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16 Chapter 2 Economic Tools and Economic Systems, D Division of Labor and Gains from Specialization Slides 11 12. Specialization of labor, Takes advantage of individual preferences and natural abilities. Allows workers to develop more experience at a task. Reduces the need to shift between tasks, Permits the introduction of labor saving machinery. May be tedious and injury prone due to repetitive motion. III The Economy s Production Possibilities, A Efficiency and the Production Possibilities Frontier Slides 13 15. 1 The production possibilities frontier PPF is a simple model designed to. depict the production capabilities of an economy given current resources The. PPF assumes the following, Output is limited to two broad classes of products consumer goods and.
capital goods,Production takes place over a given time period. The economy s resources are fixed in quantity and quality over this period. The available technology does not change during the period. The rules of the game are also assumed fixed, B Inefficient and unattainable production The PPF identifies possible. combinations of the two types of goods that can be produced when all available. resources are employed efficiently Resources are employed efficiently when there. is no change that could increase the production of one good without decreasing the. production of the other good, Efficient production getting the most from available resources indicated by. points along the production possibilities frontier See Exhibit 2. Inefficient production points inside the PPF See Exhibit 2. Unattainable production points outside the PPF See Exhibit 2. C Shape of the Production Possibilities Frontier Slide 18. The PPF derives its bowed out concave shape from the law of increasing. opportunity cost, Opportunity cost increases as the economy produces more of one good and less. of the other because resources in the economy are not all perfectly adaptable to. the production of both types of goods, If all resources were perfectly adaptable to alternative uses the PPF would be a.
straight line reflecting a constant opportunity cost along the PPF. D What Can Shift the Production Possibilities Frontier Slide 19 22. Economic Growth is reflected by an outward shift of the PPF. Changes in resource availability people working longer hours war. Capital stock more capital goods produced during this period shifts the PPF. outward the next period, Technology discoveries that employ resources more efficiently. Rules of the Game improvements in the formal and informal institutions that. support the economy shift the PPF outward, 2013 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part except for use as. permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom use. Chapter 2 Economic Tools and Economic Systems 17, CaseStudy 20 23 Rules of the Game and Economic Development. E What We Learn from the PPF Slides 23 25, It illustrates the concepts of efficiency scarcity opportunity cost economic growth and the. need for choice, It does not tell us which combination to choose How society goes about choosing depends.
on the nature of the economic system,IV Economic Systems Slides 26 31. A Three Questions Every Economic System Must Answer Slides 26 27. 1 What goods and services are to be produced,2 How are goods and services to be produced. 3 For whom are goods and services to be produced, B Pure Capitalism Individual decision making through markets includes. 1 Private ownership of all resources, 2 Market prices generated in free markets guide resources to their most. productive use, 3 Goods and services are channeled to consumers who value them the most.
Adam Smith and the invisible hand,4 Flaws of a pure market system. No central authority protects property rights enforces contracts or. ensures that rules of the game are followed,People with no resources to sell could starve. Some producers may try to monopolize markets by eliminating the. competition, Production or consumption of some goods involves damaging. byproducts i e pollution, Private firms have no incentive to produce public goods. 5 Because of these limitations government has been given some role in most. market economies, C Pure Command System Resources are directed and production is coordinated not.
by market forces but by the command or central plan of government. 1 In theory property is owned communally central plans spell out answers. to what for whom and how much and individual choices are incorporated. into central plans communism,2 Flaws of a pure command system. Running an economy is so complicated that some resources are used. inefficiently, Because no one person in particular owns resources each person has. less incentive to employ them in their highest valued use so some. resources are wasted, Central plans may reflect more the preferences of central planners than. those of society, Because government is responsible for all production the variety of. products tends to be more limited than in a capitalist economy. 2013 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part except for use. as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for class. 18 Chapter 2 Economic Tools and Economic Systems, Each individual has less personal freedom in making economic.
D Mixed and Transitional Economies Slide 37, No country exemplifies either type of economic system in its pure form. The United States represents a mixed system with government directly. accounting for about one third of all economic activity In addition government. regulates the private sector in a variety of ways e g antitrust workplace. safety environmental quality and zoning activities. E Economies Based on Custom or Religion Molded largely by custom or. religion for example the caste system in India or charging interest under. Islamic law,CONCLUSION, This text focuses on the mixed market system which blends private choice guided by the price. system in competitive markets with public choice guided by democracy in political markets. CHAPTER SUMMARY, Resources are scarce but human wants are unlimited Because you cannot satisfy all your wants you. must choose and whenever you choose you must forgo some option Choice involves an. opportunity cost The opportunity cost of the selected option is the value of the best alternative. The law of comparative advantage says that the individual firm region or country with the lowest. opportunity cost of producing a particular good should specialize in that good Specialization. according to the law of comparative advantage promotes the most efficient use of resources. The specialization of labor increases efficiency by a taking advantage of individual preferences. and natural abilities b allowing each worker to develop expertise and experience at a particular. task c reducing the need to shift between different tasks and d allowing for the introduction of. more specialized machines and large scale production techniques. The production possibilities frontier or PPF shows the productive capabilities of an economy when. all resources are used efficiently The frontier s bowed out shape reflects the law of increasing. opportunity cost which arises because some resources are not perfectly adaptable to the production. of different goods Over time the frontier can shift in or out as a result of changes in the availability. of resources in technology or in the rules of the game The frontier demonstrates several economic. concepts including efficiency scarcity opportunity cost the law of increasing opportunity cost. economic growth and the need for choice, All economic systems regardless of their decision making processes must answer three basic. questions What is to be produced How is it to be produced And for whom is it to be produced. Economies answer the questions differently depending on who owns the resources and how. economic activity is coordinated Economies can be directed by market forces by the central plans of. government or in most cases by a mix of the two, 2013 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part except for use as.
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom use. Chapter 2 Economic Tools and Economic Systems 19,TEACHING POINTS. 1 This chapter contains several fundamental concepts that should be fully discussed because they. are used throughout the text to discuss economic choice in a variety of settings When discussing. opportunity cost and choice be sure to distinguish between those costs that are associated with. marginal decision making and those that are not i e sunk costs Also many students will not. immediately recognize that non monetary costs are components of opportunity costs so it helps to. emphasize this point, 2 Comparative advantage is a second important concept emphasized in this chapter For additional. examples of comparative advantage consider the classic example in which an attorney can type. and file faster and more accurately than a secretary Because of comparative advantage it will. usually pay the lawyer to hire a secretary rather than to do the typing and filing because the. opportunity cost is lower Another example would be for Hawaii to specialize in pineapple. growing and then trade with Idaho for potatoes This chapter makes the point that opportunity. cost is a relative concept based on relative rather than absolute resource requirements in the. production of goods Because comparative advantage implies the specialization of resource use. trade becomes important in allocating goods to consumers Students often note that self reliance. is an admirable concept The discussion of comparative advantage shows that specialization and. exchange lead to a more efficient allocation of resources. 3 When drawing the production possibilities frontier partition the horizontal axis into equal. segments and then show the ever increasing amounts of the alternative good that must be. sacrificed to obtain more of the good in question You thereby illustrate the law of increasing. opportunity costs Students often confuse increasing total and increasing marginal opportunity. costs You should emphasize through your construction that it is incremental costs that are. increasing Draw your curve large with plenty of bow in it Numerical examples are helpful to. some students, 4 Sometimes people claim that the PPF is bowed out because of the law of diminishing returns. Diminishing returns of course assumes an increase in one type of resource holding other. resources constant This is not the case along the PPF because all resources tend to be reallocated. between goods with movement along the PPF You could incorporate the law of diminishing. returns into your discussion by fixing capital between the sectors and then shifting only labor. resources The text s approach however is to assume that resources are not homogeneous some. are specific to the production of a particular good The result is increasing opportunity costs and a. bowed out PPF, 5 Once the PPF is understood in terms of its construction and shape it is important to emphasize the. concepts that it illustrates Scarcity is reflected by the fact that some output combinations are not. feasible The infinite number of output combinations that are feasible illustrates choice. Efficiency is illustrated when production occurs along the PPF and the shape of the PPF. illustrates the law of increasing opportunity costs Furthermore if resources are different then the. required specialization of resource usage implies that some form of trading occurs in order for. each resource owner to consume all both goods, 6 A discussion of shifts in the production possibilities frontier leads naturally to a consideration of.
the sources of economic growth Technological advance shifts the PPF Such advances take time. and require society to save just as with the accumulation of physical capital Emphasize that the. PPF need not always shift out in a balanced way Technological advance is often specific to an. 2013 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part except for use. as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for class. 20 Chapter 2 Economic Tools and Economic Systems, industry Improvements in the rules of the game and in the education and health of the population. may also lead to an outward shift in the PPF, 7 This chapter closes by considering how different economic systems answer the three economic. questions You may wish to discuss how numerous political systems have shifted toward more. market based economies over the past century to emphasize the capitalist approach The chapter. contains a fairly short reference to Adam Smith and his notion of the invisible hand You may. want to discuss this important concept in more detail. ANSWERS TO END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES,Answers to Questions for Review. 1 Opportunity Costs Discuss the ways in which the following conditions might affect the. INTRODUCTION This chapter emphasizes key ideas in economic analysis such as opportunity cost the production possibilities frontier absolute and comparative advantage the division of labor and the gains from specialization and how economic systems answer the three economic questions of what how and for whom All these ideas address the

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