DIDACTIC TOOLKIT FOR THE DESIGN MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

Didactic Toolkit For The Design Management And Assessment-Free PDF

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Didactic Toolkit for the Design,Management and Assessment of. Resilient Farming Systems,Miguel A Altieri,Clara I Nicholls Estrada. Alejandro Henao Salazar,Ana C Galvis Mart nez,Third World Network. Didactic Toolkit for the Design Management and,Assessment of Resilient Farming Systems. is published by,Third World Network,131 Jalan Macalister.
10400 Penang, Sociedad Cient fica Latinoamericana de Agroecolog a SOCLA. 1442 A Walnut St 405,Berkeley California 94709, Red Iberoamericana de Agroecolog a para el Desarrollo de Sistemas Agr colas. Resilientes al Cambio Clim tico REDAGRES,1442 A Walnut St 405. Berkeley California 94709, Copyright Miguel A Altieri Clara I Nicholls Estrada Alejandro Henao Salazar. Ana C Galvis Mart nez and Paul Rog 2015,Printed by.
2 Solok Sungai Pinang 3,11600 Penang,ISBN 978 967 0747 10 1. What Is This Didactic Toolkit for 1,Some Basic Principles and Concepts 2. What are vulnerability and resiliency 2,What do we know about farms that are resilient 3. How does biodiversity help to enhance farm resiliency 5. What Types of Agroecological Practices Enhance Resiliency 6. Enhancing resilience at the landscape level 6,Increasing plant diversity in farms 8. Adding organic matter to soils 9,Managing soil cover 11.
Water harvesting 12,Methodologies to Assess Farm Resiliency 15. Understanding farmers perceptions of climate change 15. A diagnosis of the vulnerability of farms to extreme climatic events 23. Carmen del Viboral 29,Mixteca Alta 31,References 35. Annex 1 Questions to Assess Farmers Perceptions of Climate Change 38. About the Authors, Miguel A Altieri PhD is a Professor of Agroecology at the University of California Berkeley He is. the author of more than 250 journal papers and 20 books on agroecology. Clara I Nicholls Estrada PhD is a Lecturer in Sustainable Rural Development at the University. of California Berkeley She is President of the Latin American Scientific Society of Agroecology. Alejandro Henao Salazar is a biologist working at the Secretaria de Agricultura Antioquia. Colombia He is a PhD candidate in the agroecology doctoral programme at the University of. Ana C Galvis Mart nez MSc works at Food First in Oakland California and is a PhD candidate in. the agroecology doctoral programme at the University of Antioquia. Paul Rog is with the Center for Global Change Earth Observations at Michigan State University. WHAT IS THIS DIDACTIC TOOLKIT FOR, The main objective of this methodological toolkit is to aid farmers and technicians to. better understand the principles and or mechanisms that underlie the resiliency or. lack thereof of farming systems and how agroecological management can enhance the. capacity of farmers to adapt to unpredictable and severe climatic variability. The tool allows users to better clarify their perceptions of climate change use indicators. to assess the vulnerability of their farms and improve their ecological resiliency via. agroecological interventions that enhance the adaptive response capacity of farmers. The toolkit can be used for, a Conducting a rapid agroecological assessment of farms and their level of.
vulnerability, b Initiating a process of agroecological conversion to enhance the response capacity. of farmers and thus improve the resiliency of their farming systems. c Monitoring the trajectory of the farms under agroecological conversion after. climatic events such as hurricanes rain storms and or drought. SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS, What Are Vulnerability Vulnerability is determined by the bio. physical features of the farm and the, And Resiliency socio economic conditions of farmers that. enhance or reduce the exposure to the,Resilience is defined as the ability of a threat. farming system to absorb disturbances and, adapt to stress and change while retaining Threat is the climatic event s intensity.
its productive structure and ability to yield frequency duration and level of impact. Thus a resilient agroecosystem would i e yield losses due to storm or drought. be capable of providing food production, when challenged by severe drought or by Response capacity is the ability or lack. excess rainfall Conversely vulnerability thereof of the farming systems and the. can be defined as the possibility of loss farmers to resist and recover from the. of biodiversity soil water or productivity threat depending on the level of social. by an agroecosystem when confronted organization and the agroecological. with an external perturbation or shock features e g crop diversity of the farms. Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a, system is susceptible to and unable to cope In summary for an event to be considered. with adverse effects of climate variability a risk depends on whether in a particular. and denotes a state of susceptibility to region there is a community that is. harm from exposure to stresses associated vulnerable to it In order for the event to. with environmental change due to the become a threat there should be a high. absence of capacity to adapt Folke 2006 probability that it will occur in that region. and for the threat to be devastating will, When exposed to climate change the depend on the magnitude of the event and. resulting risk endured by a farm is the the level of vulnerability of the community. product between threat vulnerability and Such vulnerability can be reduced by. response capacity as described in Altieri et the response capacity determined by. al 2015 the agroecological features of the farms,and the management strategies used by. farmers to reduce climatic risks and to resist, Risk Vulnerability Threat and recover from such events Therefore.
adaptation refers to the adjustments made, Response Capacity by farmers to reduce risks The capacity of. farmers to adapt is based on the individual, Risk is understood as any natural phenom or collective reserves of human and social. enon drought hurricane flood etc that capital that include attributes such as. signifies a change in the environment in traditional knowledge and skills levels of. habited by a rural community, social organization and safety networks soil quality and cover etc and social. etc As observed in Figure 1 the level of traits of the family or community levels. vulnerability of a farm is determined by its of organization and networking food self. type of agroecological infrastructure level sufficiency etc The vulnerability can be. of landscape crop and genetic diversity reduced by the capacity of response of. Figure 1 Socio ecological features that determine the vulnerability and reactive capacity of farmers to. enhance the resiliency of their systems and communities to climatic variability. the farmers and their farms which in turn coffee systems have been shown to protect. determines their ability to resist events and crops from decreasing precipitation and. recover function and infrastructure reduced soil water availability because. the overstory tree cover is able to reduce, What Do We Know About Farms soil evaporation and increase soil water. infiltration Lin 2007,That Are Resilient,Intercropping enables farmers to produce.
There is increasing scientific evidence various crops simultaneously and minimize. suggesting that diversified farming systems risk Vandermeer 1989 Polycultures exhibit. such as agroforestry silvopastoral and greater yield stability and less productivity. polycultural systems comprise complex declines during a drought than in the case. agroecosystems which are able to adapt of monocultures Natarajan and Willey. and resist the effects of climate change 1986 examined the effect of drought. Agroforestry farms exhibiting high degrees on enhanced yields with polycultures by. of plant diversity have been shown to manipulating water stress on intercrops of. buffer crops from large fluctuations in sorghum and peanut millet and peanut. temperature thereby keeping the crop and sorghum and millet All the intercrops. closer to its optimum conditions Shaded over yielded consistently at five levels of. The milpa corn beans in MesoAmerica exhibits yield stability in the midst of climatic variability. moisture availability ranging from 297 to a canopy of large trees has over the last. 584 mm of water applied over the cropping 18 years increased stocking rates to 4 3. season Quite interestingly the rate of dairy cows per hectare and milk production. over yielding actually increased with water by 130 and completely eliminated the. stress such that the relative differences in use of chemical fertilizers 2009 was the. productivity between monocultures and driest year in El Hatico s 40 year record. polycultures became more accentuated with precipitation having dropped by 44. as stress increased Natarajan and Willey compared to the historical average Despite. 1986 a reduction of 25 in pasture biomass,the fodder production of trees and shrubs. Intensive silvopastoral systems ISS are remained constant throughout the year. a sustainable form of agroforestry for neutralizing the negative effects of drought. livestock production that combines fodder on the whole system In response to the. shrubs planted at high densities trees extreme weather the farm had to adjust. and palms and improved pastures High its stocking rates and increase energy. stocking and the natural production of milk supplementation In spite of this the farm s. and meat in these systems are achieved milk production for 2009 was the highest. through rotational grazing with electric on record with a surprising 10 increase. fencing and a permanent supply of water compared to the previous four years. for the cattle In the El Hatico farm located Meanwhile farmers in other parts of the. in the Valle del Cauca Colombia a five country reported severe animal weight loss. story ISS composed of a layer of grasses and high mortality rates due to starvation. leucaena shrubs medium sized trees and and thirst The productive performance. of El Hatico during the exceptionally How Does Biodiversity Help To. hot and dry period of El Nino Southern, Oscillation illustrates the huge potential Enhance Farm Resiliency. of ISS as a sustainable intensification, strategy for climate change adaptation and In any farm the level of existing biodiversity. mitigation Murgueitio et al 2011 The can make the difference between the. combined benefits of water regulation system being stressed or resilient when. favorable microclimate biodiversity and confronting a biotic or abiotic perturbation. carbon stocks in the above described In all agroecosystems a diversity of. diversified farming systems provide not organisms is required for ecosystem. only environmental goods and services for function and to provide environmental. producers but also greater resilience to services Altieri and Nicholls 2004 When. climate change agroecosystems are simplified whole. functional groups of species are removed,shifting the balance of the system from a. desired to a less desired state and affecting,their capacity to respond to changes and.
to generate ecosystem services Folke,2006 Two categories of diversity can be. distinguished in agroecosytems functional, Colombian intensive silvopastoral systems with an overstory of trees and shrubs are more resilient than. monoculture pastures allowing for continual fodder availability for cows which in turn maintain a stable. level of milk production despite low rainfall, and response diversity Functional diversity and degrees of shocks Cabell and Oelofse. refers to the variety of organisms and the 2012 Swiderska et al 2011 found. ecosystem services they provide for the that maintenance of diverse traditional. system to continue performing Loreau et crop varieties maize potatoes rice was. al 2001 Response diversity is the diversity essential for adaptation and survival by. of responses to environmental change poor farmers in China Bolivia and Kenya. among species that contribute to the same Even when planted alongside modern. ecosystem function An agroecosystem that crops traditional crop varieties are still. contains a high degree of response diversity conserved providing a contingency when. will be more resilient against various types conditions are not favorable. What Types Of Agroecological Practices,Enhance Resiliency. Enhancing resilience at the around farms can yield several ecological. services for farmers For example forest, landscape level fragments adjacent to agricultural land.
uses increase and stabilize pollination and, In agroecology the diversification of biocontrol services by harboring beneficial. farming systems is an important resilience insects Bianchi et al 2006 Agricultural. strategy for farmers Diversification of nutrients and sediment can be managed. agricultural systems can occur in many with soil conservation practices to protect. forms genetic variety species structural downstream fisheries. and scales within crop within field and at, the landscape level giving farmers a wide There is accumulating evidence that the. variety of options and combinations for expansion of agriculture at the expense. the implementation of this strategy At a of natural habitats in combination with. landscape level diversification may occur high agrochemical inputs in crop fields. by integrating multiple production systems are the primary causes for the rapid. Didactic Toolkit for the Design Management and Assessment of Resilient Farming Systems Miguel A Altieri Clara I Nicholls Estrada Alejandro Henao Salazar

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