Exploring multimedia mobile learning and place based

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30 Language Learning Technology, engaging Thus the use of an appropriate combination of inputs in multiple modalities in language teaching. might be more of an advantage than a cognitive distraction. With the progress of technology many educators have been utilizing multimedia for their instruction. especially when teaching culture Beside the cognitive advantages multimedia can also present students. with authentic and up to date cultural information as well as help stimulate students interest and. motivation in the target culture A common approach of teaching culture with multimedia is to use videos. Many studies have been done on teaching culture with videos For example Herron et al 1999 looked at. beginning level French learners gain in cultural knowledge practices and products during the semester. as they watched 10 videos The results indicated a significant gain in cultural knowledge with post test. scores significantly higher than pre test scores A similar study was conducted by the same authors Herron. et al 2002 with intermediate level French learners By watching eight videos during the semester. intermediate learners also did significantly better on the post test than the pre test Additionally the. immediate post video viewing free recall test showed that students learned significantly more cultural. practices than products from the videos These findings support using multimedia resources such as video. in language classrooms to enhance the awareness and retention of both big C and especially little c. knowledge Most of the previous findings or pedagogical suggestions focus on the effectiveness of noticing. and retaining information of practices and products from multimedia In accordance with the three Ps. guidelines in cultural teaching ACTFL 2002 the possibilities of using multimedia to enhance learners. ability to compare reflect on and analyze the three Ps are also explored in the work to expand the literature. Why Traditional Chinese Architecture, Chinese architectural history spans thousands of years The beauty of traditional Chinese architecture and. the wisdom of the principles behind it have attracted many people and have become one of the key. motivations for learning Chinese The rich cultural elements behind the intricate architectural constructions. can serve as valuable teaching resources to help Chinese learners gain a better understanding of Chinese. culture By learning about Chinese architecture students can have access to the three Ps Products what. and where practices what people do there and perspectives why people built it in the way they did and. what beliefs and values are hidden in the constructions and styles In addition learning about traditional. Chinese architecture benefits those who study abroad in China and want to have an in depth experience. when visiting traditional Chinese architecture sites Thus a virtual tour mobile application introducing. typical traditional Chinese architecture and the meaning behind each individual construction was. conceptualized and created to help students learn about culturally significant sites in Chinese speaking. countries in an immersive media rich way,Why Mobile Learning and Mobile Application. Mobile learning including mobile assisted language learning focuses on using portable devices to facilitate. learning Ducate Lomicka 2013 Stockwell 2016 A mobile application most commonly referred to as. an app is a type of software designed to run on a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet computer. It is worth mentioning that mobile technology can unchain us and allow us to explore places we would. otherwise be unable to visit Holden Sykes 2011 With the help of mobile technology those who do. not have a chance to physically explore culturally significant sites in the target culture can still learn about. Chinese architecture in an immersive virtual tour Additionally mobile devices can be carried around at. any time and in any place meaning that learning can be self paced giving students access to learning. materials whenever they want them Moreover because these devices can go with learners wherever they. go and be aware of where they are through GPS Holden Sykes 2011 Stockwell 2016 mobile. applications can enhance the interaction between users and the environment by feeding users location. specific information The location specific features of a mobile application can benefit those who physically. go to these sites by offering in depth cultural explanations for the specific constructions acting as an. artificial curator,Yiting Han 31,Why LiveCode, LiveCode see Figure 1 was used to design the virtual tour mobile application introduced in this article. LiveCode is a rapid application development tool It creates applications that run in many supported devices. smart phones tablets and laptops and yet is easy to learn for those who do not have a programming. background LiveCode uses a high level English like programming language called Transcript that is. dynamically typed see Figure 2 The media can simply be dragged into LiveCode stacks and cards in a. nonlinear manner which is far simpler than the multitude of linear coding required by typical application. compilers The user friendly features of LiveCode and its open resources online allowed me to create a. mobile application without a professional programming background in a relatively short amount of time. There were many free tutorial resources available explaining how to build an application using LiveCode. LiveCode s official website provided a full LiveCode dictionary a beginner s guide step by step lessons. and learning courses Taking advantage of these open resources enabled me to get familiar with LiveCode. in a short amount of time,Figure 1 The logo of LiveCode.
Figure 2 Example of English like programming language of LiveCode. The Virtual Tour Mobile Application Design,Target Users. There are many applications on the market that target beginner level Chinese learners Unfortunately there. is a lack of advanced level Chinese learning applications The Chinese architecture sites virtual tour. application addressed in this article see Figure 3 was designed for learners who have reached the. advanced low to advanced high level of proficiency as designated by the ACTFL 2012 proficiency. guidelines These levels of proficiency generally correspond to a 400 level Chinese as a foreign language. CFL course in U S college settings or to an HSK 5 6 according to the People s Republic of China CFL. language skill criteria The text content in this application was presented in Chinese to create an authentic. immersive environment to help reach the goal of enhancing learners language proficiency. 32 Language Learning Technology,Figure 3 The launch screen of the application. Built In Tools, The built in tools were designed to offer learners sufficient scaffolding and multiple channels of input to. make good use of the application After clicking on a certain piece of construction learners were led to a. content page containing pictures pinyin of the construction brief introduction and cultural meaning in. Chinese an audio clip of the content rollover hints of the construction and a back button see Figure 4. For example if learners clicked on the first picture on the left in Figure 4 i e a door named ping an men. they saw three pictures of ping an men each having a different shape Every time they touched the picture. a hint of the certain shape e g apple appeared in Chinese and disappeared when they moved their. finger away When clicking on the little speaker button learners heard an audio clip of the cultural content. as if they were listening to a tour guide explaining the meaning behind the selected construction or design. All the built in tools were straight forward and easy to use With various icons whose functions could easily. be understood with a simple click the learners were free to access images audio clips text and videos. Figure 4 An example of built in tools including audio clips images and text. Yiting Han 33,Multimedia Resources, Following the guidance of multimedia learning theory multimodal resources were leveraged in this. application to provide multiple modalities of language and cultural input as well as to make the immersive. virtual tour more authentic For a module on Nan Yuan the author went to the site in person and worked. with a local tour guide They spent three days taking pictures shooting videos and writing down all the. information needed The materials were then selected and shown in the application For a section on the. Humble Administrator s Garden most of the pictures selected were from the internet An introduction video. see Figure 5 of the place was downloaded from Youku a Chinese video sharing site The author also. collected information from a tour guide of the Humble Administrator s Garden to refine the content This. multimedia content also helped to bridge the gap between linguacultural learning and the real world. because place is an especially abstract concept in foreign language classrooms where language is often. isolated from the communities cultures and places in which it is spoken Kramsch 2002 Thorne 2009. Figure 5 Video showing a bird s eye view of the Humble Administrator s Garden. Link to More Online Resources, As shown in Figure 6 some culture specific symbols and creatures might be difficult for learners to.
understand even at an advanced level without the help of their first language For example a creature. commonly used in traditional Chinese architecture is called Pixiu a mythical creature in Chinese culture. with a rich cultural background A Click Me link was placed below the Pixiu image which linked. learners to the English Wikipedia page of Pixiu to help them learn more about this creature and its cultural. meanings A link to a documentary film in English introducing a Chinese specific construction Fang. was also created in the Humble Administrator s Garden section to help students learn more and more deeply. about this specific construction and its cultural significance. 34 Language Learning Technology, Figure 6 The Pixiu page with a Click Me link to the Pixiu Wikipedia page. Pedagogical Applications and Implications,Multimedia Learning and Flipped Classroom. While the application was still in its beta release it was tested out once in a 400 level advanced Chinese as. a foreign language classroom in a U S university A flipped classroom approach was adopted in the lesson. plan The teacher simply walked students through the application at the end of the class Students were. asked to use and explore the mobile application as homework outside of the classroom before the next class. meeting There were several homework tasks that students were required to do after using the application. They were asked to, highlight and annotate words or passages that remain confusing to them. for the problematic words or passages try to look them up on their own and prepare to share their. research experience and outcomes in class and, do a cross cultural comparison between Chinese architecture and the architecture of their own. The Chinese architecture lesson happened one week after the introduction of the application in class. Students completed the homework tasks before the class meeting The class adopted the following agenda. The class began by letting students put together a list of difficult words and expressions in the virtual tour. application The teacher asked students who did research to guide others through the questions Some. students brought multimedia online resources to class and shared them with the students For example one. student introduced bilibili a Chinese video sharing site to the class where he found a documentary. introducing traditional Chinese architecture The teacher assumed the role of a facilitator during this. question and answer section She guided the discussion and helped students with the questions She also. had students share their research strategies resources and experiences with others The students assumed. the role of researchers responsible for guiding other audiences through the text medium Students practiced. not only language skills but also learner agency In addition it was helpful for them to share resources. tools and strategies with each other After the question and answer section the teacher checked on students. understandings again and ensured that the students were familiar with the key vocabulary and concepts of. Yiting Han 35, Chinese architecture Chinese was the primary language used in class The teacher also used English in.
explanations when necessary,Interpersonal Class Activities. In the second section students were asked to share their cross cultural comparisons on architecture from. different cultures Because it was an advanced level Chinese language class the activities were carried out. mainly in Chinese The teacher scaffolded students when they had difficulties expressing ideas in Chinese. Students started by comparing differences in design and style practicing descriptive sentences The. teacher then guided them to think deeply about the beliefs and values behind the differences Sample. questions included the following What are the cultural connotations and symbols behind the specific shapes. of the doors and windows How does this relate to Chinese philosophy on gentleness and harmony. Students were encouraged to share their understanding after learning from the application and their personal. Exploring multimedia mobile learning and place based learning in linguacultural education Yiting Han University of Arizona Abstract Culture as the fifth language skill enables learners to develop into multilingually and multiculturally aware global citizens The traditional Chinese architecture is as old as Chinese civilization The wisdom stories and cultural elements behind

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