A REVIEW OF LITERATURE S M Shahidul International Islamic University of Malaysia MALAYSIA A H M Zehadul Karim International Islamic University of Malaysia MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Though a lot of research have been concerned with school dropout issue for both girls and boys dropout pattern significantly differs by the gender of the

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