Correlation between Leisure Activity Time and Life

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2 Occupational Therapy International, leisure activities that can bring improvements in their physi is shown that the more older adults participated in leisure. cal psychological and social health 10 activities and were satis ed with them the higher their life. Older adults should maintain a good balance in how they satisfaction 21 Most of the studies analyzed the frequency. spend their time for various activities including self care lei of leisure activities by type or the subjective level of participa. sure rest and social participation in order to improve their tion using a Likert scale However these research results have. life satisfaction and health 11 As the elderly population is limitations in explaining precisely the relationship between. increasing due to global demographic changes it has become increases in leisure activities and increases in the QoL and life. important to investigate older adults time usage that is how satisfaction in the elderly of South Korea Previous studies. they spend their days in order to nd ways to improve their about life satisfaction in South Korea have focused on deter. QoL 12 mining sociological and demographic variables a ecting. Occupational therapists OTs are experts in extending QoL and there have been few studies analyzing the usage. concern and encouraging participation by older adults in lei of leisure activity time as a variable In addition most of. sure activities one of the elds of occupational therapy OT the previous studies have utilized limited sampling methods. 4 These global demographic changes will increase the therefore their results were too limited to apply generally to. number of older adults among OT clients and consequently the South Korean elderly population. the contribution of OT to the lives of older adults will grow Even though South Korea entered the ranks of aged soci. more and more important In order for OTs to improve QoL eties later than Europe or Japan it is expected that by 2050. for older adults it is very important to investigate older South Korea may become the most superaged society as. adults time usage that is how they spend their days 12 the portion of the population over 65 will increase dramati. If the status of older adults time usage can be e ectively cally 22 Therefore concern and interest regarding the. analyzed OTs will be able to suggest how older adults can comprehensive life satisfaction of older adults are likely to. participate actively in meaningful activities 1 As daily life increase This study investigated the correlation between. which is closely related to temporal ow proceeds in the current status of leisure activity time use and life satis. repeated cycles one statistical source that can show the faction of the healthy elderly in South Korea factors a ect. experiences and problems in daily living is time use survey ing them and the time usage of older adults as categorized. data 13 according to the eight occupation domains suggested by. The investigation of time usage is necessary to evaluate OTPF 3 OTPF 3rd Ed and the aims at providing OTs. the occupational balance that indicates how people sub with data so that they can help older adults who have di. jectively choose mandatory and nonmandatory activities culty in utilizing their time e ectively through time manage. depending on personal values 14 15 Time management ment intervention aimed at improving their life satisfaction. should be planned to provide an e ective balance of private and QoL. living work leisure and rest to improve satisfaction and. health 16 The study of 24 7 living time usage enables us. to investigate individual daily life and daily living within 2 Method. the social structure that surrounds individuals In particular. 2 1 Collecting Data The 2014 Time Use Survey 2014TUS. such a temporally based approach is appropriate in dealing. used in this study was conducted by Statistics Korea. with older adults daily living habits which are di cult to. KOSTAT in order to provide basic data for determining. study through o cial and economic approaches 13 as e. the 24 hour daily living modes and QoL of South Koreans. cient time usage a ects people s successful pursuit of mean. establishing policies related to labor welfare and transporta. ingful activities and is an important criterion in deciding. tion and conducting studies A time use survey has been. living modes living aspects and QoL 17 In OT studies. made every 5 years since 1999 and this study used the raw. regarding the time usage of individual persons such as those. data collected in 2014 that measured South Koreans lifestyles. based on living time usage surveys are currently a primary. and QoL For the analysis in this study data regarding 9229. concern and interest 18, persons the portion of the population aged 65 and over. The Occupational Therapy Practice Framework Domain. was extracted from that of the 26 988 total subjects included. and Process OTPF published by the American Occupational. in KOSTAT s 2014 Time Use Survey, Therapy Association AOTA classi es various occupations. in which a person or group participates into eight categories. namely activities of daily living ADL instrumental activi 2 2 Overview of the Survey The 2014 Time Use Survey. ties of daily living IADL rest and sleep education work 2014TUS consists of a two day diary record with respon. play leisure and social participation which are referred to dents recording their primary activities and coactivities every. as occupation domains 19 For human beings occupa 10 minutes This analysis in this study included only the. tions are very critical elements and each time a person par respondents main activities The respondents lled out the. ticipates in an occupation an inevitable relation between time diary with a record of activities based on classi cations. occupation and time arises 20 of activities as of 2014 9 major classi cations 42 medium. Looking into the causal relationship between the partici classi cations and 138 minor classi cations covering their. pation of the elderly population of South Korean in leisure own activities as well as those of their companions the loca. activities and their life satisfaction mediated by leisure satis tion of the activities and means of transportation involved. faction that can be found in previous relevant literature it making an entry every 10 minutes for two days 23. Occupational Therapy International 3, 2 3 Subjects for the Analysis The subjects for analysis were time for indoor activities and internet use was longer while. classi ed into a younger elderly group aged between 65 and in the case of those with no spouse the time for outdoor. 74 and an older elderly group aged 75 and over Recently activities was longer Table 1. as the life expectancy has increased attempts have been made In a review of di erences in time usage by the South. to subcategorize the age groups in studies on older adults Korean elderly population by age in occupation domains. Neugarten et al classi ed older adults into the younger including leisure and the seven domains other than educa. elderly under 75 and the older elderly at 75 and older tion that is activities of daily living ADL instrumental. 24 Compared to the younger elderly the older elderly activities of daily living IADL rest and sleep work play. are more dependent on others due to their decreasing ability leisure and social participation showed signi cant di er. to conduct their daily life activities independently and have ences p 0 001 The younger elderly group showed higher. more di culties in life due to the deaths of spouses and time usage in the domains of ADL IADL and work while. friends economic hardship deteriorating physical ability the older elderly group showed higher time usage in the. and health and an increase in grave experiences in life domains of rest and sleep play leisure and social participa. 25 The younger and the older elderly groups also di er tion Among the eight occupation domains leisure ranked. in their respective health situations which are a ected by highest in both the younger and the older elderly groups. activities of daily living family or social support and health followed by indoor activities Table 2 Figure 1. status Therefore when conducting studies and interven The analysis of time use by the South Korean elderly. tions related to them di erent approaches should be taken showed that as their use of time for leisure activities. for each group 26 increased their life satisfaction was higher and all controlled. variables except for economic activity status exerted signi. 2 4 Classi cations of Occupation Domains Time use measur cant in uences on life satisfaction The subjects showed. ing instruments vary depending on research goals therefore higher life satisfaction if they had spouses regular full time. activities were classi ed using a variety of methods For this jobs higher education and better health They had signi. study the subactivities included in the raw data of 2014 cantly longer time usage for outdoor activities indoor activ. Time Use Survey were categorized into a total of eight occu ities internet use and other leisure activities if they were. pation domains Appendix 1 27 Among these leisure male or had higher education nonworking status or resi. activities were classi ed into four subcategories namely dence in urban communal housing not in agricultural and. indoor activities outdoor activities internet use and other rural areas Table 3. leisure activities Table 1 The correlation between leisure time use and life satis. faction are shown in Table 4 and Figure 2 There is a gen. 2 5 Analysis Method and Main Variables For leisure time eral positive correlation between total time used for leisure. use in both elderly groups frequency analysis was conducted and life satisfaction For distribution of leisure time length. and in order to verify di erences in the amount of time spent according to a ve phase scale of life satisfaction level in. for leisure according to demographic characteristics cross the case of very high life satisfaction the average time. tabulation analysis 2 test and an F test using one way spent for leisure activities was 325 24 minutes while in. ANOVA were conducted In addition for the di erences in the case of very low life satisfaction the average daily time. time usage by occupation domain in the South Korean use for leisure activities was 291 28 minutes Outdoor. elderly by age Pearson s correlation coe cient test was con activities also showed a positive correlation with longer. ducted for the correlation between leisure time spent and life leisure time used for outdoor activities corresponding to. satisfaction analysis by averages was conducted and for the higher life satisfaction However in the case of indoor. correlation between leisure time spent types of leisure activ activities an inverse correlation was shown with longer. ities and life satisfaction ordinary least squares OLS anal time spent on indoor leisure activities corresponding to a. ysis was applied lower life satisfaction,3 Results 4 Discussion.
Among the total of 9228 subjects the younger elderly at age South Korean society has become a superaged society due to. 65 74 were 5436 58 91 and the older elderly over 75 a rapid increase in the number of older adults and concern. years were 3792 41 09 For leisure activities gender for their comprehensive QoL is increasing In this study. educational attainment level economic activity status rural the usage of time by older adults over eight occupation. residence status outdoor activities according to size of resi domains suggested by OTPF 3 was studied and correlations. dential area indoor activities internet use and other leisure between leisure activity time use and life satisfaction were. activities showed signi cant di erences p 0 05 Male investigated to identify the satisfaction factors related to use. older adults those with higher educational attainment those of leisure time and these factors were analyzed. with nonworking status those not living in rural areas and As a result of this study it has been shown that there are. those with urban communal residence showed a signi cantly di erences in leisure activities related to gender educational. longer time usage in outdoor activities indoor activities attainment marital status economic activities residency in. internet use and other leisure activities when their time spent agricultural area all a ecting outdoor activities according to. on leisure activities was analyzed For those with a spouse the size of residential area indoor activities internet use and. Table 1 Di erences of leisure activities in the Korean elderly according to demographic characteristics. Outdoor activities Indoor activities Internet use Other. Items Classi cations N t t t t, Younger elderly aged 65 74 5436 58 91 50 53 70 22 23 89 220 69 140 88 221 16 2 99 17 58 30 20 3 42 17 22 1 11. Age p 0 293, Older elderly aged 75 and over 3792 41 09 43 57 62 90 p 0 001 265 96 148 02 p 0 001 1 21 11 32 p 0 001 3 86 23 09. Male 3800 41 18 65 35 77 86 466 79 270 04 153 19 297 50 4 90 22 86 195 66 6 23 26 99 114 28. Female 5428 58 82 35 30 55 73 p 0 001 217 77 135 91 p 0 001 0 41 5 13 p 0 001 1 77 12 31 p 0 001. No educational attainment 1900 20 59 30 49 51 17 242 41 145 08 0 06 1 47 1 88 10 94. Elementary school 3498 37 91 40 77 62 34 237 25 142 64 0 25 5 08 2 07 11 57. Educational 111 35 4 70 121 30 41 27, Middle school 1500 16 25 51 24 68 72 230 01 144 82 1 75 13 76 3 11 15 13. Correlation between Leisure Activity Time and Life Satisfaction Based on KOSTAT Time Use Survey Data Yu Jin Cha Department of Occupational Therapy Semyung University Jecheon Republic of Korea Correspondence should be addressed to Yu Jin Cha occujin naver com Received 26 January 2018 Revised 13 June 2018 Accepted 25 July 2018 Published 9 August 2018 Academic Editor Claudia Hilton

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