Edexcel A level Geography cpb eu w2 wpmucdn com

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has caused significant changes to carbon stores and contributed to climate change. resulting from anthropogenic carbon emissions, The water and carbon cycles and the role of feedback in and between the two cycles. provide a context for developing an understanding of climate change. Anthropogenic climate change poses a serious threat to the health of the planet. There is a range of adaptation and mitigation strategies that could be used but for. them to be successful they require global agreements as well as national actions. Each enquiry question is broken down into groups of lessons each beginning with a. quick overview of the breadth of the enquiry question followed by a more detailed. explanation of the key concepts and processes examples of teaching strategies. guidance on integrating geographical skills and a summary of the key terminology. required The structure is suggestive not prescriptive Though we have aimed. suggest lots of resources teachers are not complied to use them and they are. merely suggestions to highlight the broad spectrum of resources that are at hand for. students to use,Synoptic linkages and case study nesting. There are many synoptic themes within this unit in terms of linking the impacts of. climate change to Topic 3 Globalisation and the Effects of Deindustrialisation has. impacted on energy mixes For Topic 1 Tectonics there is the potential of natural. hazards impacting upon supply whilst climate change and the impacts on. glaciation ad glacial hazards is well documented in Topic 2a Glaciated Landscapes. and Change, More importantly some might argue that the overriding issue is how our demand. for fossil fuel impacts upon the hydrological cycle not only in terms of climate. change but also in terms of pollution from such techniques as fracking tar sand. production and disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 Beyond. that in Topic 4a Regenerating Places there are the potential problems associated. with closure of mining towns impacts of nuclear energy on places and how these. places should be regenerated Finally in Topic 7 Superpowers there is ample. synopticity between the growth of energy rich states such as Russia and the. problems associated with countries whose energy security is beginning to fall such. as the USA, All of these should help students see the bigger picture by encouraging them to. make geographical links between topics and issues, 2 Pearson Education Ltd 2016 Copying permitted for purchasing institution only This material is not copyright free.
EQ1 How does the carbon cycle operate to maintain,planetary health. Teaching approach over 5 hours,Lesson 1 1hr The biogeochemical carbon cycle. Why most of the earth s carbon is geological and how it became. Lesson 2 1hr that way The geological processes that release carbon into the. atmosphere, The biological processes that sequester carbon on land and in the. Lesson 3 1hr,oceans on shorter timescales, How the concentration of atmospheric carbon strongly influences. Lesson 4 1hr the natural greenhouse effect which in turn determines the. distribution of temperature and precipitation, How ocean and terrestrial photosynthesis play an important role.
in regulating the composition of the atmosphere Why the. Lesson 5 1hr process of fossil fuel combustion has altered the balance of. carbon pathways and stores with implications for climate. ecosystems and the hydrological cycle, Lessons 1 and 2 Most global carbon is locked in terrestrial stores as. part of the long term geological cycle, These lessons cover Key ideas 6 1a b and c and can be used as an introduction to. the subject Understanding what students know will help both the teacher and the. student in determining at what level to teach this first topic. For less able students simplified diagrams of the carbon cycle. https www thinglink com scene 720767293927194625 can used as a starting. point More able students may be better suited with more complex flux diagrams of. the carbon cycle such as http www lenntech com carbon cycle htm. Many students will already be aware of the carbon stores in such places as coal. natural gas and permafrost and more recently within rock a good and useful. example of geological timescales,Key concepts and processes. The biogeochemical carbon cycle consists of carbon stores of different sizes. consisting of,o terrestrial such as soils plants and trees. o Atmosphere, Each of these stores is dynamic and fluxes movement between the stores.
vary in size rates and different timescales, Pearson Education Ltd 2016 Copying permitted for purchasing institution only This material is not copyright free 3. Timescales can vary between,o short term up to seconds to minutes. o medium term up to decades or centuries,o long term millions of years. Guidance on teaching, Many teachers and students may feel intimidated by all the new terminology they. are presented with In its simplest form the biogeochemical cycles include the. carbon hydrological and nitrogen cycles and these are natural processes that recycle. nutrients in various chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then. back to the environment The carbon cycle is only one of these biogeochemical. cycles and can be defined as the exchange of carbon between its four main. reservoirs the atmosphere terrestrial biosphere oceans and sediments Each of. these global reservoirs may be subdivided into smaller pools ranging in size from. individual communities or ecosystems to the total of all living organisms. For some students the start of this subject may be fraught with unknowns and. therefore it is important to make sure that students progress at the right rate to be. able to assimilate all the information, A good way to develop an understanding is to show students a basic carbon cycle.
diagram such as https eo ucar edu kids green cycles6 htm which is useful in. helping less able students develop an awareness of how the cycle works and some of. the constituent parts Beyond this and with the use of presentation it is worth. developing the points in terms of the movement of carbon between the constituent. parts and the sizes of these stores, Furthermore key terms should be defined and students should be able to identify. where these are within the cycle, The timescales fluxes and rates can be best explained using more complex carbon. cycle diagrams such as http dilu bol ucla edu home html. Further links can be found below An excellent start for teachers and more able. students as well as general reading material can be found on the University of New. Hampshire An Introduction to the Carbon Cycle, http globecarboncycle unh edu CarbonCycleBackground pdf This website s. homepage http globecarboncycle unh edu cmap1 shtml offers an excellent range. of carbon cycle activities links and other information as well as teaching aids many. of which are free to use, For a clear understanding of why most of the earth s carbon is geological there are. several good examples and techniques to get this across to students. For carbonate rocks such as limestone a great website. http sciencelearn org nz Contexts A Fizzy Rock Sci Media Animations and. Interactives Limestone secrets revealed provides animations and videos. Coal diagrams such as the one found here http www pmfias com coal formation. of coal types of coal peat lignite bituminous coal anthracite coal are useful tools. for students to visualise the changes and processes involved. 4 Pearson Education Ltd 2016 Copying permitted for purchasing institution only This material is not copyright free. This website also offers various ideas and resources on the types of coal including. peat and their formations http www pmfias com coal formation of coal types of. coal peat lignite bituminous coal anthracite coal, Furthermore information on global carbon cycle stores may help students begin to.
appreciate the different aspects of stores and sequestration A great diagram can be. found here http www nrs fs fed us pubs jrnl 2011 nrs 2011 pan 002 pdf. There are a range of global and local maps available some of which are linked. The final part is looking at how geological processes release carbon into the. atmosphere through volcanic out gassing at ocean ridges subduction zones and. chemical weathering of rocks Consideration by teachers should be given to the fact. that carbon is released through gasses from within the earth they release a cocktail. of gases which includes mainly water vapour but also other gases such as sulphur. dioxide carbon dioxide and hydrogen from volcanic zones These gases can form. with water droplets and produce aerosols, Carbon also plays an important role in terms of weathering of rocks Carbon dioxide. dissolves in surface waters and forms a weak acid called carbonic acid This acid can. react with rocks and many common minerals Some of this carbon is returned to the. atmosphere via metamorphism of limestone at depth in subduction zones or in. orogenic belts More information on this can be found here. http www columbia edu vjd1 carbon htm, Lesson 3 The biological processes that sequester carbon on land and. in the oceans on shorter timescales, This lesson covers Key idea 6 2 biological processes sequester carbon on land and in. the oceans on shorter timescales It looks at the processes that sequester carbon. photosynthesis in the oceans and on land and how biological carbon can be stored. as dead organic matter in soils or returned to the atmosphere via biological. decomposition over several years, Students will need to develop a good appreciation of photosynthesis respiration and. decomposition and their role within the carbon cycle More able students should be. able to develop an awareness of the influence that these factors have and potential. issues that could impact on these rates and also determine their significance in. maintaining planetary health,Key concepts and processes.
How biological processes sequester carbon on land and in oceans. o The role of photosynthesis in ocean carbon sequestration at surface. Pearson Education Ltd 2016 Copying permitted for purchasing institution only This material is not copyright free 5. o The movement of carbonate shells into the deep ocean water through. the carbonate pump and action of the thermohaline circulation. The role of terrestrial primary producers and how they sequester carbon. during photosynthesis and the impacts of respiration in returning this to the. atmosphere, The role of death and decomposition in the storing of biological carbon. Guidance on teaching, Students need a clear understanding of photosynthesis and some students may have. a grounding of this from previous subjects Each can be reviewed in terms of. terrestrial photosynthesis,ocean photosynthesis,biological decomposition. An interesting start is the second video on this webpage called Where Do Trees Get. Their Mass from This page also has some simple questions and discussion points. that could be manipulated to suit the areas you need to cover as well as links oceans. and the carbon cycle http serc carleton edu eslabs carbon 1a html Diagrams of. photosynthesis are widespread such as http scienceunraveled com Photosynthesis. A simple formula for photosynthesis can be written as. CO2 H2O sugar O2, Photosynthesis uses CO2 from the atmosphere and produces O2. However for more able students it can also be shown as the more complex formula. 6CO2 6H2O C6H12O6 6O2 carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen. For ocean photosynthesis a good start would be to look at what phytoplankton are. see http earthobservatory nasa gov Features Phytoplankton A phytoplankton. bloom has been defined as a high concentration of phytoplankton in an area caused. by increased reproduction Phytoplankton population explosion blooms occur when. sunlight and nutrients are readily available to the plants and they grow and. reproduce to a point where they are so dense that their presence changes the colour. of the water in which they live These can be quick events or last several weeks. Students of more ability may wish to look at specific blooms that occur on a seasonal. basis such as those in the Gulf of Maine http serc carleton edu eet phytoplankton. primer html, Less able students may be more satisfied with a simpler approach of the reasons for.
these most of which are transient in nature,Water temperature. Density and salinity,Hydrography of the region underwater topography. Availability of nutrients, What species and the amount of phytoplankton biomass that is present. The type of zooplankton that are grazing on the phytoplankton. Available sunlight levels, 6 Pearson Education Ltd 2016 Copying permitted for purchasing institution only This material is not copyright free. There are very few factors that can be considered permanent in this except for the. hydrography and bathymetry depth and relief of ocean waters. To understand stratification weaker students may wish to appreciate the. temperature changes within ocean levels This can be done using simple graphs such. as this http serc carleton edu details images 1957 html. In principal stratification is changes in temperature underwater Similarly. temperatures change on land The higher up one climbs a mountain the lower the. temperature is due to lower air pressure Underwater the temperature salinity. Edexcel A level Geography Topic Guide for Topic 6 The Carbon Cycle and Energy Security Practical support to help you deliver this Edexcel specification Our specifications offer an issues based approach to studying geography enabling students to explore and evaluate contemporary geographical questions and issues such as the consequences of globalisation responses to hazards water insecurity

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