Davis s Comprehensive Handbook of Laboratory

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00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page i,Davis s Comprehensive. Handbook of Laboratory,and Diagnostic Tests,with Nursing Implications. 00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page ii,This page left intentionally blank. 00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page iii,Davis s Comprehensive. Handbook of Laboratory,and Diagnostic Tests,with Nursing.
Implications,Second Edition,Anne M Van Leeuwen MA BS MT ASCP. Todd R Kranpitz MS BS ARRT R N,NM NMTCB ASCP N,Lynette S Smith FNP BC MSN RN MLT ASCP. F A DAVIS COMPANY PHILADELPHIA,00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page iv. F A Davis Company,1915 Arch Street,Philadelphia PA 19103. www fadavis com,Copyright 2006 by F A Davis Company.
All rights reserved This book is protected by copyright No part of it may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical. photocopying recording or otherwise without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America, Last digit indicates print number 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Acquisitions Editor Lisa B Deitch,Production Manager Robert C Butler. As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research. recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes The authors and publisher have. done everything possible to make this book accurate up to date and in accord with accepted. standards at the time of publication The authors editors and publisher are not responsible for. errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book and make no warranty. expressed or implied in regard to the contents of the book Any practice described in this. book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in. regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation The reader is advised. always to check product information package inserts for changes and new information. regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug Caution is especially. urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Van Leeuwen Anne M, Davis s comprehensive handbook of laboratory and diagnostic tests with nursing implications. Anne M Van Leeuwen Todd R Kranpitz Lynette Smith 2nd ed. Rev ed of Davis s comprehensive handbook of laboratory and diagnostic tests Zoanne. Burgess Schnell Anne M Van Leeuwen Todd R Kranpitz c2003. Includes bibliographical references and index,ISBN 0 8036 1464 0. 1 Diagnosis Laboratory Handbooks manuals etc 2 Nursing Handbooks manuals etc. DNLM 1 Laboratory Techniques and Procedures Handbooks 2 Laboratory Techniques. and Procedures Nurses Instruction 3 Nursing Diagnosis methods 4 Diagnostic. Techniques and Procedures Handbooks 5 Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures Nurses. Instruction QY 39 V217d 2006 I Title Comprehensive handbook of laboratory and diag. nostic tests II Kranpitz Todd R III Smith Lynette IV Schnell Zoanne Burgess Davis s. comprehensive handbook of laboratory and diagnostic tests V Title. RB38 2 S37 2006,616 07 5 dc22,2005053757, Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use or the internal or personal.
use of specific clients is granted by F A Davis Company for users registered with the. Copyright Clearance Center CCC Transactional Reporting Service provided that the fee. of 10 per copy is paid directly to CCC 222 Rosewood Drive Danvers MA 01923 For. those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC a separate system of. payment has been arranged The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is. 8036 1042 03 0 10,00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page v. Aminolevulinic Acid v,DEDICATION, nspiration springs from Passion Passion is born from unconstrained love commit. ment and a vision no one else can own Thank you Lynda Mom Dad Adele Gram. Regina Mark Helen Ricky Todd Kent Cathy JT Bev Cathy Ev Ruth and. Lois I am truly blessed by your friendship love and support A huge hug for my daugh. ters Sarah and Margaret I love you very much To my puppies Maggie and Tayor for. their endless and unconditional love With appreciation and in recognition of Stacey for her. assistance with this edition My thanks and welcome to Lynette for her contributions to this. second edition I look forward to our continued collaboration Very special thanks to Lisa. Deitch Acquisitions Editor for her friendship excellent direction and unwavering encour. Anne M Van Leeuwen MA BS MT ASCP,Chief Technologist. Highlands Regional Medical Center,Sebring Florida, To my wife Mindy for her never ending support and my son Jake for his demonstration. of commitment to a goal I could not have done this book without them To my coauthors. for their dedication endless commitment and organizational skills To Lisa Deitch for her. continued faith in us and support,Todd R Kranpitz MS BS ARRT R N NM NMTCB ASCP N.
Director of Imaging Services,King s Daughters Medical Center. Ashland Kentucky, To my husband Steve whose unconditional love support and encouragement holds me. steadfast in all my endeavors To my sons Eric and Michael for their wisdom and humor. beyond their ages you rock my world To Anne Todd and Lisa humble thanks for taking. this novice writer under your wings and believing in what I had to offer for this edition I. look forward to future editions with this great team And lastly I wish to thank Dr Mary. Bennett for her years of friendship and look forward to our continual mentoring of minds. in years to come,Lynette S Smith FNP BC MSN RN MLT ASCP. Family Nurse Practitioner,Office of Lynette Smith FNP. Clinton Indiana,Adjunct Faculty Family Nurse Practitioner Program.
College of Nursing Indiana State University,Terre Haute Indiana. 00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page vi,This page left intentionally blank. 00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page vii,Aminolevulinic Acid vii. ABOUT THIS BOOK, aboratory and diagnostic studies are essential components of a complete patient. assessment Examined in conjunction with an individual s history and physical exam. ination laboratory and diagnostic data provide clues about health status Nurses. are increasingly expected to integrate an understanding of laboratory and diagnostic proce. dures and expected outcomes in assessment planning implementation and evaluation of. nursing care The data help develop and support nursing diagnoses interventions and. Nurses may interface with laboratory and diagnostic testing on several levels. Interacting with patients and families of patients undergoing diagnostic tests. or procedures and providing pretest intratest and post test information and. Maintaining quality control to prevent or eliminate problems that may inter. fere with the accuracy and reliability of test results. Ensuring completion of testing in a timely and accurate manner. Collaborating with other health care professionals in interpreting findings as. they relate to planning and implementing total patient care. Communicating significant alterations in test outcomes to other appropriate. health care team members,Coordinating interdisciplinary efforts.
Whether the nurse s role at each level is direct or indirect the underlying responsi. bility to the patient family and community remains the same. This book is a reference for nurses nursing students and other health care profes. sionals It is useful as a clinical tool as well as a supportive text to supplement clinical. courses It guides the nurse in planning what needs to be assessed monitored treated. and taught regarding pretest requirements intratest procedures and post test care It. can be used by nursing students at all levels as a textbook in theory classes integrating. laboratory and diagnostic data as one aspect of nursing care by practicing nurses to. update information and in clinical settings as a quick reference Designed for use in. academic and clinical settings Davis s Comprehensive Handbook of Laboratory and. Diagnostic Procedures with Nursing Implications provides the user with a comprehen. sive reference that allows easy access to information about laboratory and diagnostic. tests and procedures A general overview of how all the tests and procedures included. in this book relate to body systems can be found in tables at the end of the mono. 00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page viii,viii About This Book. graphs All tests and procedures are listed in alphabetical order by their complete. name allowing the user to locate information quickly without having to place tests in. a specific category or body system Each monograph is presented in a consistent format. for easy identification of specific information at a glance The following information. is provided for each laboratory and diagnostic test. Test Name for each monograph is given as a commonly used designation and. all test monographs in the book are organized in alphabetical order by name. Synonyms Acronyms for each test are listed where appropriate. Specimen Type includes the amount of specimen usually collected and where. appropriate the type of collection tube or container commonly recom. mended Specimen requirements vary from laboratory to laboratory The. amount of specimen collected is usually more than what is minimally. required so that additional specimen is available if needed for repeat testing. quality control failure dilutions or confirmation of unexpected results In. the case of diagnostic tests the type of test procedure e g nuclear medicine. x ray is given, Reference Values for each monograph include age specific and gender specific. variations when indicated It is important to give consideration to the. normal variation of laboratory values over the life span and across cultures. sometimes what might be considered an abnormal value in one circumstance. is actually what is expected in another Reference values for laboratory tests. are given in conventional and standard international SI units The factor. used to convert conventional to SI units is also given Because laboratory. values can vary by method each laboratory reference range is listed along. with the associated methodology, Description Rationale of the study s purpose and insight into how and why. the test results can affect health are included, Indications are a list of what the test is used for in terms of assessment evalu. ation monitoring screening identifying or assisting in the diagnosis of a. clinical condition, Results present a list of conditions in which values may be increased or.
decreased and in some cases an explanation of variations that may be. encountered, Critical Values or findings that may be life threatening or for which particu. lar concern may be indicated are given along with age span considerations. where applicable This section also includes signs and symptoms associated. with a critical value as well as possible nursing interventions. Interfering Factors are substances or circumstances that may influence the. results of the test rendering the results invalid or unreliable Knowledge of. interfering factors is an important aspect of quality assurance and includes. pharmaceuticals foods natural and additive therapies timing of test in rela. tion to other tests or procedures collection site handling of specimen and. underlying patient conditions, Nursing Implications and Procedure provides an outline of pretest intratest. and post test concerns,Pretest section addresses the need to. 00Van Leewan F FM 12 15 05 8 33 PM Page ix,About This Book ix. Obtain pertinent clinical laboratory dietary and therapeutic history of. the patient especially as it pertains to comparison of previous test. results preparation for the test and identification of potentially interfer. ing factors, Understand the interrelationship between various body systems In this.
section the reader is informed of the body systems that may be involved. in the study of interest and is referred to system tables where related. studies are alphabetically cross referenced, Explain the requirements and restrictions related to the procedure as well. as what to expect provide the education necessary for the patient to be. properly informed, Anticipate and allay patient concerns or anxieties. Provide for patient safety, Intratest section can be used in a quality control assessment by the nurse or as. a guide to the nurse who may be called on to participate in specimen collec. tion or perform preparatory procedures and gives, Specific directions for specimen collection and test performance. Important information such as patient sensation and expected duration. of the procedure,Precautions to be taken by the nurse and patient.
Post test section provides guidelines regarding, Specific monitoring and therapeutic measures that should be performed. after the procedure e g maintaining bed rest obtaining vital signs to. compare with baseline values signs and symptoms of complications. Specific instructions for the patient and family such as when to resume. usual diet medications and activity, General nutritional guidelines related to excess or deficit as well as. common food sources for dietary replacement, Indications for interventions from public health representatives or for. academic and clinical settings Davis s Comprehensive Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures with Nursing Implicationsprovides the user with a comprehen sive reference that allows easy access to information about laboratory and diagnostic tests and procedures A general overview of how all the tests and procedures included in this book relate to body systems can be found in

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