EQUILIBRIUM AND EXCHANGE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND

Equilibrium And Exchange The Relationship Between Land-Free PDF

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208 Constanae CZassen, tradition Put succinctly it consists of the following stages. Viracocha created a world without light He then modelled. a race of disproportionate but decided they were too. large and instead formed humans after his own size. These first humans lived in the dark world After a time. the vices of pride and cupidity were born among them and they. broke the law Viracocha had them to live by, Some of these first humans were then changed into stone. some were swallowed by the earth and some by the sea Vira. cocha caused all the created world to be covered by a flood. When the earth dried Vivacocha went to the island of Titi. cacao There he ordered the sun moon and stars to go to the. sky and give light to the world One of the three men he had. preserved to act as his servants was disobedient and Viracocha. had him bound and thrown into the lake, Viracocha moved on to Tiahuanaco where he sculpted and drew. on stones the people of all the nations he planned to create. This done he ordered his two servants to commit,their names and places of appearance to memory. Each of the three then took a different route one servant. to the west one to the east and Viracocha down the middle. As they went they called out the from the earth named. them and commanded them to populate the land,At one point the people revolted Viracocha who.
a stranger by his ways and clothes Viracocha then, down fire from the sky to burn the site whereupon the. repented and he put out the fire, When Viracocha reached the coast he to the peoples of. what would take place in the future and then with, his two servants walking over the sea Urbano 1981 9 13. This cosmogony tells us that human bodies are modelled after. that of Viracocha the Creator This alone is the proper size for. humans the sculpted giants must be discarded as dispro. portionate The human body with its perfect form can now be used. as a measure of other things The standard measurement for land. among the Incas for instance was a unit based on the length of a. human body Rowe 1946 323 4 Space is thus humanized. Although humans have the same form as Viracocha however they. are evidently not of the same substance for while Viracocha and. his divinized assistants who in other versions are can walk. over the sea humans are tied to the earth This is particularly. significant in that Andeans see the body as a material reflection. of the spirit Oblitas Poblete 1963 29 Bastien 1978 43 The. link to the earth therefore is one which involves the whole person. Earth is the primordial matter of creation the first. called into existence by Viracocha The human prototypes of the. completed world are created in stone before they exist in flesh. In Bernabe Cobo s version of 1653 it is made clear that these. original models are buried in the earth from which they later sur. face as human The sites from which they emerged then become. sacred shrines for their descendants Urbano 1981 31. E ilibrium and Exchange 209, Cobo s version relates that the various forms of dress of the. different nations were painted on the models thus becoming an. integral part of their bodily existence ibid This emphasis on. proper dress suggests that the Incas had religious as well as prac. tical reasons for insisting that the peoples of each nation under. their rule wear their characteristic apparel no matter where in. the empire they might find themselves In the early seventeenth. century the native chronicler Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala contin. ued to express this concern admonishing Indians and Spaniards alike. not to dishonour themselves by forsaking their traditional dress. 1980 II 732 3, Likewise the cosmogony tells US that different peoples are.
created to inhabit specific places and the Incan law prohibiting. travel within the empire without special permission can be seen as. reflecting this divine decree as well as facilitating gpvernment. and the maintenance of a balanced population l, Everything has its place and its function in the complex. highly organized system instituted by Viracocha That human co. operation in upholding this system is necessary is evidenced by the. fact that humans are able to disobey the will of the Creator and. destabilize the cosmos The three instances of violation of the. divine plan which occur in the cosmogony all have drastic physical. consequences In the first two cases the transgressors are rein. tegrated into the land either through earth or water In the last. case heavenly fire devastates the land but the transgressors who. unlike the first humans have the light of the sky to guide them in. their actions are saved through their repentance Human moral. conduct therefore affects the physical order of the universe and. the order of the universe shapes human conduct, The cosmos made by Viracocha consists of two basic separately. created parts the earth which is characterized by darkness chaos. and procreativity and the sky which manifests light structure. and spirituality Between them is the surface of the earth the. middle ground through which exchange is possible In Quechua these. three levels are commonly referred to as Hanan Pacha or Upper World. Cay Pacha or This World and Ucu Pacha or Interior World. The upright human body living on the earth s surface can com. municate with both heaven and earth acting as a mediator between. them an axis through which power can flow The body itself serves. as a model for the cosmos the upper half is equivalent to the sky. and therefore to structure while the lower half equals the earth. and therefore chaos The middle section containing the heart. lungs and digestive system circulates energy to the rest of the. body integrating it into adynamic whole, Poma de Ayala s illustration of the act of creation 1980 Ill. 853 ostensibly depicting the Christian account of creation but in. 1 Of course one can interpret such myths as legitimating as well. as influencing Incan law however attachment to one s native land. and dress has deep religious significance throughout the Andes as. testified to by observers from the time of the Conquest to the pre. 210 Constanae Classen, fact thoroughly Andean in its conceptualization shows God standing. on earth with his head in the sky placing the sun with his rigpt. hand and the moon with his left This illustration as well as de. picting the body as a model for the cosmos reminds us that creation. takes place through the medium of the body of the Creator giving. the human body modelled on that of the Creator a dual role as. both created and creator subject to and manipulator of the cosmic. There is a pan Andean tradition of several ages preceding the pre. sent one reputed by various chroniclers to last a thousand years. each Zuidema 1964 227 35 In the middle and particularly at the. the end of each age great changes take place and the world is dis. ordered and remade This period of upheaval is known as a. paahaauti or world reversal Poma de Ayala in fact translates a. term analogous to paahaauti paaha tiara as that which turns the. world on its head ibid I 174 2, The paahaauti is a period of sacred and highly dangerous.
fluidity between land and body during which humans emerge from the. natural world and can also return to it An Andean term for the. human being animated earth Garcilaso de la Vega 1966 84 in. dicates how close the relationship between land and body is and. therefore the care which must be taken to maintain the two distinct. and balanced, Two related myths describe the transformation which takes. place at the opening of the age of the Incas One recounts how. four brothers and their sisters wives come out into the world. through a cave called Pacaritambo or House of Production The. first one to come out levels hills with his slingshot whereupon. his brothers send him back to the cave and wall him in Two more. of his brothers turn into stone one in order to become a shrine. on the summit of Huanacauri Rainbow Hill to the south of Cuzco. and the other to serve as a landmark The fourth brother Manco. Capac remains with his wife and those of his brothers and it is. he who founds the capital city of Cuzco and the Incan dynasty. Urbano 1981 35 95, The other myth presented here in an abbreviation of the. version given by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in 1609 is more sophis. In the old times people lived like wild beasts knowing no. thing of religion government towns agriculture clothes or. 2 The same process of disintegration and restructuring which occurs. in the paahaauti takes place on a human scale when lightning turns. a person into a diviner The first charge is believed to kill him. the second reduces his body to small pieces and the third reassem. bles his body Sharon 1978 77,EquiZibrium and Exchange 211. having separate wives, The Sun sent a son and daughter of his and the Moon called. Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo Huaco to bring civilization to the. peoples of the earth He gave his two children a golden staff. bidding them to set up their court at the site where it would. sink into the ground at a single thrust, When Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo reached Huanacauri Hill the.
staff sank in with one thrust and disappeared into the earth. whereupon they determined to establish their dwelling in the. valley below, Manco Capac then went north and Mama Ocllo south telling. the savages they met of their divine mission and bringing them. back to the valley where they built the city of Cuzco. Those peoples brought by the king formed Hanan or Upper. Cuzco and those by the queen Hurin or Lower Cuzco As the. city was populated Manco Capac taught the men agriculture. and Mama Ocllo instructed the women in domestic duties No. thing which pertains to human life was omitted in their in. Impressed by these benefits great numbers bf people settled. in Cuzco and the Inca soon had an army at his disposal for the. purposes both of defense and conquest 1966 40 6, In the first myth dealing with the origin of the Incas we see. the interchange of land and body characteristic of periods of re. structuring In the second myth we are told that prior to the ar. rival of the Incas the people lived in a state of savagery virt. ually indistinguishable from nature The first Incas here come not. from the earth but from the sky and therefore from mind and struc. ture Their mission is to bring the peoples of the earth out of the. chaos of their natural condition into a state of divinely sanctioned. order In order to do this they must teach the people how to enter. into a correct relationship with nature specifically to practise. agriculture to live in towns i e to have settled communal exist. ence to wear clothes and to regulate their sexuality Elsewhere. in Garcilaso s history we learn that the Inca bade his subjects to. turn from the worship of things of the earth to that of the Sun 3. A civilized person is one who transcends the earth and participates. in the structure of the sky A savage is one who is identified. with the earth and therefore unable to interact with both levels of. the cosmos or serve as a mediator between them, The aversion Andeans feel for disorder and excess can be seen. in their dislike of the jungle 4 and in the simplicity and symmetry. of monumental Incan architecture in which every stone is perfectly. fitted The brother who shows immoderate force by recklessly level. ling hills in the myth must be returned to the earth so as not to. 3 Let them notice the difference that existed between the splendour. and beauty of the Sun and the filth and ugliness of the toad lizard. frog and other vermin they regarded as gods ibid 68. 4 The Incas deemed the jungle to be inhabited by monstrous beasts. and humans so brutish they mate with animals Cieza de Leon 1959. 212 Constance CZassen,endanger the of the world, At this point it should be noted that there exists a third. class of persons in the Andes Mart n de Murua wrote of these in. The Incas had some doctors or philosophical diviners called. Guacacue who went around naked in isolated gloomy places of. the region and walking alone in the deserts without rest or. tranquility dedicated themselves to divination or philo. sophy From sunrise to sunset looked at the solar disk. with great firmness They said that in that disk, they saw and attained great secrets All day they stood.
on the burning sands without pain and they also suf. fered with the cold and the snow Their susten,ance was very easy they did not pursue what covet. ousness and look for in all elements only what the. earth p oduced without being mistreated by iron Sharon 1978. These diviners have characteristics in common with the savages. they don t wear clothes they don t live in towns and don t. agriculture Their purpose in this however is not to. in the chaos and sensuality of the earth but rather. to detach themselves from it One of the purported abilities of. these diviners in fact is to sever the yoke of the body to the. land and witness what is happening in remote places ibid 112 7. Diviners are revered when they are associated with the upper. half of the cosmos but they can also have a destabilis. ing effect and so are potentially dangerous ibid 23. Returning to the myth of the origin of the Incas by. Garcilaso the golden staff given to Manco Capac and MamaOcllo by. EQUILIBRIUM AND EXCHANGE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND AND BODY IN ANDEAN RELIGION I For the inhabitants of the austere Andean region to survive and prosper they had both to maintain a careful equilibrium between themselves and their environment and to practise exchange among communities living at different altitudes with access to different resources The Incas for example who had the

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