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April 2014 Vol 3 No 8 ISSN 2307 227X, International Journal of Research In Social Sciences. 2013 2014 IJRSS K A J All rights reserved,www ijsk org ijrss. reading is for enjoyment and information Students A B or E consisting of parallel versions 1 and 2 for. are encouraged to stop reading if the materials are not each set. interesting and are too difficult So in order for ER. to be successful the theoretical framework of ER is Extensive Reading Tests on the other hand. important Below are ten principles highly is used to ensure whether the student is reading. recommended to be used by Day and Bamford fluently at that level and ready to move to the next. 2002 level EPER n d The tests consist of the 8 EPER. levels namely levels A B C D E and X Each of, 1 The reading material is easy which also consists of parallel versions 1 and 2. 2 A variety of reading material on a wide range of. topics is available Additionally with its years of research into ER. 3 Learners choose what they want to read EPER has come out with its lists of graded readers. 4 Learners read as much as possible consisting of a variety of publishers These graded. 5 Reading speed is usually faster rather than readers are classified according to eight levels of. slower difficulty Hence since reading enjoyment is the. 6 The purpose of reading is usually related to most important factor in the ER programs it is clear. pleasure information and general understanding that EPER has considered the motivational factor. 7 Reading is individual and silent through the use of graded materials. 8 Reading is its own reward,9 The teacher orients and guides the students. 10 The teacher is a role model of a reader 1 2 Graded Readers. Studies have shown that students will benefit Hill 2008 described graded readers as books. immensely when they read a lot They become more that are specially tailored for English learners with. confident readers increase listening and speaking the use of limited lexis and syntax Moreover it is. skills become better writers and increase their argued that graded readers create an environment. vocabulary Additionally they become highly where students progress to reading unsimplified. motivated to learn the new language Day and materials As known beginners lack interest in. Bamford 2002 According to Waring 2008 in reading umsimplified materials because it is difficult. Cirocki 2009 students will become fluent readers Waring 2008 So in order for learners to progress. when they are able to read quickly for meaning which to read unsimplified materials students should be. will then enhance their proficiency in the new exposed to books that are of increasing level of. language difficulty Hence graded readers are written at. different difficulty levels by varying the use of, 1 2 Rationale of Using Edinburgh Project on language grammar vocabulary and plot Waring.
Extensive Reading EPER 2008, Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading According to Claridge 2012 the major. EPER was established in 1981 by the Institute for publishers namely Penguin Readers Cambridge. Applied Language Studies University of Edinburgh Readers Oxford Bookworms and Macmillan Readers. but is now handed over to Extensive Reading publish fiction series This is because it is believed. Foundation ERF ERF is a non profit charitable that fictional series are texts that develop learner s. organization which aims to support and promote ER fluency Moreover all four publishers believed that. One of its many purposes is to maintain a the culture and acceptance of topics of the graded. bibliography of research on ER and in setting up ER readers depends on the learners needs Therefore. programs Macmillan Readers and Penguin Readers produce. books that reflect teachers and librarians opinions. EPER publishes two types of tests namely about what they perceive as the most influential in. placement progress test PPT and Extensive the market while Oxford Bookworms and Cambridge. Reading Test ERT They are two different tests and Readers provide series in the sensitive areas. are used in different ways The two main purposes of. placement progress tests are to place students in a Until today there are various graded readers. reading program and to monitor student s progress used by researchers in the attempt to incorporate ER. For the placement progress tests EPER has versions into their teaching For example Yamashita 2008. April 2014 Vol 3 No 8 ISSN 2307 227X, International Journal of Research In Social Sciences. 2013 2014 IJRSS K A J All rights reserved,www ijsk org ijrss. study on 38 Japanese university students used 500 and to read as much as possible but at least two. English graded readers from varying publishers such graded readers a week with reminders of. as Penguin Oxford and Cambridge These students opportunities to renew books The students mostly. were allowed to select their own titles to read had no trouble to bring along their graded reader. Similarly for a study conducted by Iwahori 2008 every day nor to return and renew their readers. 107 graded readers were used among high school Macalister 2008 This proves that ER can have a. students These books consisted of English graded place in an EAP programme The very concrete. readers from publishers such as Oxford University reason to incorporate ER into the classroom is that. Press Macmillan and Pearson Longman students might not read if ER was implemented only. as recommended or as extra curricular activity Thus. Additionally Walker 2011 used the same by incorporating ER in the lesson it will lead to the. comprehensive database of graded readers developed satisfaction of the students themselves This was. by EPER that is used in this study In this database further proven by Morgado 2009 which highlighted. the graded readers are from H to X and her students how students have increased their vocabulary. were assigned to read 16 to 96 pages in those novels reading skills as well as their confidence in the new. language This shows that students do have a good,and positive impact towards ER and perhaps would. 1 3 Introducing ER into an ESL course be grateful to be a part of the program. With the immense benefits of ER in mind there, is a need to incorporate or embed ER into ESL 2 METHODOLOGY.
courses especially in Malaysia particularly in tertiary. level as ER is absent One of the many reasons of 2 1 Participants. this is because the curriculum in a way does not tailor. to fit ER programs into the ESL course However as The participants selected were 125. Macalister 2008 remarks with proper guidelines undergraduate students enrolled in the core university. and a distinctive belief that extensive reading will subjects in Universiti Malaysia Pahang English for. have an abundant benefit on learning a new language Academic Communication Level 1 English for. incorporating ER may prove to be successful Thus Technical Communication Level 2 and English for. by incorporating ER in the ESL classroom it is Professional Communication Level 3 The students. hoped that it can gauge the students intuition to read ranged between the ages of 19 23 years old. more and increase their level of motivation towards consisting of different race and gender Students. English were stationed in two different campuses in the east. coast which are located in Pekan and Gambang, ER cannot stand alone it is a reading project Pahang. where all the language components need to be,incorporated together By integrating ER into ESL. classroom it is the best way to ensure the success of 2 2 Data Collection. the project According to Green 2005 in order to, ensure the success of extensive reading it needs to be The study was embedded as part of a 14. integrated as seamlessly as possible with the week course of the core English subjects in Universiti. language components embedded in the curriculum Malaysia Pahang The class met twice a week for 4. It is a fundamental misconception to see it as a hours but time spent on Extensive Reading was. stand alone component p 308 approximately 30 minutes each week However a. rigid time allocation for ER was not required because. Implementation of ER may differ from setting of the syllabuses that need to be covered in each core. to setting the action research project done by subject taught by the instructors. incorporating ER as a component in a pre university. study English for Academic Purposes programme is Pre tests PPT B was administered at the. one of the successful story where it has been carried beginning of the course in week two ERT version 1. out in a university in New Zealand The ER project in was administered in week three Based on the. the EAP programme ran smoothly where students individual results obtained by students in PPT B. were frequently encouraged to read in their own time students were given the opportunity to choose. April 2014 Vol 3 No 8 ISSN 2307 227X, International Journal of Research In Social Sciences. 2013 2014 IJRSS K A J All rights reserved,www ijsk org ijrss.
whichever novels they wanted to read provided that it. is of their reading level or one level above their. reading level i e E and D C and B or A and X 3 2 Extensive Reading Test Results. Approximately 344 English graded readers from, Macmillan Readers Cambridge English Readers Table 3 2 shows that the p value associated. Oxford Bookworm Series and Penguin Readers were with the statistic of contrast Sig 1 tailed is. equally given to four instructors to distribute among 0 0035 Since the p value is less than 0 05 therefore. their students The number of books from each at 0 05 significance level we have enough evidence. publisher is illustrated below to conclude that the result of the extensive reading. tests has increased after the reading program There is. Table 2 1 Graded Readers a significant increment after the treatment within the. Publishers No of books, Macmillan Readers MR 71 Table 3 2 Extensive Reading Test Version 1 Compared to. Cambridge English Readers CER 103 Extensive Reading Test Version 2 Results. Oxford Bookworms Series OBS 114,Penguin Readers PR 56 t df Sig 1. TOTAL 344 tailed,Student s Scores for ERT 2 731 124 007. Students read novels outside of class time and V1 Student s Scores for. were encouraged to do ER exercises adapted from ERT V2. Extensive Reading activities for Teaching Language. Bamford Day 2004 in and outside of class time, Only five main activities were used by each 4 DISCUSSION.
instructor and a minimum of 4 novels were read by, the students throughout the semester Students were This analysis suggests that extensive reading. encouraged to change titles every 2 weeks However improved student s performance in both. there were also students who enjoyed the activity and Placement Progress tests and Extensive Reading. read a maximum of 20 novels throughout the Tests Throughout the semester the 125 students in. semester changing titles every week and taking 2 this group whose data was included in this analysis. titles at every change Post tests were administered read 4 novels on average Similarly to a study done. in the 13th PPT E and 14th week ERT V2 Hence by Margado 2009 students did significantly better. the tests reflect improvements after 11 weeks on the post test than the pre test which suggests that. Extensive Reading had a positive impact on the,students reading comprehension This in relation. 3 RESULTS suggests extensive reading impacts not only on. reading comprehension but also on writing listening. 3 1 Placement and Progress Tests Results and speaking because students know more. vocabulary Day and Bamford 2002,Table 3 1 shows that the p value associated. with the statistic of contrast Sig 1 tailed is 0 000 In addition significant improvements can be. Since the p value is less than 0 05 therefore at a seen through students achievement after. 0 05 significance level we have enough evidence to participating in the reading activities Here level of. conclude that the result of the tests has increased after students mastery of grammar and vocabulary is. the reading program There is a significant increment better In another study Hafiz and Tudor 1989. after the treatment among the students agreed that comparison of pre and post treatment. tests in reading and writing indicated that subjects. Table 3 1 Progress test Results Compared to Placement had improved significantly in both skills though. test Results particularly in writing, t df Sig 1 Additionally with various types of novels. tailed provided it will be able to inculcate positive reading. Student s scores for PPT 3 640 124 000 habits among students This was proven when there. B Student s,scores for PPT E,were students who read up to 20 novels within one.
April 2014 Vol 3 No 8 ISSN 2307 227X, International Journal of Research In Social Sciences. 2013 2014 IJRSS K A J All rights reserved,www ijsk org ijrss. semester showing that they have more confidence 10 Iwahori Y 2008 Developing reading fluency. and interest to read more Morgado 2009 agreed A study of extensive reading in EFL Reading in. that various novels they read will also expose the a Foreign Language 20 1 70 91. students to build vocabulary reading comprehension. 11 Lituanas P M Jacobs G M Renandya W, strengthen their reading skills and improve their A 2001 An investigation of extensive reading. confidence Moreover the use of English graded with remedial students in a Philippines secondary. EXTENSIVE READING USING GRADED READERS Ruhil Amal Azmuddin1 Zuraina Ali PhD 2 Ezihaslinda Ngah3 study on 38 Japanese university students used 500 English graded readers from varying publishers such as Penguin Oxford and Cambridge These students were allowed to select their own titles to read Similarly for a study conducted by Iwahori 2008 107 graded readers were used among high

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