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Acknowledgements, This review would not have been possible without the. genuine interest and financial support by the Department. of Water Sanitation in Developing Countries SANDEC at. EAWAG I wish to express my sincere gratitude to SANDEC. and its staff for the agreeable working atmosphere and. for having offered me the opportunity of gaining deep. insight into an interesting subject, In particular I am much obliged to Sylvie Peter for her. professional and thorough linguistic revision of the text. and to Swen Vermeul for his valuable support regarding. its layout and logical structure, Moreover I would like to thank Prof Huub Gijzen and. Prof Peter Edwards for providing relevant literature and. information,Duebendorf March 1999,Sascha Iqbal,Table of Contents CHAPTER THREE. PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS 43, Acronyms Currency Conversions Transfer of Pathogens 45.
Glossary and Abbreviations 8,Transfer of Heavy Metals and Organic. List of Tables Figures and Photographs 9 Compounds 47. FOREWORD 10,SUMMARY 11 CHAPTER FOUR,PARTICULAR GROWTH CONSTRAINTS 47. CHAPTER ONE Insufficient Supply of Nutrients and, CLIMATE AND SITE SELECTION 15 Alternative Nutrient Sources 47. Algal Blooms 50,Temperature Requirements 15,Insect and Fungal Infestation 51. Influence of Wind 16,Influence of Water Current 16.
Effects of Dryness and Rain 16,CHAPTER FIVE,Land Requirement 17 USE OF BIOMASS 52. Ideal Site Topography 18 Nutritive Value and Productivity 54. Soil Characteristics 18 Duckweed for Human Consumption 56. Duckweed as Fish Feed 57,CHAPTER TWO Duckweed as Pig Feed 59. DUCKWEED FOR DOMESTIC Duckweed as Poultry Feed 59, AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL Duckweed as Ruminant Feed 60. Duckweed as Agricultural Fertiliser 61,WASTEWATER TREATMENT 19. Design Considerations 20,Primary Treatment of Raw Wastewater 21.
CHAPTER SIX,Pond Design 24 SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS 61. Hydraulic Retention Time HRT 26,Duckweed as a Novel Crop 61. Water Depth 26, Organic Loading Rate 27 Contact with Excreta and Wastewater 61. Wind Protection 27 Indirect Excreta Reuse 62, Operating Considerations 28 Positive Influence of Duckweed. Labour Requirement for Duckweed Farming on its Social Acceptance 63. Farming 28,Harvesting of Duckweed 30,Relief of Heat Stress 31.
CHAPTER SEVEN,Removal Mechanisms 33 ECONOMIC ASPECTS 63. TSS Removal 33 Integrated and Separate,BOD Removal 33 Duckweed Fish Production 63. Nitrogen Removal 34,Economics of Integrated Wastewater. Phosphorous Removal 35,Duckweed Fish Production 66. Removal of Heavy Metals and Organic,Compounds 36,Mosquito and Odour Control 37 CHAPTER EIGHT.
Removal Efficiencies 38,INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS 67,Comparison of Duckweed Systems. Baseline Survey 68,with Other Treatment Systems 40. Comparison with Waste Stabilisation Credit Requirements 69. Ponds 40 Promotion of Excreta Based, Comparison with other Aquatic Duckweed Fish Production in. Macrophytes 40 Rural Bangladesh 69,CHAPTER NINE,PAST AND PRESENT DUCKWEED. ACTIVITIES AROUND THE WORLD 75,Mainland China 76,Vietnam 76.
Thailand 76,PRISM Bangladesh 77,Lemna Corporation 82. CHAPTER TEN,PRIORITY RESEARCH NEEDS 83,Public Health and Environmental Effects. of Duckweed Treatment Farming,Systems 83,Design and Operation of. Duckweed Based Pond Systems,for Combined Wastewater Treatment. and Biomass Production 84,Economic Assessment of,Wastewater Based.
Duckweed Farming Models 85,Sociocultural and Institutional. Aspects of Wastewater Based,Duckweed Farming 85,Duckweed Production and. Feeding Applications 85,REFERENCES 87, ACRONYMS CURRENCY CONVERSIONS GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS. Acronyms Currency Conversions Abbreviations,Glossary and Abbreviations. Al Aluminium,Acronyms BOD Biochemical oxygen demand.
Ca Calcium, AIT Asian Institute of Technology Bangkok CaO Lime. Thailand CH4 Methane gas, FAO UN Food and Agriculture Organisation Cl Chloride. EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental CO2 Carbon dioxide gas. Science Technology Duebendorf COD Chemical oxygen demand. Switzerland dry wt Dry weight, DWRP Duckweed Research Project FCR Feed conversion ratio. discontinued Dhaka Bangladesh Fe Iron, ODA Overseas Development Administration HCO3 Bicarbonate. PRISM Projects in Agriculture Rural Industry HRT Hydraulic retention time. Science and Medicine K Potassium,an NGO in Bangladesh K2O Potassium oxide.
U S EPA U S Environmental Protection Agency M Sc Master of Science. SANDEC Dept of Water Sanitation in Developing Mg Magnesium. Countries at EAWAG N Nitrogen,N2 Nitrogen gas, Currency Conversions NGO Non governmental organisation. NH3 N Ammonia nitrogen, Bangladeshi Taka 1 BdT 0 026 0 021 US 1993 1999 NH4 N Ammonium nitrogen. Taiwan Dollar 1 TwD 0 025 US 1985 NO3 Nitrate,Ntot Total nitrogen. o PO4 Ortho phosphate,Glossary P Phosphorous,P2O5 Phosphorous pentoxide Phosphoric an. Aquaculture Artificial and commercial cultivation of hydride. aquatic products S Sulphur, Batch Pond or stagnant water body loaded t ha y Annual production in tons per hectare.
with excreta or wastewater at regular or TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen. irregular intervals for biological treat TP Ptot Total phosphorous. ment The treated water may be TSS Total suspended solids. discharged from the pond and replaced UASB Up flow anaerobic sludge blanket. by a next load of wastewater wet wt Wet weight,Frond Name of the flat oval shaped body of. duckweed plants,Lemnaceae Botanical family of duckweeds. Nutrients Chemical elements necessary for,biological growth notably N and P. found in agriculture as fertilisers but,causing pollution when discharged. arbitrarily into water bodies,Pathogens Organisms causing disease in man.
Plug flow Channel like often serpentine shaped,pond system where wastewater flows. slowly but continuously from its inlet to,its outlet while being biologically. 8 DUCKWEED AQUACULTURE POTENTIALS POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS. LIST OF TABLES FIGURES AND PHOTOGRAPHS,List of Tables Figures and Photographs. Photographs Photograph 1 Low cost latrines for duckweed cultivation. at village level Bangladesh 22, Tables Photograph 2 Duckweed covered serpentine plug flow. Table 1 Different duckweed treatment systems depending lagoon USA 24. on type and amount of wastewater 21 Photograph 3 Batch operated pond for excreta based. Table 2 Harvesting frequencies and amounts 31 duckweed cultivation at village level Bangladesh 26. Table 3 Treatment efficiencies of a duckweed covered Photograph 4 Floating bamboo grid system for duckweed. plug flow lagoon in Bangladesh 38 stabilisation Taiwan 27. Table 4 Treatment efficiencies of Lemna Corp Photograph 5 High density polyethylene grid system for. facilities 39 duckweed stabilisation USA 27, Table 5 N and P uptake rates by duckweed 39 Photograph 6 Transport of fresh duckweed in wickerwork.
Table 6 Comparison between waste stabilisation ponds WSP basket Bangladesh 28. and duckweed treatment systems 40 Photograph 7 Freshly harvested duckweed is filled in a. Table 7 N and P uptake rates by different floating aquatic wickerwork basket for transport Bangladesh 28. macrophytes 41 Photograph 8 Determination of duckweed wet weight. Table 8 Comparison between duckweed and water hyacinth using a spring scale Bangladesh 29. for wastewater treatment and biomass use 42 Photograph 9 Feeding fresh sewage grown duckweed to fish. Table 9 Concentrations of microorganisms monitored in excreta Bangladesh 29. fed duckweed fish system at village level in Thailand 46 Photograph 10 Manual harvesting of duckweed using a net. Table 10 Range of nutrient concentrations in waters with Bangladesh 32. Lemnaceae 48 Photograph 11 Manual harvesting of duckweed using. Table 11 Moisture organic and mineral content of a net Thailand 32. some organic wastes 50 Photograph 12 Manual harvesting of duckweed using. Table 12 Duckweed productivity and protein content 55 a bamboo pole Thailand 32. Table 13 Comparison of annual per hectare protein yields Photograph 13 Mechanical duckweed harvester USA 32. of duckweed and selected crops 56 Photograph 14 Direct contact of workers with diluted sewage. Table 14 Duckweed to fish feed conversion ratios 58 during harvesting routine Bangladesh 43. Table 15 Advantages and disadvantages of integrated and Photograph 15 Direct contact of workers with organically polluted. separate duckweed fish production 65 surfacewater during harvesting routine Taiwan 43. Table 16 Operating costs for sewage duckweed fish production Photograph 16 Use of high wellington boots and gloves for. at Mirzapur demo farm of PRISM 67 harvesting duckweed grown on. Table 17 Comparison of duckweed and fish production between organically polluted water Taiwan 44. PRISM joint stock companies and Mirzapur demo farm 72 Photograph 17 Harvesting duckweed from pond embankment. Table 18 Species distribution of carp polyculture avoiding direct contact with faecally polluted. for fish pond stocking 80 water Thailand 44, Photograph 18 Freshly harvested duckweed filled into sacs. Figures awaiting collection by truck Taiwan 53, Figure 1 Growth rate of different Lemnaceae species Photograph 19 Harvested Indian carp fed exclusively on. in relation to temperature 15 duckweed Bangladesh 57. Figure 2 Low cost pour flush latrine 23 Photograph 20 Harvested tilapia fed on sewage grown. Figure 3 Village level pour flush pit latrine 24 duckweed and supplementary feed Bangladesh 57. Figure 4 Ideal plug flow system for combined duckweed based Photograph 21 Harvesting of various carp species fed. wastewater treatment and protein production 25 exclusively on duckweed Bangladesh 58. Figure 5 Example of batch operated pond for duckweed cultivation Photograph 22 Ducks feeding on excreta grown duckweed. at village level 26 directly from the pond surface Bangladesh 60. Figure 6 Major factors influencing the economics of integrated Photograph 23 Groundwater chemical fertiliser based. duckweed fish production 66 duckweed cultivation Bangladesh 78. Figure 7 Layout of a duckweed covered serpentine Photograph 24 Plug flow for duckweed based sewage. plug flow lagoon in Bangladesh 78 treatment under construction Bangladesh 79. Photograph 25 Inlet section of duckweed covered plug flow. sewage lagoon Bangladesh 79, DUCKWEED AQUACULTURE POTENTIALS POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS 9. What is this literature review about This literature review provides a first overview of the possibilities. and what is its background potentials and limits of duckweed aquaculture and its combined. use in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in low. and middle income countries It is somewhat limited as critical. literature on duckweed field use is scarce and difficult to obtain. e g unpublished internal documents According to NGOs and. commercial suppliers the duckweed projects seem very posi. tive and promising and the practical problems encountered with. their application rarely mentioned, Which were the major information Nevertheless extensive scientific literature is available on the tax. sources for this review onomy physiology and ecology of duckweed The comprehen. sive monographic study by Landolt 1986 and Landolt and. Kandeler 1987 lists over 3400 references This can be attrib. uted to the fact that duckweed is regarded by botanists and. plant physiologists the same way as E coli is viewed by. microbiologists and biochemists namely a model organism for. physiological biochemical and metabolic studies easy to han. dle and cultivate under laboratory conditions This monographic. study is of key importance for further research on the use of. duckweed Other references of major importance are the litera. ture review by Gijzen and Khondker 1997 and the DWRP re. ports DWRP 1996 1997a and 1997b which give a compre. hensive overview of the state of the art of duckweed based. treatment production systems and duckweed related research. These references were a major source of information for the. present document, The current review focuses on the combined use of duckweed.
in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in economi. cally less developed countries Despite the fact that most of the. available literature originates from industrialised countries and. often describes either the wastewater treatment or the feed pro. duction aspect of duckweed but its dual use is rarely discussed. 10 DUCKWEED AQUACULTURE POTENTIALS POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS. For more than twenty five years duckweed aquaculture has been Why have duckweed treatment. regarded as a potential technology to combine both wastewater farming systems so far not. treatment and feed production in developing and industrialised achieved a major breakthrough. countries However real scale application of the technology dates. back to about ten years So far it has not achieved a major break. through System management never appeared sophisticated. enough to reveal decisive advantages of duckweed aquaculture. over existing technologies Nevertheless the experience gained. so far reveals interesting data with regard to BOD and nutrient. removal including nutritional value for raising animals. The rapidly growing and small floating aquatic plants of the bo What are the potentials of duck. Table 14 Duckweed to fish feed conversion ratios 58 Table 15 Advantages and disadvantages of integrated and separate duckweed fish production 65 Table 16 Operating costs for sewage duckweed fish production at Mirzapur demo farm of PRISM 67 Table 17 Comparison of duckweed and fish production between

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