Conceptual propulsion system design for a hydrogen powered

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IET Electrical Systems in Transportation,Research Article. ISSN 2042 9738, Conceptual propulsion system design for a Received on 24th July 2014. Revised on 27th February 2015, hydrogen powered regional train Accepted on 11th April 2015. doi 10 1049 iet est 2014 0049,www ietdl org, Andreas Hoffrichter Stuart Hillmansen Clive Roberts. Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education University of Birmingham Edgbaston Birmingham B15 2TT UK. E mail s hillmansen bham ac uk, Abstract Many railway vehicles use diesel as their energy source but exhaust emissions and concerns about economical.
fuel supply demand alternatives Railway electrification is not cost effective for some routes particularly low traffic density. regional lines The journey of a regional diesel electric train is simulated over the British route Birmingham Moor Street to. Stratford upon Avon and return to establish a benchmark for the conceptual design of a hydrogen powered and. hydrogen hybrid vehicle A fuel cell power plant compressed hydrogen at 350 and 700 bar and metal hydride storage. are evaluated All equipment required for the propulsion can be accommodated within the space of the original diesel. electric train while not compromising passenger carrying capacity if 700 bar hydrogen tanks are employed The. hydrogen trains are designed to meet the benchmark journey time of 94 min and the operating range of a day without. refuelling An energy consumption reduction of 34 with the hydrogen powered vehicle and a decrease of 55 with. the hydrogen hybrid train are achieved compared with the original diesel electric The well to wheel carbon dioxide. emissions are lower for the conceptual trains 55 decrease for the hydrogen powered and 72 reduction for the. hydrogen hybrid assuming that the hydrogen is produced from natural gas. 1 Introduction hydrogen powered and hydrogen hybrid regional train is developed. and these are simulated over the same route Next the performance. Currently most railway vehicles use electricity for propulsion which of all three trains are compared including range journey time. is either supplied through wayside electri cation infrastructure or vehicle ef ciency and carbon emissions. on board diesel generator sets In the European Union EU the. share of electri ed railway lines is about 53 and the majority of. traf c is carried on those lines but in other areas such as North 2 Benchmark simulation. America non electri ed lines are the norm 1 Diesel combustion. releases emissions at the point of use such as particulate matter The single train simulator software developed by the Birmingham. and nitrogen oxides and reduction of these is mandated in the Centre for Railway Research and Education was employed for the. United States 2 and the EU 3 Furthermore hydrocarbon investigations presented in this paper The simulator has been used. combustion leads to emission of Greenhouse Gases and many extensively for previous research 14 17 and three new vehicles. countries including the United Kingdom have ambitious targets have been created for this paper while a route that already existed. to reduce these 4 In addition to the emission concerns the in the programme was selected. economical supply of diesel is uncertain In Europe it is not The single train simulator solves the equations of motion of a. cost effective to electrify a signi cant additional proportion of the railway vehicle through numeric integration see 1 5 5 15 18. railway network including regional lines And the cost of. large scale wayside electri cation is prohibitive for many railway F ma 1. administrations around the world For all aforementioned reasons. an alternative energy source to diesel is required for railway F m 1 l a 2. motive power Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks. similar to electricity and when utilised in a fuel cell generates F TE mg sin a Cv2 Bv A 3. electricity and heat while leaving as exhaust pure water 5 6 In. addition it has been shown that hydrogen powered railway Overall. vehicles can reduce overall Greenhouse Gas emissions 7. therefore hydrogen is an attractive alternative to diesel for. railways Globally a few hydrogen powered railway vehicles exist m 1 l a TE mg sin a Cv2 Bv A 4. but most of these are prototypes and no full scale heavy rail. passenger train is currently in service 8 12 Previous research Or. 13 has considered the general feasibility of hydrogen hybrid. railway vehicles where the focus was on the control strategy 2. d2 s ds ds, between the different components and not the detailed system m 1 l 2 TE mg sin a C B A 5. design In the current paper a conceptual design is presented dt dt dt. which considers the mass and volume implications of the drive. system change together with an assessment of the practicality of where a is the acceleration metre per second squared m s2 A B. ahydrogen powered solution A benchmark diesel electric regional and C are the constant terms of resistance in the Davis equation. railway vehicle is selected and the performance parameters and 19 d is delta change of the following variable F is force. journey time over a corresponding route in Britain are determined kilonewton kN g is the acceleration due to gravity 9 81 m s2. with computer simulation Then a conceptual design for a m is mass kilograms s is the vehicle displacement metres t is. IET Electr Syst Transp pp 1 11, This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons 1. Attribution License http creativecommons org licenses by 3 0. the time seconds TE is tractive effort kN v is the velocity m s Table 1 GTW 2 6 vehicle data parameters are based on the Texas. is the angle of the gradient degrees and l is the rotational versions 21 22 unless otherwise indicated. allowance Train characteristics, These equations fully describe the forces that occur due to the Axle arrangement 2 Bo2. motion of railway vehicles except for the resistance encountered Vehicle length 40 890 mm. due to curving forces which was neglected in the investigation Vehicle width 2950 mm. Vehicle heighta b 4035 mm, Meegahawatte et al 13 provide a more detailed description of the Tare mass 72 t. simulator Coach massc 20 t,starting TE 80 kN,Maximum acceleration 1 m s2.
2 1 Benchmark vehicle selection Maximum deceleration in the present 1 m s2. evaluationd, A regional train of the type Gelenktriebwagen 2 6 GTW produced Maximum speed 120 km h. by Stadler AG was used as the benchmark diesel train More than Davis equation of resistance to motione R 1 5 0 006v. 500 GTWs have been sold all over the world and the basic Power module characteristics. formation comes as two coaches and one power module with two Number of powered axels 2. out of six axles powered 20 The autonomous version of the Floor height in the power module 1000 mm. Available height in the power module 3035 mm, GTW has a diesel electric power module between two passenger Length of the power moduleb 4500 mm. coaches see Fig 1 for an illustration of the vehicle Minimum corridor width in the 800 mm. The GTW was selected because it features a power module power moduleb. similar to a locomotive and a diesel electric drive train so a Mass of the power modulec 30 t. Mass resting on the power modulec 40 t, power plant change allows the continued use of existing Power of the two diesel engines combinedf 600 kW. components such as the traction motors A further reason for the Maximum power at wheel 470 kW. GTW is that the train is used both for regional services and light Auxiliary power such as HVACg 65 kW. commuter services The characteristics of a diesel electric GTW Drive train efficiencyh 88. Diesel tank capacityi 15 00l 14 910 kWhj,2 6 are presented in Table 1. On the basis of the GTW delivered to Veolia Transport in the. 2 1 1 GTW power module data The GTW s power module Netherlands 23. Personal communication with Stadler employees, for Texas has two identical drive systems each consisting of a c.
Calculated from data of the bogie manufacturer 24 GTWs for Veolia. diesel engine alternator power converters and traction motor Transport in the Netherlands 23 and GTW for Capital Metro Texas 21. 21 22 as illustrated in Fig 2a Maximum service braking rate for the Texas trains is 1 3 m s2 according. Typical drive train ef ciencies for modern electric trains are in the to Stadler Rail AG 22. Equation developed from personal communication with Stadler. range of 85 90 29 30 and the same range is applicable to diesel employees and existing data of the train simulator. electric drive trains as the technology employed is similar 30 In f. Power for a Federal Railroad Administration alternate compliant design. personal communication with Stadler employees a similar range such as the GTW for Denton County Transportation Authority Texas 25. was given with an approximate value for the GTW 2 6 of 88 A Calculated from data provided by the U S Department of Transportation. Federal Transit Administration 26 GTW for Capital Metro Texas 21. split of this ef ciency into the various sub components was and the drive train efficiency. necessary which is presented in Table 2 these values were h. Calculated from the power data see Table 2 and personal. derived from data provided by Steimel 31 and the UIC 30 The communication with Stadler employees. duty cycle ef ciency differs signi cantly from the maximum Personal communication with Stadler employees and GTW delivered to. Veolia Transport in the Netherlands 27, ef ciency of a diesel powered railway vehicle 17 30 A typical j. Calculated from American data and based on the LHV of diesel at 9 94. maximum ef ciency of a diesel engine is 40 30 whereas the kWh l 28. Fig 1 Illustration of the MetroRail diesel electric GTW 2 6 based on information from Stadler Rail AG 21. IET Electr Syst Transp pp 1 11, 2 This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons. Attribution License http creativecommons org licenses by 3 0. Fig 2 Power module drive system diagrams for the three different trains. The diesel electric drive system a is created from data of the Texas GTWs 21 22 and data provided by the U S Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration 26. a Diesel electric,b Hydrogen,c Hydrogen hybrid, duty cycle ef ciency for a modern diesel train is about 25 32 The 2 3 Simulation results. duty cycle ef ciency of the drive train components also vary and in. extreme cases this can be signi cant 30 but for many railway The dwell time at calling stations is 30 s and the turn around time at. applications the maximum drive train ef ciency is similar to the Stratford upon Avon is 5 min It was assumed that the resistance to. duty cycle ef ciency and the major variation between the two is motion based on the Davis equation stayed the same throughout the. due to the prime mover such as the diesel engine As the journey The results for the diesel electric train are presented in. comparisons in this paper are made on a duty cycle basis Table 3 and in Figs 3 5 These gures begin with the journey s. the ef ciency provided by the Rail Safety and Standards Board origin in Birmingham Moor Street and include a turn around time. RSSB 32 is used The ef ciency of the GTW power module was in Stratford upon Avon of 5 min before the return journey starts A. determined in the following way a duty cycle vehicle ef ciency of terminal time of 6 min in Birmingham Moor Street is added to the. 25 has been assumed 32 then the drive train ef ciency provided energy calculations but not shown in these gures as the starting. by Stadler of 88 has been applied which results in a diesel location is reached by the train. engine ef ciency of 29 A more detailed account for the Fig 3 shows the line speed and the speed that the train achieves. tank to wheel ef ciency is shown in Table 2 while traversing the route. Resulting from the ef ciencies presented in Table 2 is a The traction power requirements during the journey and the. traction package ef ciency of 92 6 and a diesel engine average power at the wheels as well as the braking power that has. drive shaft to DC bus ef ciency of 95 6 The data allow the to be dissipated either in mechanical brakes or in dynamic brake. simulation of the vehicle and an estimation of its fuel resistors are illustrated in Fig 4. consumption which together with the ef ciencies will serve as the The power requirements of the GTW s drive system including the. input for the hydrogen conceptual vehicles demand of diesel are illustrated in Fig 5 The ef ciency parameters. presented earlier were applied to the at wheel values to determine the. power through the drive system In addition the auxiliary power. 2 2 Route selection requirements have been added at the DC bus stage In Fig 5. graph a shows the primary fuel input and power plant output. The trains are simulated on the route from Birmingham Moor Street to graph b shows the power inputs and outputs across the DC bus. Stratford upon Avon and return It is a regional line with some and graph c illustrates the power that enters the traction package. commuter traf c and the current service is operated with vehicles and the power at the wheels. that are similar in power and passenger capacity to the GTW 2 6 The data presented above provide the benchmarking case for the. 33 There are 16 stops between the two terminals the line is 78 58 design of the hydrogen powered vehicles From the traction power. km long and the alignment is relatively level The route data were graph. Conceptual propulsion system design for a hydrogen powered regional train ISSN 2042 9738 Received on 24th July 2014 Revised on 27th February 2015

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