Content Basic Horticulture II Book

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Horticulture has now become as lifeline of a large population in the world Even. in India we talk largely about horticulture Horticulture consists of several branches. but fruit cultivation Pomology vegetable cultivation Olericulture and flower. cultivation Floriculture are the major branches of horticulture We need fruits. vegetables and flowers in our daily life It is a known fact that we are the 2nd largest. producers of fruits and vegetables in the world However our productivity is dismally. low than several other countries of the world primarily because horticulture sectors. is encountered with several problems and to tackle these problems several. technologies have been standardized by the scientists. Considering the importance of horticulture CBSE has introduced foundation course. in horticulture entitled Basic Horticulture II for class XII students with the following. objectives, z This is a basic course on horticulture which will enlighten the students with. the new areas in horticulture and development of skills in different areas of. horticulture Major topics covered in this course are business opportunities. in horticulture principles of preservation and processing syrups and brines. urban horticulture weeds of horticultural crops and their management. methods of propagation of horticultural crops and planting material for. horticultural crops, z After studying this course students will get an idea about several. opportunities which horticulture can offer to them in their future life. Students can also think of joining this sector in their future life and can. develop themselves as successful entrepreneurs in the area of horticulture. z This course has been developed with the aim to sensitize the students about. nursery raising newer techniques of plant propagation so that they can. think of joining hands in nursery business or they can think of choosing. horticulture as one of the subjects for their higher studies. z This course has been designed to provide entry level job skills to the students. which will help to meet the human resource requirements in horticulture. Vineet Joshi IAS,Chairman CBSE,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, z Dr S Ayyappan Secretary DARE and Director General ICAR. Krishi Bhavan New Delhi 110 001,z Sh Vineet Joshi IAS Chairman CBSE Delhi 110 092. Special Acknowledgements, z Dr Rameshawar Singh Project Director DKMA Directorate of.
Knowledge Management in Agriculture Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan. Pusa New Delhi 110 012,z Dr Jagdeep Saxena Editor ICAR New Delhi 110 012. Convener Editor,Dr R R Sharma, z Dr R R Sharma Senior Scientist Division of Post Harvest. Technology IARI New Delhi 110 012, z Dr Suresh Kumar Upadhyay Professor Deptt Of Horticulture. CSKHPKV Palampur 176 062, z Dr Manish Srivastav Senior Scientist Division of Fruits Hort. Technology IARI New Delhi 110 012, z Dr Hare Krishna Senior Scientist CIAH Beechwal Bikaner.
Rajasthan 334 006,Editing Coordination, z Dr Biswajit Saha Associate Professor Programme Officer. Vocational Education CBSE Delhi 110 092, z Mr Dharampal Singh Former Director EDUSAT and Vocational. Education and Consultant Agriculture CBSE Delhi 110 092. z Ms Pragya Gaur Consultant Science CBSE Delhi 110 092. Basic Horticulture II,Student Handbook,Convener Editor. Dr R R Sharma,DR R R SHARMA,DR S K UPADHYAY,DR MANISH SRIVASTAV. DR HARE KRISHNA,Hkkjr dk lafo kku, ge Hkkjr ds yksx Hkkjr dks d 1 laiw kZ izHkqRo laiUu lektoknh iaFk fujis k yksdra kkRed x kjkT.
cukus ds fy rFkk mlds leLr ukxfjdksa dks,lkekftd vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd U k. fopkj vfHkO fDr fo okl keZ vkSj mikluk dh Lora krk. izfr Bk vkSj volj dh lerk izkIr djkus ds fy, rFkk mu lcesa O fDr dh xfjek vkSj 2 jk V dh drk vkSj v kaMrk lqfuf pr djus okyh ca kqrk c kus. n ladYi gksdj viuh bl lafo kku lHkk esa vkt rkjh k 26 uoacj 1949 bZ fefr ekxZ kh kZ kqDyk. lIreh laor nks gt kj Ng fo eh dks rn kjk bl lafo kku dks vaxhd r vf kfu fer vkSj vkRekfiZr. Hkkjr dk lafo kku,ukxfjdksa ds ewy drZO,vuqPNsn 51d. ewy drZO Hkkjr ds izR sd ukxfjd dk g drZO gksxk fd og. d lafo kku dk ikyu djs vkSj mlds vkn kksZa laLFkkvksa jk V otksa vkSj jk V xku dk vknj djs. k Lora krk ds fy gekjs jk V h vkanksyu dks izfs jr djus okys mPp vkn kksaZ dks n esa latks j ks vkSj mudk. x Hkkjr dh laizHkqrk drk vkSj v kaMrk dh j kk djs vkSj mls v kq k cuk j ks. k ns k dh j kk djs vkSj vkg oku fd tkus ij jk V dh lsok djs. M Hkkjr ds lHkh yksxksa esa lejlrk vkSj leku Hkzkr Ro dh Hkkouk dk fuekZ k djs tks keZ Hkk kk vkSj izns k. k oxZ ij vk kkfjr lHkh HksnHkko ls ijs gks slh izFkkvksa dk R kx djs tks efgykvksa ds lEeku ds. fo n k gks a, p gekjh lkekfld laLd fr dh xkSjo kkyh ijaijk dk egRo le s vkSj mldk ifjj k k djs. N izkd frd i kZoj k dh ftlds varxZr ou hy unh vkSj oU tho gSa j kk djs vkSj mldk lao kZu djs. rFkk izkf kek k ds izfr n kHkko j ks, t oSKkfud n f Vdks k ekuookn vkSj KkuktZu rFkk lq kkj dh Hkkouk dk fodkl djs.
lkoZtfud laifRr dks lqjf kr j ks vkSj fgalk ls nwj jgs. k O fDrxr vkSj lkewfgd xfrfof k ksa ds lHkh ks kksa esa mRd kZ dh vksj c us dk lrr iz kl djs ftlls jk V. fujarj c rs gq iz Ru vkSj miyfC k dh ubZ pkb ksa dks Nw lds vkSj. V fn ekrk firk k laj kd gS Ng o kZ ls pkSng o kZ rd dh vk q okys vius FkkfLFkfr ckyd k izfrikY. dks f k kk ds volj iznku djsA,THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA. WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a 1 SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST. SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens. JUSTICE social economic and political, LIBERTY of thought expression belief faith and worship. EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all. FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the 2 unity and integrity of the Nation. IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November 1949 do HEREBY ADOPT. ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS i CONSTITUTION, 1 Subs by the Constitution Forty Second Amendment Act 1976 sec 2 for Sovereign Democratic Republic. w e f 3 1 1977, 2 Subs by the Constitution Forty Second Amendment Act 1976 sec 2 for unity of the Nation w e f. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA,Chapter IV,A Fundamental Duties.
ARTICLE 51 A, Fundamental Duties It SHALL be the duty of every citizen of India. a to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions the National Flag and the. National Anthem, b to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom. c to uphold and protect the sovereignty unity and integrity of India. d to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. e To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India. transcending religious linguistic and regional or sectional diversities to renounce practices. derogatory to the dignity of women, f to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. g to protect and improve the natural environment including forests lakes rivers wild life and to. have compassion for living creatures, h to develop the scientific temper humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform. i to safeguard public property and to abjure violence. j to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation. constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. k a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be ward. between the age of six and fourteen years,BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN HORTICULTURE 1 5.
PRINCIPLES OF PRESERVATION AND VALUE ADDITION,OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE 6 20. SYRUPS BRINES AND FOOD COLOURS 21 30,URBAN HORTICULTURE 31 39. WEEDS OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND THEIR,MANAGEMENT 40 53. METHODS OF PROPAGATION OF HORTICULTURAL,CROPS 54 74. in horticulture entitled Basic Horticulture II Major topics covered in this course are business opportunities in horticulture principles of preservation and processing syrups and brines urban horticulture weeds of horticultural crops and their management methods of propagation of horticultural crops and planting material for horticultural crops z After studying this course

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