Evaluation of the Drought Stress Effects on Cotton

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International Journal of Science and Research IJSR. ISSN Online 2319 7064,Index Copernicus Value 2013,Copernicus Value 2013 6 14. 6 14 Impact,Impact Factor,Factor 2014,2014 5 611, al 2008 Massacci et al 2008 and Hamayun et al 2010 root length shoot length root shoot ratio relative water. Chlorophyll stability index CSI is the ratio between total content electrolyte leakage percentage membrane stability. chlorophyll under drought to total chlorophyll under normal index Chlorophyll a chlorophyll b total chlorophyll. irrigation High CSI is an indicator to drought tolerance So chlorophyll a b ratio chlorophyll stability index. Patil et al 2011 revealed that CSI was higher in drought. tolerant genotypes compared to other susceptible genotypes 2 Material and methods. The key to an efficient screening method is the ability to. screen large amounts of plant material in the shortest time Plant material Six divergent parental cotton genotypes and. possible Effective screening methods must evaluate plant their F1crosses were used in this investigation to study. performance at critical developmental stages Johnson drought tolerance in cotton Gossypium spp The parental. 1980 The screening method must be incorporated into cotton genotypes including two exotic varieties belong to G. plant breeding programs to facilitate meaningful genetic hirsutum L namely Deltapine and Tamcot Camd E. improvement Plant physiological and morphological traits Tamcot C E and four local Egyptian cultivars namely. are now incorporated into the breeding program by using Giza 80 Giza 86 Giza 90 Giza 90 x Australian new. them as selection criteria relevant to the designated plant promising cotton hybrid belong to G barbadense L Pure. ideotype and subsequent plant performance in the stress seeds of these varieties were supplied by Cotton Breeding. environment Breeder offers a great potential for the Section Cotton Research Institute Agriculture Research. improvement of breeding efficiency towards drought stress Center at Giza Egypt The genotypes pedigree and. De Ronde et al 2000 Morphology and Physiology as characterization of these genotypes are presented in Table 1. screening criteria are able to measure various plant. characteristics that correlated with drought tolerance such as. Table 1 The names pedigree and the main characteristics of six cotton genotypes used as parents in the present study. Genotypes Pedigree Characteristics,Giza 80 G 66 x G 73. A long staple cotton variety early maturity high yield good yarn high lint and tolerance to high. temperature and cultivated in upper Egypt, Giza 86 G 75 x G 81 A long staple cotton variety characterized by late maturity high yield and strong lint and cultivated. Giza 90 Dandara x G 83 A long staple cotton variety early maturity high yield good yarn high lint and tolerance to high. temperature and cultivated in upper Egypt, Giza 90X G 90 x A long staple cotton variety characterized by high yielding early maturity high lint resistance to.
Australian Australian fuzariam and tolerance to high temperature. Deltapine Upland cotton High yield high lint early maturity fiber length ranged from 28 30. Tamcot Camd E Upland cotton High yield high lint early maturity fiber length ranged from 28 30. Experimental Site The six parents were crossed in all one side Hills were spaced at 25 cm on the ridge side with. possible combinations excluding reciprocals in 2012 two seedlings per hill. growing season at the farm of Fac Agric Ain Shams, univerisity Shoubra El Kheima Qalyubia governorate Soil preparation During land preparation the soil was. Egypt to obtain a total of 15 F1 hybrids In 2013 growing fertilized by 30 m3 compost Phosphorous fertilizer as. season the six parents and their 15 F1 s 21 genotypes were superphosphate 15 5 P2O5 at a rate of 22 5 kg P2O5 fed. planted on 2nd of April and evaluated for drought tolerance nitrogen fertilizer as ammonium nitrate 33 5 N at a rate. in sandy soil conditions in a private farm at Shebin El of 90 kg N fed and potassium fertilizer as potassium sulfate. Kanater Qalyubia governorate Egypt 48 K2O at a rate of 50 K2O fed were applied in five. equal doses with irrigation water as recommended by Cotton. Water treatments Two separate experiments were carried Research Institute Agriculture Research Center at Giza. out one for each water treatment The first water treatment Egypt Picking of experiments was carried out on 26th of. was irrigation at 100 Etc 1269 mm season which October. represent normal water treatment and the second was. irrigation at 60 Etc 761 mm season which represent Measurements. drought stress The total amount of irrigation water was. calculated according to Penman Montieth method Allen et After 60 days from sowing blooming stage ten plants were. al 1996 Penman Monteith method gives more randomly selected from each replicate and the following. consistently accurate ETo estimates than other ETo methods parameters were determined. Drip irrigation system was installed the drip lateral had. emitters spaced 30 cm apart with a nominal discharge of 4 Morphological traits. liters h Blocks were irrigated using an electric timer with 1 Root length plants were cultivated in plastic tubes 75 cm. appropriate run times to give the desired application of tall x 12 cm wide and filled with fine sand Riaz et al. water 2013,2 Shoot length, Experimental design The experimental design was 3 Root shoot ratio. arranged in a randomized complete blocks with three. replicates Ridges were 6 m long and 120 cm width and Physiological traits. seeds were planted on the both ridge sides each genotype on 1 Relative water content RWC Weatherley 1950. Volume 4 Issue 11 November 2015,www ijsr net,Paper ID NOV151387 1359. Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY, International Journal of Science and Research IJSR. ISSN Online 2319 7064,Index Copernicus Value 2013,Copernicus Value 2013 6 14.
6 14 Impact,Impact Factor,Factor 2014,2014 5 611, 2 Electrolye leakage EL Arora et al 1992 attributed to either the increase in the gibberellins and. 3 Membrane stability index MSI Premachandra et al cytokinin contents or to the ability of roots to branch and. 1990 elongate quickly in an attempt to reach deeper levels to. 4 Chlorophyll a mg g 1 FW Hiscox and Israelstam absorb its needs from underground water which thus enable. 1979 plants to survive properly irrespective of water stress. 5 Chlorophyll b mg g 1 FW Hiscox and Israelstam Zhong and Lauchli 1993 Rizza et al 2004 Mahajan. 1979 and Tuteja 2005 Moinuddin et al 2005 Abdalla and. 6 Total Chlorophyll mg 1 g FW Hiscox and El Khoshiban 2007 Hufstetler et al 2007 and Afshari. Israelstam 1979 et al 2011,7 Chlorophyll a b ratio. 8 Chlorophyll stability index determined as the ratio Shoot length increased by increasing the water treatment. between total chlorophyll under drought to total Table 2 it reached its minimum length by subjecting plants. chlorophyll under normal irrigation to normal irrigation Pace et al 1999 Basal et al 2003. Seed cotton yield at maturity ten plants were randomly and Abdalla and El Khoshiban 2007 Significant. selected from each replicate differences among genotypes under both water treatments. Statistical analysis Analysis of variance and the were observed The longest shoots were recorded by the. expectations of mean squares for single and combined data genotypes P1xP3 P3xP6 and P3xP4 under normal treatment. were performed according to Gomez and Gomez 1984 and P3xP4 P5xP6 and P1xP5 under drought stress. Differences between means were tested using the least Combined analysis results reveal that the genotypes P3xP4. significant difference L S D test according Waller and and P5xP6 maintained the longest shoots in both water. Duncan 1969 at the 5 level of probability Correlation treatments Basal et al 2003 Taiz and Zeiger 2006 and. coefficients between any two characters were performed as Abdalla and El Khoshiban 2007 declared that increase. described by Mode and Rhobinson 1959 and modified by the severity and duration of drought resulted in decline in. Singh and Narayanan 1993 shoot length Such decrease in shoot elongation in response. to drought may be to decrease in cell elongation resulting. 3 Results and Discussion from water shortage and or due to blocking up of xylem and. phloem vessels Abdalla and El Khoshiban 2007,Morphological traits. Data presented in Table 2 indicate the root shoot ratio Root. Data presented in Table 2 indicate mean performance of shoot ratio increased by decreasing water treatment Under. morphological traits under normal and drought treatments normal irrigation it s found that Tamcot C E Deltapine. Regarding root length the data show that the root length P2xP4 and P5xP6 recorded the highest performance in. significantly increased by decreasing water treatment it comparison with the others Under drought the genotypes. reached to its maximum length by drought treatment and its Tamcot C E Deltapine and P2xP6 gave highest. minimum length under normal treatment The results performance Combined analysis reported that Deltapine and. indicate that water stress treatment had positive effect on Tamcot C E maintained highest performances under the two. root length The highest root length was obtained from water treatments Root shoot ratio increased under water. Deltapine P5xP6 and P2xP4 under normal water and P5xP6 stress condition to facilitate water absorption and increased. P3xP4 and P1xP6 under drought Combined analysis results in drought tolerant. show that P5xP6 produced longest roots under normal and. drought treatments The root length of plants subjected to genotypes under drought Lambers et al 1998 Pace et al. low levels of water content registered high significant 1999 Kumar 2010 Shah et al 2011 and Sumartini et. increase in root length above those plants irrigated with high al 2013. water content such increase in linear growth of roots is. Volume 4 Issue 11 November 2015,www ijsr net,Paper ID NOV151387 1360. Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY, International Journal of Science and Research IJSR.
ISSN Online 2319 7064,Index Copernicus Value 2013,Copernicus Value 2013 6 14. 6 14 Impact,Impact Factor,Factor 2014,2014 5 611, Table 2 Mean performance of cotton genotypes for morphological traits under normal N and drought D treatments. Root length cm Shoot length cm Root Shoot ratio,Genotypes N D Combined N D Combined N D Combined. Giza 80 P1 23 77 43 68 33 72 42 37 37 32 39 84 0 57 1 18 0 87. Giza 86 P2 19 95 33 72 26 83 41 63 32 73 37 18 0 48 1 03 0 76. Giza 90 P3 21 12 43 83 32 47 52 57 37 62 45 09 0 41 1 17 0 79. Giza 90 x Australian P4 31 78 38 24 35 01 47 9 35 93 41 92 0 67 1 08 0 87. Tamcot C E P5 26 48 45 66 36 07 31 11 24 81 27 96 0 88 1 84 1 36. Deltapine P6 42 51 34 26 38 38 48 62 21 5 35 06 0 88 1 6 1 24. Mean 27 6 39 9 33 75 44 03 31 65 37 84 0 65 1 32 0 98. P1xP2 28 3 33 63 30 96 53 85 33 1 43 47 0 53 1 02 0 77. P1xP3 22 26 40 97 31 61 58 63 38 69 48 66 0 38 1 06 0 72. P1xP4 19 48 43 69 31 59 52 69 40 48 46 59 0 37 1 08 0 73. P1xP5 24 47 45 84 35 16 53 94 46 87 50 4 0 48 0 98 0 73. P1xP6 26 86 52 87 39 87 46 03 44 43 45 23 0 59 1 19 0 89. P2xP3 28 09 29 8 28 94 50 24 32 56 41 4 0 56 0 92 0 74. P2xP4 33 58 29 78 31 68 41 53 34 3 37 91 0 82 0 87 0 84. P2xP5 25 89 41 12 33 51 43 74 42 14 42 94 0 6 0 98 0 79. P2xP6 23 05 43 74 33 39 38 63 28 5 33 57 0 6 1 54 1 07. P3xP4 22 28 55 83 39 06 55 23 49 5 52 37 0 48 1 01 0 75. P3xP5 26 02 30 17 28 1 40 44 24 9 32 67 0 65 1 22 0 94. P3xP6 19 54 54 54 37 04 56 81 44 14 50 47 0 35 1 24 0 8. P4xP5 28 43 37 32 32 87 37 73 29 09 33 41 0 75 1 29 1 02. P4xP6 27 86 44 21 36 03 38 29 34 15 36 22 0 73 1 3 1 01. P5xP6 36 11 55 59 45 85 49 46 46 74 48 1 0 78 1 13 0 95. Mean 26 15 42 61 34 38 47 82 37 97 42 89 0 58 1 12 0 85. Grand mean 26 87 41 25 34 06 46 74 36 17 41 46 0 61 1 22 0 92. L S D 0 05, Genotypes G 5 34 3 54 3 15 7 5 3 11 3 43 0 2 0 19 0 13. Irrigation I 0 97 1 06 0 04,GxI 4 46 4 85 0 19, 4 Physiological Traits values of EL under normal water condition P3xP4.
followed by P1xP5 P1xP4 Giza 86 and P5xP6 recorded the. Data in Table 3 show that significant reduction was lowest values of EL under drought stress Combined. observed in leaf relative water content RWC for all the analysis results elucidate that the genotypes P1xP5 and. genotypes under drought stress similar results were observed P3xP4 could survive better under non stressed and stressed. by Malik et al 1999 Rahman et al 2000 Siddique et conditions Similar trends were obtained by Premachandra. al 2000 and Parida et al 2007 Significant differences et al 1991 Sairam and Saxena 2000 Bajji et al. among cotton genotypes under both treatments were 2002 Sibet and Birol 2007 The plasma membrane is. observed generally protected from desiccation induced damage by. presence of membrane compatible solutes such as sugars. The highest RWC was maintained by P1xP5 P3xP4 and amino acid Therefore a link may exist between the. followed by Giza 86 P2 under normal irrigation and P3xP4 capacity for osmotic adjustment and degree of membrane. followed by P1xP5 then P1xP4 and P5xP6 under drought protection Sibet and Birol 2007 The water stress induced. stress Combined analysis data reveal that the highest value decrease in membrane stability indicates the extent of lipid. of RWC obtained by P1xP5 and P3xP4 genotypes under peroxidation caused by active oxygen species Menconi et. Evaluation of the Drought Stress Effects on Cotton Genotypes by Using Physiological and Morphological Traits Abdel KaderM A 1 A Morphology and Physiology as screening criteria are able to measure various plant characteristics that correlated with drought tolerance such as root length shoot length root shoot ratio relative water content electrolyte leakage percentage membrane

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