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http www unaab edu ng,READING LIST, 1 Roberts S J Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases Ithaca New York. Edwards Brothers 1971, 2 Nalbandov A V Reproductive Physiology of Mammals and Birds San. Francisco W H Freeman and Company 1976, 3 Cole H H and Cupps P T Reproduction in Domestic Animals New York. Academic Press 1977, 4 Peters A R and Ball P J H Reproduction in Cattle Massachusetts Blackwell. Science 1995, 5 Root Kustritz M V Small Animal Theriogenology Missouri Elsevier Science.
6 Youngquist R S and Threlfall W R Current Therapy in Large Animal. Theriogenology Missouri Saunders Elsevier 2007,LECTURE NOTES. INTRODUCTION TO THERIOGENOLOGY, Of all the mammalian bodily systems reproduction plays a vital role in that it ensures. perpetuation of the mammalian species through procreation In the domestic livestock. species reproduction is wider in scope than actually imagined thus the term. theriogenology is often used to describe the complexity involved. Theriogenology is a reproductive specialty practice providing expertise in animal. reproduction The practice offers routine management for the various animal species as. well as specialized diagnostic and advanced reproductive techniques in these species. Theriogenology is a term derived from the following Greek words. Therion beast,Genan to produce,Logus study of, Thus Theriogenology can be defined as that branch of Veterinary Medicine which deals. with reproduction including the physiology and pathology of male and female. http www unaab edu ng, reproductive systems and the clinical practice of veterinary obstetrics gynaecology and. semenology, Veterinary Gynaecology that branch of medicine which treats diseases of the genital.
tract in the female, Veterinary Obstetrics It is that branch of veterinary science which deals with the. necessary or advisable aid during the act of parturition in all animals coming under the. purview of the veterinarian It is the art of managing cases of animal birth It is that. branch of surgery which deals with the management of pregnancy labour and. puerperium the period from the end of the 3rd stage of labour till completion of uterine. involution, Theriogenology has expanded to include all of veterinary reproduction including both. male and female reproductive medicine surgery pathology and semenology It. encompasses companion animals domestic livestock exotic animals zoo wildlife and all. avian species, REVIEW OF THE ANATOMY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND. THE PELVIS AND PELVIMETRY, The pelvis is the smallest and most posterior of the three great cavities of the trunk and is. of considerable importance to the obstetrician on account of its rigid wall and the. resulting resistance which it presents to the passage of the fetus as a result of any. variation from the normal, The attachment of the vulva to the pelvis constitutes the only fixed base of support for the.
vagina cervix and the uterus This attachment enables the uterus at the time of. parturition to contract longitudinally in a manner which aids in dilating the birth canal. and forcing the foetus towards the vulva, Pathologically the pelvis is of limited interest in veterinary obstetrics as compared with. human obstetrics The quadrupedal position of the domestic animal largely relieves the. pelvis of weight bearing thus preventing deformities from pressure upon diseased pelvic. bones and as such renders pelvic deformities comparatively rare. http www unaab edu ng, The pelvis is formed by both bony and ligamentous structures. The bony pelvis is bounded at the sides and below by the two coxae and above by the. sacrum and first three coccygeal vertebrae, A The os coxae each consists of an ilium ischium and pubis These paired bones form. the chief boundary of the pelvis and the framework of the uppermost segment of the. hindlimbs which it connects with the spine, 1 The ilium is the largest portion of the os coxarum and is irregularly triangular in shape. The ilia and acetabular part of the ischia form the lateral walls of the pelvis The broad. flat part of the ilium is called the wing and the external portion of the wing is called the. tuber coxae hip bone or hook bone The medial or pelvic surface of the ilia is smooth and. is grooved for the obturator vessels and nerve, 2 The ischium is next in size to the ilium and forms the caudal part of the floor of the.
pelvis The caudal lateral portion of the ischium is commonly referred to as the pin bone. or tuber ischii In the pig the tuber ischii is mostly cartilaginous in nature and the. symphysis does not undergo complete ankylosis until the animal is 6 to 7 years of age. The anterior border of the ischium forms the posterior boundary of the obturator foramen. 3 The pubis is the smallest of the three bones of the os coxae and forms the cranial. portion of the floor of the pelvis The dorsal or pelvic surface is smooth and usually. concave in females while in males it may be convex Occasionally in young heifers a. sharp tuberosity projecting into the pelvic canal is present on the cranial portion of the. pubic symphysis This prominence may rarely cause contusion or even laceration of the. birth canal during difficult birth The cranial medial border of the pubic bone provides. attachment for the prepubic tendon while the caudal border forms the cranial boundary. for the obturator foramen, The acetabulum is formed by fusion of the ilium ischium and pubis These bones form a. cotyloid cavity in which the head of the femur lodges. The round ligament is a short strong band between the head of the femur and the. acetabulum, B The Sacrum Consists of a series of five fused vertebra in the horse and ruminants. four in the pig and three in carnivora It is somewhat triangular in form with the base. http www unaab edu ng, articulating anteriorly with the last lumbar vertebra and caudally with the first coccygeal. vertebra with which it may some time fuse in old cows horses and pigs. The ventral or inferior surface of the sacrum is smooth and concave and forms the largest. portion of the roof of the pelvis, C The ligamentous portion of the pelvis consists of. i The dorsal and lateral sacro iliac ligaments are attached to the medial wing of the. ilium and the lateral portion of the sacrum and summits of the sacral spines. ii The sacro sciatic ligament completes the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity behind and. between the sacrum and coxae This ligament extends from the lateral border of the. sacrum and the transverse processes of the first two coccygeal vertebrae to the ischiatic. spine and tuber ischii,Functions of the Sacro Sciatic Ligaments.
1 They furnish attachments for the vulva and gluteal muscles. 2 They prevent the posterior portion of the pelvis or ischia from rescinding from the. 3 They form a strong flexible and yielding wall to the pelvic cavity. 4 Under pressure of parturition they yield sufficiently to allow the constricted pelvic. outlet to equal in dimensions the larger bony inlet of the pelvis. D The prepubic tendon is essentially the tendon of insertion of the two rectii abdominis. muscles but also furnishes attachment for the external and internal obliques the gracillis. and pectini muscles It is attached to the anterior borders of the pubic bones The. prepubic tendon prevents the pubis and ischium from passing upwards and backwards. toward the sacrum when the body weight is placed upon the coxo femoral articulation. The prepubic tendon is important in herbivora especially in the mare where it. sometimes rupture during advanced pregnancy resulting in a hernia of the gravid uterus. and a destruction of the normal relationship of the pelvis to the spinal column. Rupture of the prepubic tendon is not too common in the cow Herniation of the gravid. uterus in the bovine are most commonly due to rupture of the abdominal muscles. http www unaab edu ng,Articulation of the Pelvis,There are five 5 pelvic articulations. 1 Sacro lumbar,3 Ischio pubic symphysis,2 Right sacro iliac. 4 Sacro coccygeal,5 Left sacro iliac, These articulations are important in obstetrics because they become flexible at the time of. parturition, The pelvic cavity in the domestic animals is somewhat conically shaped with the base of. the cone located cranially,The pelvic inlet is bounded by the following.
1 Dorsally the base of the sacrum,2 Ventrally the pelvic brim. 3 Laterally the iliopectineal line, In all species the pelvic inlet is roughly oval in shape with the sacro pubic diameter. being the largest The sow and cow have the most elliptical pelvic inlets while the mare. and some dogs have inlets that are nearly rounded,The pelvic outlet is bounded by. 1 The sacrum and first three coccygeal vertebrae dorsally. 2 The ischial arch ventrally, 3 The posterior border of the sacro sciatic ligament laterally. The caudal portion of the pelvic cavity is smaller in diameter than the cranial portion. however it is capable of dilating at the time of parturition to allow the passage of the. foetus This ability to dilate is brought about by the relaxation of the pelvic ligaments. especially the sacro sciatic ligament, The pelvis of the male domestic animal differs from the female in a number of definite.
1 The diameter of the pelvic inlet is usually smaller in the male than in the female. 2 The bones in males are thicker and heavier than in females. http www unaab edu ng,3 The ischial arch is usually narrower in males. 4 The obturator foramen is smaller in males, 5 The cranial floor of the pelvis is likely to be convex in the male while in the female it. is usually concave, The coxo femoral articulation or hip joint is a ball and socket joint with the head of the. femur fitting into the acetabular fossa which is made deeper by the cotyloid ligament a. fibrous band circling the acetabular fossa The transverse ligament is that portion of the. cotyloid ligament which crosses the acetabular notch The round ligament extends from. the subpubic groove in the acetabulum to the head of the femur and is intra articular In. occasional cases this ligament may be small or absent The accessory ligament found. only in the horse extends from the prepubic tendon to the head of the femur. A very common condition encountered in the cow is coxo femoral luxation or as it is. commonly called dislocation of the hip The increase in the frequency of this condition. in the bovine is due to,1 Shallowness of the acetabulum. 2 Lack of bulky muscles around the joint,3 The small or occasionally absent round ligament.
4 Absence of the accessory ligament, 5 Excessive relaxation of the pelvic ligaments in advanced pregnancy and in animals. with cystic ovaries, 6 The large size and weight of the abdomen in advanced pregnancy and in dropsy. conditions of the foetal membranes e g hydrops allantois. 7 The awkward gait,PELVIMETRY, The term pelvimetry refers to the measurement of the dimensions of the pelvic cavity In. human obstetrics pelvimetry has been a routine part of the prenatal management of the. expectant mother to determine ease of delivery This procedure was given very little. attention in veterinary obstetrics until the last decade At the present time there is a great. deal of interest in pelvimetry and the information obtained is being utilized to reduce the. incidence of dystocia in heifers of beef breed,http www unaab edu ng. Studies carried out in Nebraska Montana and Colorado have disclosed that the major. cause of dystocia in 2 year old heifers of beef breeds is a disproportionately large calf at. birth in relation to the dam s birth canal pelvic size It was noted that heifers with a. small pelvic area had twice the incidence of dystocia as those with above average pelvic. area 49 vs 24 It was also noted that pelvic area is moderately to highly heritable. above 50 and can be increased in a herd through selection of breeding heifers and. breeding bulls, The ideal time for predicting dystocia in heifers is before they are bred as yearlings.
Research has shown that yearling pelvic size is the most reliable yearling factor. indicating potential difficulty since pelvic area growth was linear from 9 to 24 months of. age in heifers calving at 2 years of age, Studies on pelvic area birth weight ratio has shown that a 600 pound yearling heifer with. a pelvic area of 140 sq cm can usually deliver a 70 pound calf without major difficulty as. a 2 year old This pelvic area to birth weight ratio is 2 to 1 As the ratio decreases the. degree of calving difficulty increases and a caesarean section would generally be required. with a pelvic area of 120 sq cm and a calf birth weight of 80 pounds which yields a ratio. of 1 5 to 1, Yearling pelvic areas heifer weight 550 700 lbs can be divided by a factor of 2 to. estimate the calf birth weight a heifer can deliver as a 2 year old If pelvic measurements. are taken at the time of pregnancy examination 18 months old weight 700 850 lbs a. factor of 2 5 can be used to estimate calf birth weight A factor of 3 1 can be used on. pelvic areas taken before calving 2 year old weight 800 to 950 pounds If yearling. heifers weigh 750 to 850 pounds a factor of 2 25 should be used These factors appear to. be good indicators of dystocia with an accuracy of about 80 Average pelvic area. growth has been calculated to be 0 27 sq cm day from yearling to 2 year old heifers. reproductive systems and the clinical practice of veterinary obstetrics gynaecology and semenology Veterinary Gynaecology that branch of medicine which treats diseases of the genital tract in the female Veterinary Obstetrics It is that branch of veterinary science which deals with the necessary or advisable aid during the act of parturition in all animals coming under the purview of the

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