Ethnocultural Minority Enclaves in Montreal Toronto and

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Framing the Analysis Key Terms and Canadian Research Findings 5. Data Methodology and Key Questions 8, A Statistical Profile of Montreal Toronto and Vancouver in 2011 10. Discussion 38,Conclusion 41,Appendix Variables Used in the Analysis 44. References 48,About This Study 53, The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the IRPP. or its Board of Directors, IRPP Study is a refereed monographic series that is published irregularly throughout the year Each study is. subject to rigorous internal and external peer review for academic soundness and policy relevance. IRPP Study replaces IRPP Choices and IRPP Policy Matters All IRPP publications are available for download at. If you have questions about our publications please contact irpp irpp org If you would like to subscribe to our. newsletter Thinking Ahead please go to our website at irpp org. ISSN 1920 9436 Online ISSN 1920 9428 Print, ISBN 978 0 88645 334 3 Online ISBN 978 0 88645 333 6 Print.
Canada has maintained a relatively high level of immigration for nearly 30 years a process that. is fundamentally changing the ethnocultural composition of the Canadian population This. change is registered profoundly in Canada s major metropolitan areas Montreal Toronto and. Vancouver where two thirds of the 4 64 million immigrants arriving in Canada between 1980. and 2011 reside It is no surprise that the social landscapes of these cities have undergone funda. mental transformation The most notable feature of this process has been the growth of enclave. neighbourhoods places that have become identified with particular ethnocultural groups and. especially visible minority groups Broadly there are two interpretations of minority enclaves. some believe that they provide their residents with important tools to facilitate the integration. of their residents into mainstream society while others see them in more problematic terms as. places of socio economic marginalization and cultural isolation. In this study Daniel Hiebert has conducted a statistical analysis of enclaves in these three metro. politan areas in order to see which of these interpretations is more valid for Canada His prin. cipal findings are these enclave landscapes are becoming prevalent in Toronto and Vancouver. but less so in Montreal certain visible minority groups are more prone to reside in enclaves. than others the socio economic characteristics of enclaves vary significantly minority enclaves. are places of cultural diversity rather than cultural isolation there are some systematic differ. ences between the profiles of the socio economic profiles of visible minority residents of en. claves and those living in other residential settings but these populations do not appear to be. fundamentally different and there are more members of visible minority groups experiencing. poverty who live outside enclaves than there are inside them. This study is an effort to provide evidence based knowledge for better policy decisions in. Canada Hiebert s findings suggest that the accelerated development of enclaves in Canadian. metropolitan areas does not pose a threat but should instead be seen as an opportunity and a. challenge He recommends that we consider enclaves as places of opportunity for intercultural. engagement especially for newcomers to Canada They offer their residents a chance to build. bonding and bridging social capital since there are significant numbers of co ethnics as well. as a diverse array of other groups in the relatively small scale of these neighbourhoods The. challenge is that we must reimagine our understanding of integration in Canada More and. more this process is taking place in the setting of suburban enclave neighbourhoods This is not. simply the result of the preferences of immigrants and members of visible minority groups but. is also related to the dynamics of housing markets and the behaviour of mainstream popula. tions The study concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of Canada s changing. urban social landscapes and a further recommendation that municipal governments be granted. a larger voice in immigration and integration policies. IRPP Study no 52 August 2015 1, Durant les 30 derni res ann es l immigration s est maintenue un niveau assez lev au. Canada ce qui a fondamentalement modifi la composition ethnoculturelle de la population. du pays On observe ce changement surtout dans les r gions m tropolitaines de Montr al de. Toronto et de Vancouver o vivent les deux tiers des 4 64 millions d immigrants arriv s au pays. entre 1980 et 2011 Le paysage social de ces villes a donc subi une profonde transformation. dont l l ment le plus marquant est le d veloppement d enclaves c est dire de quartiers qui. avec le temps ont t identifi s des groupes ethnoculturels particuliers et tout sp cialement. des minorit s visibles Globalement il existe deux fa ons d interpr ter ce ph nom ne pour. certains les enclaves offrent des outils leurs habitants qui facilitent leur int gration dans la so. ci t canadienne pour d autres elles sont plut t des lieux de marginalisation socio conomique. et d isolement culturel, Afin d tablir laquelle de ces deux interpr tations s applique le mieux au Canada Daniel Hiebert. fait dans cette tude une analyse statistique d taill e des enclaves de ces trois grandes agglo. m rations urbaines canadiennes Ses principales conclusions sont les suivantes les enclaves. sont un ph nom ne de plus en plus r pandu Toronto et Vancouver mais moins Mont. r al certains groupes de minorit s visibles sont plus susceptibles que d autres vivre dans des. enclaves les caract ristiques socio conomiques des enclaves varient consid rablement et ce. sont des lieux de grande diversit culturelle plut t que d isolement culturel Par ailleurs il existe. quelques diff rences syst matiques entre le profil socio conomique des membres des minorit s. visibles qui y vivent et celui des membres de ces minorit s qui habitent ailleurs sans que ces. deux populations soient fondamentalement diff rentes les membres de minorit s visibles qui. sont pauvres sont plus nombreux vivre l ext rieur qu l int rieur des enclaves. L objectif de cette tude tait de fournir des donn es probantes en vue de l laboration de po. litiques plus efficaces Ses conclusions indiquent que le d veloppement rapide d enclaves dans. les r gions m tropolitaines canadiennes ne constitue pas une menace mais plut t une occasion. saisir et un d fi relever L auteur propose que l on consid re les enclaves comme des lieux. qui favorisent la compr hension interculturelle particuli rement chez les nouveaux arrivants. Elles permettent en effet leurs habitants de b tir des liens et de d velopper leur capital social. puisque l on y trouve la fois sur un territoire relativement petit un nombre important. de membres d un m me groupe et des gens d autres communaut s Plus est le ph nom ne des. enclaves nous oblige imaginer de nouvelles fa ons de favoriser l int gration des immigrants. au Canada entre autres parce que cette int gration se fait de plus en plus dans des banlieues des. grandes villes Or cette situation ne r sulte pas simplement des pr f rences des immigrants et. des membres des minorit s visibles elle est galement un reflet des dynamiques des march s de. l habitation et du comportement de la population en g n ral Daniel Hiebert conclut en discu. tant de l incidence de cette transformation du paysage social urbain au Canada sur les politiques. publiques il recommande aussi que l on accorde une plus grande place aux administrations. municipales en mati re de politiques d immigration et d int gration. 2 IRPP Study no 52 August 2015, Minority Enclaves in Montreal Toronto and Vancouver. Daniel Hiebert, In Canada we may live in a multicultural society but the evidence suggests that fewer and fewer. of us are living in multicultural neighbourhoods We have allowed our society to slide into. self segregated communities isolated along ethnic lines. Allan Gregg quoted in Jedwab and Hardwick 2014 248. Canadian born Italians and Jews are unlikely to consider themselves segregated today though. their parents and grandparents probably did when they lived in the same sort of rough poor. areas that are now home to Chinese and Pakistanis Clustering helped them make it. Are we watching the same thing happen to new waves of immigrants as they churn through. the urban machinery throwing off waves of creation and commerce Or has the machinery. broken down leaving communities trapped and alone Before we start talking about ghettos we. need to answer that question,Saunders 2009 xx, T he quotations above reflect quite different interpretations of Canadian metropolitan land.
scapes Both commentators accept that the number and significance of ethnic enclaves. are growing and Saunders suggests this is perhaps the most recent chapter in an old story. For generations newcomers have carved out co ethnic spaces in cities and then dispersed over. time What is different now is that these areas mainly house people who are non White Gregg. believes a tipping point has been reached and that the growing degree of ethnic segregation. in Canadian cities is generating isolation among people of different ethnic backgrounds Like. many others he indicates a concern that this could damage social relations in Canada A com. mon set of facts leads these two authors to opposite opinions about their significance. While Canadians have argued over the impact of immigration on cities for over a century the. national government has rarely considered the urban or local scale when framing immigration. policy Throughout the long postwar era immigration policy has followed the logic of eco. nomic need demography and international humanitarian commitments see Green and Green. 1999 Li 2003 paying little heed to the impact of immigration on the neighbourhood scale or. on cities overall, The relative isolation the local and national scales in immigration and diversity policy may be. changing in the twenty first century partly because of concern across many affluent countries. about the increasing concentration of minority populations in metropolitan areas This calls for. a spatialized understanding of policies that have long been seen as essentially national in scope. Increasingly policy analysts have begun to appreciate an argument made by urban sociologists. and geographers for decades there is a connection between the spatial arrangement of society. and social relations within it People are more likely to interact across ethnocultural or religious. lines for example if they live in proximity rather than in separate areas of the city Com. monplace encounters in the everyday can lead to cross cultural understanding Sandercock. 2003 Germain 1997 On the other hand sequestered environments foster interaction within. cultural communities and arguably a lack of understanding between cultures Where people. IRPP Study no 52 August 2015 3, Ethnocultural Minority Enclaves in Montreal Toronto and Vancouver. live the nature of their neighbourhoods matters even for national governments which. tend to be far removed from the local scale, Unfortunately there have been few systematic studies of social life in minority ethnocultural. enclaves or the personal characteristics of their residents There are of course stereotypes In. fact the initial conceptualization of immigrant settlement in the American city was predicated. on the idea that residents of enclaves are different from residents in other city areas In the early. twentieth century the leading scholars in urban sociology who came to be known as the Chica. go School argued that when they first arrive immigrants gravitate to enclaves places where. they can come to terms with their new society in the comforting company of peers The Chicago. sociologists noted that important institutions develop in such enclaves religious communities. mutual aid societies and ethno religious schools for example As well enclaves foster a market. for ethno specific goods and local services that are typically labour intensive so there are jobs for. newcomers that do not require proficiency in the host language and there are entrepreneurial. possibilities Ethnic economies therefore become enmeshed with the perpetuation of ethno. cultural identities, The Chicago School believed firmly in the process of assimilation asserting that newcomers. needed enclaves when they arrived but would leave them when they became fluent in the host. language and improved their employment situation Enclaves would remain but there would. be a steady cycling through of residents with newcomers arriving to take the place of those. moving on to better and more mixed residential spaces. Theories of immigrant settlement and integration have progressed considerably since then. Researchers have become less certain about the trajectory of assimilation and we have in fact. stopped using the term assimilation in the Canadian context We now understand ethno. cultural identities to be more resilient and flexible than previously thought If people hold their. ethnocultural distinctiveness longer especially in an age of multicultural policies what does. this mean for the nature of enclaves Will they be more stable That is will they be something. beyond mere way stations on the road to integration places that help people maintain their. distinct ways of life and identities for long periods of time perhaps even permanently If people. Ethnocultural Minority Enclaves in Montreal Toronto and Vancouver Daniel Hiebert The number of ethnocultural minority enclaves in Canada s largest cities is growing rapidly and these residential settings are highly complex social spaces Le nombre d enclaves ethnoculturelles dans les grandes r gions m tropolitaines du Canada ne cesse de cro tre or ces quartiers sont des espaces

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