Conflict Environmental Security and Governance Among

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DECLARATION, This thesis is my original work and has not been submitted for a degree to any other. University,Kizito M S Sabala Date, Institute of Diplomacy and International Studies IDIS. University of Nairobi, This thesis has been submitted for examination with our approval as University. supervisors,1 Prof Makumi Mwagiru, Professor of Diplomacy and International Conflict Management. Institute of Diplomacy and International Studies IDIS. University of Nairobi,2 Prof Patricia Kameri Mbote.
Professor of Law,School of Law,University of Nairobi. 3 Prof Peter Wanyande, Department of Political Science and Public Administration. University of Nairobi, This study is about the links between conflict environmental security and governance. among pastoralists in Kenya and particularly the Turkana community It investigates the. theoretical and practical linkages between conflict environmental security and governance. interrogates the nature and form of the relationships among these variables including the. effect on pastoralists livelihood and establishes the significance the normative and. institutional frameworks on the prevention management and resolution of conflicts and. environmental insecurity within the context of governance deficit It is anchored within the. modified Thomas Homer Dixon s environmental scarcity theory The theory which is. expressed in terms of reductions in the relative availability of renewable natural resources. aptly captures the issues under investigation Furthermore the model is flexible and therefore. permits the inco operation of other important factors not in the original formulation The. customization of the model within the pastoral setting allows for the analysis of the supply. demand and structural factors which are central to the questions of conflicts environmental. security and governance among the pastoral communities in Kenya. The study used both primary and secondary data and employed the Sources Issues. Parties Attitude Feelings Behaviour Intervention and Outcome SIPABIO conflict analysis. model to examine the information The content relationship analytical framework allows the. utilization and integration of both qualitative and quantitative approaches into the study. Moreover it does not only allow for the systematic examination of the relevant issues but. also provides for the inclusion of factors missing in the original conceptualization to situate. the plight of the pastoralists within the broader framework of literature at the intersection of. intermittent conflicts environmental stress resource scarcities and of poor governance. The study concludes that there are links between conflicts and environmental security. against the backdrop of governance deficit manifested in historical neglect weak and limited. state presence worsened by the geographical continuity across international borders of. Uganda South Sudan and Ethiopia The form and nature of the link is double edged conflict. elements can cause environmental security and verse versa But more important the study. problematizes these factors within the context of the pastoral setting and identifies very. specific conflict causing factors and environmental insecurity generating factors It refutes the. notion that conflicts among the pastoralists are mainly a consequence of the scarcity of. resources and environmental stress and instead acknowledges a combination of various. factors behind instability in pastoral areas but more fundamental identifies governance deficit. as the missing gap Furthermore the study does not only affirm the theoretical prepositions to. the environmental conflict thesis and scarcity driven explanations of violent conflict fostered. by environmental conditions but also notes that conventional and traditional institutional and. legislative frameworks for conflict prevention management resolution related to resources. are important considerations, These factors are closely intertwined very complicated and combine in a very. complex and crucial way to shape and influence the livelihood of the pastoralists The. solution to the perennial conflicts and environmental insecurity lies largely in the promotion. of good governance that will ensure effective institutional normative policy and. administrative frameworks for sustainable exploitation utilization and management of the. resources water pasture including security within the pastoral areas and not in providing. them abundantly and cannot be divorced from the contemporary regional and global issues in. time and place,ABBREVIATIONS, ACP EC African Caribbean Pacific European Commission.
ADOL Action for Development of Local Communities,APFO Africa Peace Forum. ARS Alliance for Re liberation of Somalia,ASALs Arid and Semi Arid Lands. AU African Union, AU IBAR African Union Inter African Bureau for Animal Resources. AUC African Union Commission,AMISOM African Union Mission in Somalia. BBC British Broadcasting Co operation,BICC Bonn International Center for Conversion.
CAR Central African Republic,CBOs Community Based Organizations. CBS Central Bureau of Statistics, CEWARN Conflict Early Warning and Early Response Mechanism. CHS Commission on Human Security, COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. CPA Comprehensive Peace Agreement, CPMR Conflict Prevention Management and Resolution. CSAS Center for South African Studies,DRC Democratic Republic of Congo.
DC District Commissioner,DEC s District Environment Committees. DO District Officer,DMO District Medical Officer,DPC District Peace Committee. DRC Democratic Republic of Congo,DSICs District Security Intelligence Committees. EAC East African Community,EAPCCO East Africa Police Chiefs Co operation. EAANSA Eastern Africa Action Network on Small Arms. EMCA Environmental Management and Coordination Act. ENCOP Environment and Conflicts Project,FAO Food and Agricultural Organization.
FESS Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability. FEWSNET Famine Early Warning System Network,GoK Government of Kenya. GDP Gross Domestic Product,GHA Greater Horn of Africa. GJLOS Governance Justice Law and Order Sector,HESAD Health and Social Affairs Desk. HIV AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. ICC International Criminal Court,ICGL International Conference on the Great Lakes. ICPAT IGAD Capacity Building Programme against Terrorism. IDEA Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. IDPS Internally Displaced Persons,IDRC International Development Research Centre.
IEBC Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission. IGAD Inter Governmental Authority on Development, IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development. ISS Institute for Security Studies,ITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group. KANU Kenya National African Union,KANSA Kenya Action Network on Small Arms. KPF Kenya Pastoralism Forum,KPR Kenya Police Reserve. LRA Lords Resistance Army,LSD Lumpy Skin Disease,MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
MRG Minority Rights Group International,NAP National Action Plan. NBSAP National BiodiversityStrategy and Action Plan. NES National Environment Secretariat,NEMA National Environment Management Authority. NEC National Environment Council,NET National Environment Tribunal. NFPs National Focal Points,NPCS National Peace Commission Secretariat. NSC National Steering Committee,NEPAD New Partnership for Africa s Development.
NGO Non Governmental Organization,NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development. NFD Northern Frontier District,OCPD Officer Commanding Police Division. OLF Oromo Liberation Front,ONLF Ogaden National Liberation Front. ODM Orange Democratic Movement,OAU Organization of African Unity. PAES Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability. PCC Public Complaints Committee,PEC s Provincial Environment Committees.
PPR Peste de petis ruminats,PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. PPF Provincial Peace Fora,PSC Peace and Security Council. PTG Pastoral Thematic Group,QUNO United Nations Quakers Office. RECs Regional Economic Communities,RECSA Regional Centre on Small Arms. RVF Rift Valley Fever,SALW Small Arms and Light Weapons.
SAPs Structural Adjustment Programmes,SAS Small Arms Survey. SNV Netherlands Development Organization, SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SRA Strategy for Revitalization of Agriculture,SPLM A Sudan People s Liberation Movement Army. TOPADO Turkana Pastoralist Development Organization. UNAMID United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur. UNCEF United Nation Children Education Fund, UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UNDP United Nations Development Programme, UNDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research.
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme, UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNHCR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. UNITA Uni o Nacional para a Independ ncia Total de Angola or National. Union for the Total Liberation of Angola,UNPoA United Nations Programme of Action. UPEACE United Nations University for Peace,UNPOA United Nations Program of Action. US A United States of America,USD United States Dollars. USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,VSF BelgiumVeterinaires Sans Frontiers Belgium.
DEDICATION, I dedicate this thesis to my parents Peter Sabala and Antonina Makuli despite limited. education they ensured that all their siblings were well educated They are indeed and will. remain a great source of inspiration for my writing and life. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The journey to the completion of this thesis has been an academically enriching. experience professionally and socially challenging yet exciting In the course of writing. many people and two institutions supported me in various ways and I want to acknowledge. their contributions I would like to thank everyone who has been part of my intellectual. community that molded me I thank the Geneva based Small Arms Survey SAS especially. Dr Krause Keith Dr Peter Batchelor and Eric Barman for granting me tuition fees that. enabled register for the course In addition I wish to express special gratitude to the United. Nations University for Peace UPEACE Africa Programme in Addis Ababa Ethiopia for. awarding me research fellowship that supported the field research in Turkana In particular I. want to appreciate Dr Aboud Cheboud deceased may rest in peace Dr Jean Butera and the. support staff at UPEACE and M s Njeri Karuru from the International Development. Research Centre IDRC The UPEACE training in research methodology improved and. shaped the approach that this study adopted, Most specifically I want to acknowledge with deep gratitude my three supervisors. Professor Makumi Mwagiru Professor Patricia Mbote Prof Peter Wanyande and Dr Kindiki. Kithure initial stages for the invaluable guidance support brilliant comments advice. encouragement and time given for steering the entire study right from scratch to the final. product I have benefited a lot from the rich knowledge at their disposal Appreciation also. goes to Dr Josephine Odera for identifying the potential in me inspiring and encouraging me. to register for the program She continued to offer valuable advice comments and. encouragement throughout the study period Other people who have contributed to this. journey include Prof Gilbert Khadiagala Dr Katumanga Musambayi and Ambassador. Bethuel Kiplagat To my research assistants Mr Michael Kopolot Mr Chris Ekurudi Mr. Jackson Kiyonga in Turkana M s Christine Baari at NEMA Mr Lazarus Kubasu in Nakuru. Mr Vincent Chibini of Strathmore University Library and Mr Sam Aguyo they all were. very useful Credit also goes to all the respondents and members of the focal group. discussions whose contributions were enriching, To my spouse Doris and children Gloria Camelline Constance Gonzaga and. Floribert for bearing with my long absence from the house and silence as I burned the mid. night oil They have all been lovely and above all inspiring Final appreciation goes to my. sisters Petronilla Edlequinn Genevieve and Emily for their prayers However despite the. valuable contributions of many people to this dissertation I bear the full responsibility for. any errors and omissions contained therein,To all I say THANK you and GOD bless.
TABLE OF CONTENTS,DECLARATION ii,ABSTRACT iii,ABBREVIATIONS iv. DEDICATION viii,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix,Chapter One 1,Introduction to the Study 1. 1 1 Background to the Study 1, 1 1 1 An Overview of the Pastoralists Globally and in the IGAD Region 3. 1 1 2 Turkana Community as a Case Study 5, 1 1 3 Turkana within the Context of International Relations 8. 1 2 Statement of the Research Problem 12,1 3 Study Objectives 13.
1 4 Research Questions 13,1 5 Study Hypotheses 14,1 6 The Scope of the Study and Limitations 14. 1 7 Justification and Significance of the Study 16. 1 7 1 Academic Justification 16,1 7 2 Policy Justifications 20. 1 8 Conceptual and Operational Definition of Environmental Security and Governance 20. 1 8 1 Environmental Security 21,1 8 2 Governance 23. 1 9 Study Methodology 24,1 9 1 Approach to the Study 24. 1 9 2 Sources and Data Collection 26,1 9 3 Structure .
Dr Krause Keith Dr Peter Batchelor and Eric Barman for granting me tuition fees that enabled register for the course In addition I wish to express special gratitude to the United Nations University for Peace UPEACE Africa Programme in Addis Ababa Ethiopia for

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