EUTHANASIA REFERENCE MANUAL Animal Sheltering

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EUTHANASIA,The Humane Society of the United States. Copyright 2013 by The Humane Society of the United States All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means. including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher. Second edition,ISBN 978 1 934785 03 4,978 1 934785 04 1. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Number TXu 1 866 347. ii The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual. Table of Contents,Table of Contents,Acknowledgments vii. Foreword viii,Understanding Euthanasia 1,What Is Euthanasia 1. Euthanasia Past and Present 1,Important Definitions 3.
Sodium Pentobarbital 4,How Sodium Pentobarbital Works 4. Administering Sodium Pentobarbital 7, Intravenous IV Injection Injection of Sodium Pentobarbital Directly into a Vein 7. Intraperitoneal IP Injection Injection of Sodium Pentobarbital. into the Abdominal Cavity 22, Intracardiac IC Injection Injection of Sodium Pentobarbital Directly into the Heart 26. Other Injection Routes Not Acceptable 29,Oral Administration of Sodium Pentobarbital PO 30. Pre Euthanasia Drugs 31,Advantages 31,Disadvantages 31.
Types of Pre Euthanasia Drugs 33, Best Pre Euthanasia Drug Option A PreMix Xylazine Ketamine Combination 33. Best Pre Euthanasia Drug Option B Telazol Tiletamine Zolazepam Combination 34. Other Pre Euthanasia Drugs Conditionally Acceptable but Not Preferred 35. Administration of Pre Euthanasia Drugs 37,Inhalant Anesthetics Halothane Isoflurane 39. Verification of Death The Most Critical Step in the Euthanasia Process 41. Verifying Death 42,Performing a Cardiac Stick Heart Stick 43. The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual iii. Table of Contents,Disposal of Animal Bodies 45,Euthanasia Tools 47. The Euthanasia Area 47,Layout and Design 47,Lighting and General Environment 48.
Recommended Equipment 48,Syringes 49,Needles 50,Sharps Containers 51. Tourniquets Hemostats 51,Electric Hair Clippers 52. Other Recommended Supplies 52,Euthanasia Policy and Protocols 54. Selection Criteria 54,Policy Elements 56,Volunteers and Euthanasia 57. Animal Handling and Restraint 58,Typical Restraint Techniques Dogs 58.
Restraint for Direct Injection 58, Restraint for Administration of Pre Euthanasia Drugs 59. Typical Restraint Techniques Cats 60,Restraint for Direct Injection 60. Restraint for Administration of Pre Euthanasia Drugs 60. General Restraint Techniques 61,Restraint Tools 61. Press Gate 63,Control Pole 64, iv The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual. Table of Contents,Squeeze Cage 65,Feral Cat Box 66.
Cat Bags Nets 66,Cat Graspers Tongs 66,Employee Health and Safety 67. Bites Scratches 67,Needle Sticks 68,Eye Injuries 68. General Hazards 69,Compassion Fatigue Euthanasia Related Stress 69. CHAPTER 10,Federal Requirements for Controlled Substances 71. Storage 72,Record Keeping Requirements 73,Inventory Records 74.
Reporting Theft Loss 74,Training of Euthanasia Technicians 74. CHAPTER 11,Unacceptable Methods of Euthanasia 75,CHAPTER 12. Euthanasia of Other Animals 76,Small Mammals 76,Rabbits 76. Small Rodents Mice Rats Hamsters Gerbils etc 76,Guinea Pigs 77. Ferrets 77,Reptiles 78,Turtles Tortoises and Terrapins 79.
Crocodilians Alligators and Crocodiles 79,Lizards 79. The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual v. Amphibians 80,Table of Contents,Large Domestic Mammals 80. Equines Horses Donkeys Mules 81,Ruminants Cows Goats Sheep 81. Wildlife 81,Deer Elk and Other Large Hooved Animals 83. Bears Coyotes Mountain Lions Primates and Other Large Mammals 83. CHAPTER 13,Field Euthanasia 84,Confinement for Field Euthanasia 85.
Field Euthanasia by Injection of Sodium Pentobarbital 85. Field Euthanasia by Gunshot 86,Types of Firearms 86. Correct Shot Location by Species 88,Disposal 89,CHAPTER 14. Mass Euthanasia 90,Glossary 91, Dosage Chart for Telazol and PreMix ketamine xylazine combination 93. Injection Methods Quick Reference 94, vi The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual. Acknowledgments,Acknowledgments, The previous edition of this manual was authored by Rebecca H Rhoades DVM and we are.
grateful for her continued involvement and review of this updated edition We would like to. offer our sincere thanks to the other experts who participated in the review of this edition. Dr Wendy Swift Dr Martha Smith Dr Mark Jones and Douglas Fakkema. We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of staff from The HSUS HSVMA and. HSI including Inga Fricke Catherine Lynch Betsy McFarland John Haddidian Hilary Hager. Pam Runquist and Kelly Coladarci, Last but not least The HSUS wishes to acknowledge and thank the many animal shelter and. rescue staff and volunteers who are working tirelessly to save lives and make euthanasia of. healthy and treatable animals a tragedy of the past. Portions of this work were originally published by the Humane Society of Willamette Valley. in Salem Oregon as Handbook of Pentobarbital Euthanasia by Tim Greyhavens copyright. 1989 by The Humane Society of the Willamette Valley. All illustrations by Les Sealing unless otherwise noted. The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual vii. Since the first edition of this manual was published in 2002 not much has changed. in terms of how euthanasia is performed the debate over why on the other. hand has become more contentious than ever Over the last few decades euthanasia. numbers have declined sharply from over 23 million cats and dogs euthanized in. 1970 to fewer than 4 million in 2010 even as pet ownership rose steadily over that. period As we come ever closer to achieving zero euthanasia the challenges become. greater and the debate over which animals must be euthanized and which can be. saved seemingly grows more intense Euthanasia technicians should welcome this. debate as a profession we should be clear transparent and honest about our. decisions and agree that euthanasia should ultimately be reserved only for animals. that are suffering or are too aggressive to safely place in homes. Regardless we must ensure that when euthanasia is performed it is as humane. as possible Direct injection of sodium pentobarbital referred to as euthanasia by. injection or EBI remains the most humane method available We are encouraged. to report that more organizations than ever before have adopted EBI as opposed. to using far less appropriate alternatives like gas chambers It is our hope that by the. time the next edition of this manual is published we will have reached the point where. every shelter practices only the most humane methods of euthanasia available. No one wants to perform euthanasia but the people who take on this emotional. and unwelcome task owe it to the animals to do it well We hope this manual will. serve as the definitive basic education tool for understanding the methods of. humanely ending an animal s life however it cannot provide answers to the topic s. moral questions Euthanasia technicians should use this manual to refine their skills. but they must also develop programs and initiatives intended to bring an end to. the need for euthanasia of healthy and treatable animals. viii The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual. Understanding Euthanasia,Understanding Euthanasia, What Is Euthanasia entrusted with the task In the 19th and early. 20th centuries long before pain free methods, Euthanasia involves more than ending an of ending life were available and when the pri. animal s life It is a process that combines mary reason for destroying dogs and cats was. compassion and scientific consideration while not overpopulation but the control of rabies. providing each animal with a death that is free such a goal was virtually unattainable As the. of pain and stress Along with the technical threat of rabies and other diseases diminished. skills required there must be compassion and the population of domestic pets skyrock. a sense of solemnity reverence and respect eted and with this increase in numbers came. for the animals various methods for eliminating homeless. animals sadly humane considerations were,Humane euthanasia of an animal requires five. often secondary,basic elements,Over the years many techniques were tried in.
1 Compassion, 2 Knowledge search of better methods Tragically drown. 3 Technical skills developed through ing was one of the earliest methods used in. training and experience many cities at the turn of the 20th century. 4 Appropriate application of the most animals were loaded into huge cages and lifted. state of the art drugs equipment and by cranes into a river or bay Electrocution. techniques available was popular in the 1920s with animals placed. 5 W isdom to know when euthanasia,in cages with zinc floors wearing conductive. should and should not be performed,collars With the advent of the gasoline engine. This manual will bring these five attributes into the use of carbon monoxide gas chambers. focus so that those entrusted with the care of became commonplace This method was later. sheltered animals have the knowledge skill refined by replacing the raw hot exhaust of an. equipment and insight to serve their needs engine with commercially prepared gas from. even if this means ending their suffering tanks The decompression chamber was consid. through euthanasia ered an improvement over previous methods. when it was initially developed however,persistent mechanical problems and questions. Euthanasia Past about its humaneness quickly prompted bans. and Present in most areas and the method is completely. eliminated today,Euthanasia simply defined is the act of induc.
ing a painless death The word itself comes Since 1963 the American Veterinary Medical. from the ancient Greek euthanatos eu Association or AVMA has reviewed eutha. meaning easy and thanatos meaning death nasia methods by regularly gathering a panel. Providing a good death for shelter animals of experts to evaluate the latest studies and. whose lives must be ended should without information about the various methods. a doubt be uppermost in the minds of those available The report updated most recently. The Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual 1. in 2013 at the time of this manual s publi painlessly criteria 1 and 2 and may be used. Understanding Euthanasia, cation contains a list of recommendations consistently and reliably with many species. intended for veterinarians and by extension criteria 3 5 6 and 10. trained euthanasia technicians to follow in,Nevertheless even sodium pentobarbital. providing euthanasia for a variety of species,does not meet all 14 criteria For example it. The AVMA report is the most extensive study,is a federally controlled substance with high. of euthanasia methods currently available,abuse potential which puts it at odds with.
The association s panel evaluates each method,No 9 Moreover it has several characteristics. based on 14 criteria,that may be considered both advantages. 1 ability to induce loss of consciousness and disadvantages Its use requires close. and death with a minimum of pain contact with each animal which can provide. and distress,beneficial comfort and the reduction of. 2 time required to induce loss,stress to the animal No 6 but as with all. of con sciousness, 3 reliability euthanasia methods this takes a toll on.
4 safety of personnel the humans involved although technicians. 5 irreversibility performing euthanasia by injection are. 6 compatibility with intended ani mal generally heartened by their ability to gently. use and purpose hold the animals reporting less stress than. 7 documented emotional ef f ect on those who use more removed methods like. observers or operators,the gas chamber Effective use of sodium. 8 compatibility with subsequent,pentobarbital also typically requires the. evaluation examination or use,participation of at least two trained staff. 9 drug availability and human members to provide a higher degree of safety. abuse potential and support for the personnel involved No. 10 compatibility with species age 4 some view this as a disadvantage because. and health status dedicating multiple staff members to the. 11 ability to maintain equipment in procedure requires more time than methods. proper working order that can be performed by one person but a. 12 safety for predators or scavengers,properly trained team can actually be more. should the ani mal s remains,efficient than a single technician.
be consumed, 13 legal requirements and While sodium pentobarbital may not be. 14 environmental impacts of the method the perfect means of euthanasia it comes. or dis position of the animal s remains,closest of any available methods All of its. Since 1986 the AVMA has consistently con disadvantages weigh against the people. cluded that the intravenous injection of who administer it and all of its advantages. barbituric acid derivatives i e sodium pento weigh in favor of the animals Therefore its. barbital is the preferred method for euthanasia deficiencies while certainly legitimate do not. Euthanasia technicians should welcome this debate as a profession we should be clear transparent and honest about our decisions and agree that euthanasia should ultimately be reserved only for animals that are suffering or are too aggressive to safely place in homes Regardless we must ensure that when euthanasia is performed it is as humane

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