Dock Planning Standards Nova Technology-Free PDF

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TABLE OF CONTENTS,TABLE OF CONTENTS,DESIGN THE SITE 2. Location of the Loading Docks 2,Plan On site Traffic Patterns 3. Design the Apron Space 3,Dock Approach 4,Select the Loading Dock Configuration 5. Inside Outside Dock 6,Open Dock 6,Additional Dock Configurations 7. Determine the Number of Dock Positions 8,DESIGN THE LOADING DOCK 8.
Truck Specifications 8,Sea Containers 10,Underride Protection Bars 10. Set the Dock Height 10,Set the Loading Bay Widths 11. Select Dock Doors 12,Determine Door Sizes 12,Heights 13. Design the Dock Interior 13,DOCKLEVELERS 14,Recessed Docklevelers 14. Mechanical Docklevelers 15,Powered Docklevelers 15.
Edge of Dock Docklevelers 16,Specify the Correct Dockleveler 17. Lip Projection 19,Load Capacity 19,Activation System 20. Environmental Capability 20,Optional Features 20, Benefits of Hydraulic and Air Bag Docklevelers over Mechanical Docklevelers 20. Specifying the Elevating Dock 21,BUMPERS 21,TRAILER RESTRAINTS 22. RIG Dependent Restraints 23,Manual Wheel Chocks 23.
COMMUNICATION LIGHTS 24,DOCK RUN OFF PROTECTION 24. Gate Barriers 24,Lip Barriers 24,SEALING SYSTEMS 25. Selection Criteria 25,Grade of Approach 25,Overhead Door Dimensions 25. Dock Bumper Projection 26,Dock Height 26,Mounting Surface 26. Compression Foam Dock Seals 26,Truck Shelters 27,Dock Lights 28.
CONTACT NOVA 28,2013 Nova Technology International. All Rights Reserved 1,DOCK PLANNING STANDARDS, DESIGN THE SITE Shipping docks and receiving docks can be combined. with shipping and receiving together Figure 1 or, they can be separated with shipping and receiving in. Safety different areas of the building Figure 2,The Material Transfer Zone MTZ which acts as. a bridge between the truck and warehouse is a Trucks. dangerous place where safety must be the most,important consideration.
Safety is often considered only after a serious accident. has occurred on the dock To ensure the safety of dock Shipping and. attendants and product consider all potential problems Receiving Dock. that could occur, Consider security Select the correct dock leveler for. your facility For additional safety at the loading dock. consider adding a vehicle restraint to help prevent. unexpected trailer creep during the loading and,unloading process. Perform regular maintenance on the equipment, Equipment should be cleaned lubricated and checked Manufacturing. by a technician for longer product life and better Process. productivity Plan for maintenance of bumpers lights. communication packages and other loading dock, accessories Inventory these items regularly as wheel. chocks can be swept away by plows and light bulbs, will need to be replaced Perform regular checks on.
the seals and shelters to make sure they do not leak. Infiltrating air will raise energy usage and may result in Figure 1. uncomfortable working conditions, Protect your investment Choose a barrier gate that Trucks. prevents loading equipment from colliding with and. damaging the dock doors A barrier gate acts as a,protective barrier against costly door damage. Integrated control panels are useful when combining Receiving Dock. dock and overhead doors with other loading, equipment If you have combined a dockleveler with a. trailer restraint and an automatic door interconnecting. each into a single control panel is an effective way to. create a safer work environment,Select the appropriate dockleveler capacity based. on both the gross load and frequency of material, handling devices in use at the site for optimal durability Manufacturing.
and safety Also consider push button controlled Process. powered docklevelers for ergonomic and ease of, operation reasons as they put less physical stress. on the dock attendants If non powered mechanical, docklevelers are already present consider upgrading. the dockleveler to a push button controlled powered. dockleveler with a hydraulic conversion kit,Shipping Dock. Location of the Loading Docks, Locate the loading docks to minimize forklift traffic. inside the building Rather than transporting individual. pallets inside the building unload trucks at multiple. 2013 Nova Technology International,2 All Rights Reserved.
DOCK PLANNING STANDARDS, Choose the loading dock location based on the needs Two way access roads that are 26 ft wide minimum. of the in plant process A combined dock works well Figure 4. in smaller buildings where shipping and receiving is. infrequent However this design may increase in plant. traffic and travel distance, A separated dock works well in buildings where the. materials enter production in one part of the building. and the production is completed elsewhere This, design minimizes transportation of materials inside the. building Entrance,Plan On site Traffic Patterns, Design the traffic patterns around the building so that Radius. the truck driver is on the inside of each turn for best. control of the truck Where traffic is on the right side of. the road and the driver s seat is on the left side of the. cab truck movement around the building should be,counterclockwise Figure 3.
Separate roads for employee traffic,Truck waiting areas near the loading docks to. accommodate all waiting trucks,Design the Apron Space. Apron space is the space between the loading platform. and the nearest obstruction Apron space includes the. parking area where the truck parks at the dock and the. maneuvering area which is the area the truck uses to. maneuver in and out of the parking area Figure 5 and. Figure 6 The recommended center distance between,dock positions is 12 ft minimum. Loading Platform,Apron Space,Figure 3 Maneuvering Area Parking Area. For efficient truck traffic plan for the following. An entrance driveway that accommodates the,turning radius of the longest truck expected and.
allows trucks to be driven forward onto the site,rather than backed up. Right angle turns onto the site that have a minimum. inside radius of 26 ft and a minimum outside radius. of 50 ft Figure 4,One way access roads that are 13 ft wide minimum. 2013 Nova Technology International,All Rights Reserved 3. DOCK PLANNING STANDARDS,40 ft Container,Maneuvering Area. Apron Space,Landing Gear Pad,Loading Area Dock Approach.
The maximum grade percentage from the loading, dock to the vehicle is determined by the height of the. dock discussed in detail in Set the Dock Height on. page 10 When using electric powered loading, 12 ft Min equipment the maximum grade percentage is 10. For gas or diesel powered loading equipment the,maximum grade percentage is 15 If these grade. Figure 6 percentages are exceeded damage to handling. equipment and load spillage may result,The minimum apron space required depends on the. If the plant floor is at grade or has a low grade, Center line distances between the parked trucks at recess the truck parking area so that the trailer bed.
the dock will be at about the same height as the plant floor. Length of the trucks Figure 8 The parking area will slope down toward. the dock This slope should be 6 or less If heavy, Steering geometry of the trucks loads are expected the slope should not exceed 5. Less apron space is needed if the trailers will be If necessary slope may be increased to an absolute. parked with the tractors detached maximum of 10 and only for light loads Steep. The minimum apron space for a typical 40 ft container slopes may cause loads to topple. rig is listed in Table 1,Center Distance 12 ft 13 ft 14 ft 16 ft 18 ft. Apron Space 120 ft 116 ft 113 ft 110 ft 108 ft, If expected trucks are longer than 40 ft increase the. apron space proportionately For example if the dock. can accommodate 48 ft trailers increase the apron Figure 8. space in the table by 20 If the traffic pattern causes. the driver to be on the outside of a turn add 50 ft Always provide drainage for recessed parking areas. The area next to the building should slope slightly. Always provide a concrete landing gear pad to support away from the building for a short distance of 1 to 3 ft. the trailer s landing gear when the trailer is detached Figure 9 A short distance is preferable so that the. Figure 7 The landing gear is about 33 ft from the position of the trailer s rear axle will have less of an. back of the trailer on a standard 40 ft container effect on the height of the trailer bed at the dock. chassis The gear is about 11 ft from the back of the. trailer on a 20 ft chassis The pad should be wide, enough to accommodate all expected types of trailers. It is helpful for the pad to extend all the way back to. the loading platform The pad should be designed to. support two point loads of 25 000 lb each 6 ft apart to. support a fully loaded trailer,2013 Nova Technology International.
4 All Rights Reserved,DOCK PLANNING STANDARDS,Dock Height. Grade Drain,1 to 3 ft 1 2 to 1 in, Drawbacks of a declined dock approach include the Out. following Blocks,Difficult removal of snow,Drainage of water. Debris buildup The required projection is calculated based on the. grade percentage To calculate the grade determine, High impact forces to the building wall and dock the difference in height between the dock and a fixed. When a declined dock approach is used give special point approximately 50 ft directly out from the dock. attention to other loading equipment Dock seals must Grade equals the height difference divided by the. be tapered to match the angle of the trailer If the seals length measured. are not tapered sealing will not be effective and the Example 22 in difference over 660 in distance. seal may be damaged Truck restraints must also be 22 660 0 03. projected sufficiently to ensure proper operation and. safety 0 03 100 3 grade, Preventing dock approach impact is easily done For proper dock operation declined dock approaches.
For new constructions project the dock sufficiently should be no more than 10. to prevent the top of the trailer from impacting the Use Table 2 to determine the proper projection. building wall When reconstructing an existing facility. where it is not possible to project the dock project the Table 2. bumpers by using bumper block outs Percent of,Driveway 0 1 2 3 4 5 10. Pit Projection 0 in 2 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 12 in. Area of Impact,Select the Loading Dock Configuration. Important factors in dock configuration include,Traffic control. Worker comfort,Space availability,The two main types of dock configurations are the. inside outside dock and the open dock,2013 Nova Technology International.
All Rights Reserved 5,DOCK PLANNING STANDARDS,Inside Outside Dock. In an inside outside dock configuration the loading. platform is inside the building Figure 12 With the Seal. proper door sealing system an inside outside dock, provides excellent weather protection and security The Vestibule Cold Room. refrigerated dock is a common version of the inside. outside dock Dock Door,High speed,Insulated Door Door. Dockleveler, Figure 12 In an open dock configuration the loading platform. is outside the building Figure 15 Open docks are, The inside outside dock design may require the common in temperate climates Adding a canopy.
building wall to be set back from the edge of the dock over the loading platform and curtains around. Figure 13 especially for docks with recessed parking the dock perimeter Figure 16 will provide some. areas The setback works to protection When placing canopies over docks on. sloped approaches the height of the canopy must, Protect the building wall from impact damage accommodate the height of the sloped truck. Protect projections such as overhangs or signs,Facilitate the installation of sealing systems. Minimize injury hazards,Clearance is required between the truck and the. building wall Allow for at least 6 in of clearance. between the rear of the truck and the building wall. measured at 6 ft above the dock platform Allow a, 4 in minimum clearance between the top of the trailer Figure 15. and the building wall Figure 13,4 in Min Slide Curtain.
6 in Min at 6 ft,Above Dock,Dockleveler, An open dock requires sufficient maneuvering space. Figure 13 for forklifts between building wall and the docklevelers. Safety barriers such as concrete posts or chains are. Refrigerated docks require a vestibule between the necessary to reduce the risk of forklifts driving off the. platform and refrigerated area The vestibule creates dock Figure 17. an air lock between the outside and the refrigerated. area Figure 14 which will minimize the inflow of, warm air A carefully designed refrigerated dock will. greatly reduce energy usage,2013 Nova Technology International. 6 All Rights Reserved,DOCK PLANNING STANDARDS,Concrete Posts Center Saw Tooth Angle. Chains Distance 15 30 45 60,12 ft 121 ft 106 ft 88 ft 67 ft.
13 ft 119 ft 105 ft 86 ft 66 ft,14 ft 118 ft 103 ft 85 ft 65 ft. 15 ft 116 ft 102 ft 84 ft 64 ft,16 ft 114 ft 101 ft 83 ft 63 ft. 17 ft 113 ft 99 ft 82 ft 63 ft,18 ft 112 ft 98 ft 81 ft 62 ft. Figure 17 19 ft 111 ft 97 ft 80 ft 62 ft, If smaller trucks will use the dock decrease apron. The Material Transfer Zone MTZ which acts as a bridge between the truck and warehouse is a dangerous place where safety must be the most important consideration Safety is often considered only after a serious accident has occurred on the dock To ensure the safety of dock attendants and product consider all potential problems that could

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