Connecting Canada a History of the Railway through Rogers

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Table of Content,1 0 Introduction 3,2 0 Study Area and Data 3. 3 0 Methods 4,4 0 Historical Themes and Maps 7,4 1 Expeditions 7. Figure 2 Finding the Pass Exploration Routes from 1865 1882 9. 4 2 Community 10,Figure 3 Rogers Pass Community 1909 13. 4 3 Challenges to Operation of the Railway through Rogers Pass 14. Figure 4 Avalanche Occurrences in Rogers Pass 1885 1910 17. 5 0 Discussion and conclusion 18,5 1 Mapping Purpose and Difficulties 18. 5 2 Historical Insights Community 19, 5 3 Historical Insights Reasons and Consequences of building the Railway through.
Rogers Pass 19,6 0 Acknowledgements 21,7 0 References 22. Appendix A Time line of avalanches occurring in Rogers Pass 1885 1912 as found by this. research 23,Appendix B Proportional Symbol Scale Formula 24. 1 0 Introduction, The construction of a transcontinental railway became of crucial importance to the. Government of Canada in the late nineteenth century Anon 1968 The area within the Selkirk. Mountain Range was highlighted as the ideal location for Canadian Pacific Railway s CPR rail. route for reasons including securing sovereignty within South eastern British Columbia and. profiting from the picturesque scenery as a draw for tourism McDonald 1997 However the. Roger Pass region was the most formidable barrier the CPR would face From early expeditions. to locate a Pass through the construction and operation phase ending in 1916 the CPR dealt. with numerous challenges within the mountainous avalanche riddled area Woods 1983. This study focused on the time period between 1865 the year of the first expedition. into the pass and 1916 the year the Connaught Tunnel was completed and the above ground. railway was abandoned Woods 1983 Three important themes of this time period were. discussed expeditions into the region in search of a pass the communities established during. railway construction and operation and the challenges the CPR faced while operating through. Rogers Pass These themes were further illustrated through the creation of three maps The. aim of this research and mapping exercise was to provide a greater understanding of the. Rogers Pass area and its importance in Canadian history and hopefully illuminate the reader as. to the reasons and consequences of the decision to build the railroad through Rogers Pass. 2 0 Study Area and Data, This study focused on the area of the CPR rail line between the present day town of. Revelstoke in the west and the junction of the Beaver and the Columbia Rivers to the east. including Rogers Pass Rogers Pass is a narrow valley situated within the Selkirk Mountain. Range located within Glacier National Park It is renowned for its steep mountain terrain. picturesque scenery and heavy snow fall highest annual snowfall in Canada 12 metres 40 feet. Parks Canada 2009 Rogers Pass summit at 1 330 m in elevation is located between. Revelstoke 480 m and Golden 800m in the south eastern corner of British Columbia Parks. Canada 2009, The data used to complete this study and create maps was collected from a variety of.
different sources electronic web based and print Print sources include Parks Canada Downs. 1968 McDonald 1997 and Woods 1983 The web based sources were gathered from. GeoBase and GoogleEarth The datasets from GeoBase were in vector format projected in. Lambert Conformal Conic and GRS 1980 coordinate system Datasets retrieved from GeoBase. included a hydrological network dataset a geographic names dataset and ortho photos. GeoBase 2010 Spot satellite imagery and a railway layer were gathered from GoogleEarth. Snowshed coordinates were supplied by Parks Canada Reisenleiter Zielinski 1993 A. historical CPR plan of Rogers Pass and an associated spatial referencing point were provided by. Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks, Figure 1 Location of Rogers Pass is represented by the red star. 3 0 Methods, Maps displaying the three important historical themes discussed in this study were. created The map themes were expeditions into the pass the community life in the Pass and. avalanche occurrences The following maps illustrate and emphasize these themes. 1 Finding the Pass Exploration Routes from 1865 1882. 2 Avalanche Occurrences in Rogers Pass 1885 1910,3 Rogers Pass Community 1909. Data was gathered from multiple sources and in many forms as discussed in the Study. Area and Data section The sources primarily used to make the maps were written historical. accounts and spatial data Two software programs were used for map creation ArcGIS and. CorelDraw ArcGIS was used to create edit spatially align and provide scale for the data and. CorelDraw graphics software was used for cartographic purposes All maps were made using a. Lambert Conformal Conic projection and the GRS 1980 coordinate system The methods used. to create each individual map are discussed below, Finding the Pass Exploration Routes from 1865 1882. To display the approximate routes taken by the three men who had a hand in. discovering Rogers pass a location map was generated Written accounts by Downs 1968 and. Woods 1983 were the main sources used to map the expeditions Ortho photos and a. hydrology dataset from GeoBase were used as base layers and to trace the routes in ArcGIS. The expedition routes and major rivers were then exported to CorelDraw with a set spatial. reference and scale In CorelDraw the expedition lines were generalized because a highly. detailed route would have misrepresented the level of accuracy of the data Nominal. symbology was created to help differentiate the routes temporally and by explorer A mosaic of. ortho photos was used as the background to display the study area. Rogers Pass Community 1909, A second location map was produced to show the community of Rogers Pass Station as.
it was in 1909 A weathered copy of an original Canadian Pacific Railway plan was spatially. located in ArcGIS using a known benchmark location and the railway and buildings in the plan. were traced although the buildings may not be properly scaled The data was then exported to. CorelDraw The buildings were labelled using information provided on the CPR plan and from. written accounts of the community at the time Downs 1968 McDonald 1997 Mount. Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks,Avalanche Occurrences in Rogers Pass 1885 1910. A third thematic map was created to display avalanche locations and resulting fatalities. between 1885 and 1910 The area of interest was the stretch of railroad between the junction. of the Beaver and Columbia Rivers to the east and the junction of the Illecillewaet and. Columbia Rivers to the west Once again most of the data on avalanches was found in written. accounts and all occurrences with location and or fatality information were compiled and. mapped Downs 1968 McDonald 1997 Woods 1983 The map does not give a complete. account of the avalanches that likely occurred in the study area at this time but rather shows. only those that have been documented from the sources listed above. For this map two ancillary spatial components were created a railroad layer and a. snowshed layer The snowshed coordinates were entered into a spreadsheet and imported into. ArcGIS as point data The accuracy of these locations was 100 meters Four ortho photos. from GeoBase were used in conjunction with a GoogleEarth airphoto and a GoogleEarth railway. layer to trace the route of the original railway through the Pass Once the track was traced the. snowshed locations were spatially adjusted to line up with the track this was done manually. and at the discretion of the map creator At this point the avalanche locations were manually. placed on the map using the written descriptions and references made to landmarks. Landmarks included snowsheds settlements and surrounding mountains for which the ortho. photo and a GeoBase Geographic Names point layer were used This method does not lend a. high degree of accuracy to the locations and therefore they are only approximations of where. the actual avalanches occurred, The avalanche snowshed and railway vector data were exported to CorelDraw to create. symbology and produce a final product The snowshed symbology was created using the. Canadian Pacific Railway before 1916 map found in Snow Wars as a general guide for snowshed. size however the snowsheds were not made accurately to scale Woods 1983 Proportional. symbols were created for each of the documented avalanche occurrences These symbols. represent the number of fatalities associated with each occurrence and were scaled using the. formula shown in Appendix B These final layers were overlaid on the ortho photos. All three maps were created for qualitative purposes and to visually augment the. historical themes of this paper They should not be used for any quantitative assessments. 4 0 Historical Themes and Map,4 1 Expeditions, The discovery of Rogers Pass was the collective effort of three men Walter Moberly. Albert Perry and A B Rogers All three men embarked on expeditions in the hope of finding a. route through the Selkirks Though A B Rogers is credited with finding the pass that was. subsequently named after him all three men contributed to the eventual discovery of Rogers. Walter Moberly was first commissioned by the Government of British Columbia to find. a railway pass through the Rocky Mountains in 1865 Moberly was continuing his rail mapping. expedition from the Interior where he had located Eagle Pass through the Monashees. Downs 1968 In the fall he arrived at the junction of the Illecillewaet and Columbia Rivers His. next task lay before him to the east within the Selkirk Mountain range. Moberly s first expedition into the Selkirks set out on September 17 1865 up the. Illecillewaet River from the junction at the Columbia River Moberly s crew followed the. Illecillewaet River until they reached the junction From there they took the northern fork up. the Tangier River and after some exploring the Tangier was deemed unsuitable as a railway. pass The crew returned to the junction with the intention of setting up the southern fork. however Moberly had been warned by his First Nation guide of massive snows which leapt. from the mountain sides upon the unwary traveler Downs 1968 Further ventures by. Moberly into the Selkirks would be delayed until the following spring Anon 1968 Downs. Together with Albert Perry in the spring of 1866 Moberly ventured once again up the. Illecillewaet Moberly again tried to make his way up the Tangier with the same end result This. route was unsuitable for a rail line Perry on the other hand took the southern branch of the. Illecillewaet He ventured far enough to determine that a pass did exist however it is unclear. whether he actually reached the pass and in what direction it lay in Moberly s Report Anon. After Moberly s two expeditions interest in finding a pass through the Selkirks waned. for several years It was not until fifteen years later when a private company The Syndicate. took over railway construction that another expedition was sent out in search of a pass Anon. A B Rogers a railway engineer was hired to once again seek out a possible rail route. through the Selkirks In May of 1881 Rogers with guides from the Shuswap First Nation set. out on his first expedition McDonald 1997 and followed Perry s optimistic route up the. southern branch of the Illecillewaet Rogers and his crew reached a second fork where the river. was now a small stream possibly the meeting of the Asulkan and Illecillewaet where they. skirted around Mt Sir Donald At some point they reached a drainage divide with waters. flowing in both directions They climbed a nearby mountain to get a better view and confirmed. that this was in fact the summit of the pass through the Selkirks Anon 1968 Downs 1968. Conditions were difficult on these expeditions As a result of their spring start Rogers. crew faced a massive snow pack from the previous winter Rogers aware of the dangers these. massive snow packs presented had his crew travelling early in the morning and in the late. afternoons avoiding the melting hours of the day Downs 1968 Rogers report to CPR. manager James Ross emphasized that work in the Selkirks will be very heavy and expensive. In 1882 Rogers again set out into the Selkirks this time from the east making his way. up the Beaver River eventually reaching the source of the Illecillewaet At this point Roger was. able to confirm that a route would be viable through the Selkirks Man would finally conquer. the Selkirks Anon 1968 Downs 1968, The map shown in Figure 3 provides visual insight into the approximate expedition. routes of Moberly Perry and Rogers which lead to the locating of a route through the Selkirks. at Rogers Pass, Figure 2 The five expedition routes taken by Walter Moberly Albert Perry and A B Rogers are.
shown in this map,4 2 Community, Years of remoteness came to an end in Rogers Pass in the spring of 1884 Four. thousand men had been hired by the CPR to construct an essential section of the. transcontinental railway through the Selkirk Mountains Downs 1968 As the construction of. the rail line progressed numerous communities were established through Rogers Pass 1885. 1916 However short term some of these communities were places such as Donald Beaver. Creek and Summit City gave an insight into surviving winters in the avalanche riddled Pass. Envisioned at one time by Van Horne as a prosperous tourism destination this astonishing. Figure 1 Location of Rogers Pass is represented by the red star 3 0 Methods Maps displaying the three important historical themes discussed in this study were created The map themes were expeditions into the pass the community life in the Pass and avalanche occurrences The following maps illustrate and emphasize these themes 1 Finding

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