Communication Chapter 3 pathways cu edu eg

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C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills, In contrast the writer depends solely on a masterful command of. the written language Careful construction of sentences precise. choice of words and such typographical devices as punctuation and. paragraphing are all he has to take the place of the marvelously. communicative qualities of the human voice, However the speaker s physical presence before the audience. imposes some difficulties A writer who isn t sure just what he. wants to say can stop think scratch and revise, A speaker once he faces his audience had better be sure of his. material Of course he can watch the reaction of the audience and. in a sense revise what he intended to say if he sees he is not. making himself clear but this requires quick thinking Careful. thinking and preparation are important to the writer too but they are. absolutely essential for the speaker, Facing the audience directly places the speaker in a different. psychological situation also one that has both advantage and. disadvantages The direct contact may stimulate him to produce. more direct and lively expression of his ideas, At the same time he is acutely aware of his own presence before the.
audience He may feel that they are examining him far more. critically than they actually are and that they are far more conscious. of his little mistakes than they actually are, Reception Skills Reception Skills Reading And Listening. Reading and, Listing Because they are both receptive skills and because they are both. communication skills reading and listening have much in common. Mere assimilation of ideas is often not enough for effective reading. and listening because the value and validity of the ideas may be. open to question Passive acceptance of everything you read or hear. is as undesirable as the opposite extreme cynical refusal to believe. anything The intelligent course is to learn when to be critical in your. reading and listening and how to use the tools of critical thinking to. place the proper evaluation on what you read or hear In short both. reader and listener are involved in the complicated processes of. assimilating and critically evaluating ideas and they make use of. the same basic knowledge and ways of thinking However the. important differences between speaking and writing imply similar. differences between reading and listening, One difference is the amount of unbroken and concentrated. attention required Listening especially in any situation in which. you are not the only listener is an instantaneous experience that. generally cannot be repeated If your mind wanders off for a few. minutes on a reverie about last night you lose what the speaker has. Pathways to Higher Education 34,C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills. offered during that time and the omission may make it difficult to pick. up the thread of ideas again If you spend too much time taking. notes by failing to distinguish between main ideas and details the. speaker will leave you behind Concentrated attention is also. important in reading of course but the situation is different If your. attention is distorted you can always return, Usually the reader has more control over distractions too He can.
shut the radio off or move to a quieter spot if other people distract. Transmission 3 2 Transmission Skills,3 2 1 Speaking. What is a presentation, Presentation is a way of communicating ideas and information to a. A good presentation should have the following ingredients. Content Content It contains information that people need Unlike reports it. must account for how much information the audience can absorb in. one sitting, Structure It has a logical beginning middle and end It must be. sequenced and paced so that the audience can understand it Where. as reports have appendices and footnotes the presenter must be. careful not to loose the audience when wandering from the main. point of the presentation, Packaging Packaging It must be well prepared A report can be reread and. portions skipped over but the audience is at the mercy of a. Human Element Human Element A good presentation will be remembered much. more than a good report because it has a person attached to it But. you still need to analyze if the audience s needs would not be better. met if a report was sent instead, How do I How do I prepare for an oral presentation.
prepare an oral Like good writing good oral presentation must be clearly and. presentation logically organized Once you have your material organized. however presenting it orally is quite a different matter from. presenting it in writing Make the most of the advantages inherent in. speaking the four main steps that make preparing an oral. presentation different from preparing a written document 1. structure 2 select visual aids 3 practice and 4 make. arrangements,Pathways to Higher Education 35,C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills. Structure your A Structure your Presentation,Presentation. Presenting information orally differs from writing it An effect. presentation structure includes 1 an opening 2 a preview 3. focus major points and 4 a closing Decisions regarding each of. the characteristics will defend on your managerial style. 1 Use an effective opening The Audience Memory Curve. effective emphasizes the importance of your opening In speaking. opening however your opening is even more crucial than in writing you. must arouse your listener s interest you must establish. credibility An affective opening stimulates your listener vital interest. answer their questions Why should I be listening to this anyway. Regardless of the kind of opening you select always start with a. 2 Include a 2 Include a preview Listeners need orientation because unlike. readers they cannot skim the general outline of your speech A. preview will answer their question Just what am I going to learn. or do during this presentation Always state a preview explicitly. before you begin discussing your points,3 Make your. own major 3 Make your own major points clearly, points clearly Listeners cannot process as much information as readers can do. not get oriented as easily as readers do and do not remember. information heard only once Therefore make the points in your. presentation very clear by,1 limiting your main points.
2 using explicit transitions,3 using internal summaries. 4 Use an effective closing, Your audience is likely to remember your last words So avoid the. that s all I have to say I guess that s about it syndrome Use an. obvious transitional phrase such as to summarize or in. conclusion to introduce your closing remarks If you have a question. period be sure to save a few minutes at the end for your closing In. any event use effective closing,Pathways to Higher Education 36. C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills, The following tables summarizes the four structural. characteristics of effective presentation,Effective Effective Opening.
Managerial Refer to the Opening,Style unusual,Any style Refer to the Rhetorical question. familiar Anticipator promise of what,you will discuss. Vivid image,Starting example or story,Important statistics. Audience who they are,Occasion why you are here,Relationship between the. audience and the subject,Something or someone,familiar to the audience.
Effective Previews,Managerial Style Preview,Tell List your three to five main points. listeners definitely remember better if they,hear an overview first. Sell State the problem or need you will,remedy state your organizational. Consult join State major objectives areas of,discussion an approximate amount of. time you will spend on each area,Clear Major Clear Major Points.
Managerial Style Major points, Tell Sell Limit to three to five major points for an hour. presentation, Consult join Separate clearly the two typical major points. 1 Discussion,Draw out listeners,Postpone evaluation and criticism. Encourage free and creative thinking,2 Debate and consensus. Encourage critical thinking argument,Reach consensus.
Determine next action,Pathways to Higher Education 37. C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills,Managerial Style Explicit Transitions. Tell Sell Use between your major points to reinforce. Say The second recommendation is not,Say Another benefit of the systems is not. in addition,Consult join Use between your major sections. Say The third area we need to discuss this,morning is not Next.
Managerial Style Explicit Summaries,Tell Sell Summarize between your major points or. sub points,Consult join Summarize consensus between your two. major organizational sections,Effective Effective Closings. Managerial Style Closings,Tell List your three to five major points You. may feel as though you re being repetitive,but this kind of reinforcement is extremely.
effective for explaining instructing,Refer to the rhetorical question promise. image or story you used in your opening,Sell Call for action based on what you have. presented make the what next,Refer to the benefits your audience will. receive from following the advice in your,presentation. Consult join List the main points you have come with as. a group make sure you reach consensus,make sure your audience see the results of.
the time they spent,Strategies for Improving Your Presentation. Strategies for, Improving your To sum up the previous the main points of previous chart you can. Presentation focus on,Clarifying your ideas before communicating. Examining the true purpose of communication,Considering the environment of the communication. Consulting with others whenever appropriate,Conveying something of value to the receiver.
Follow up to Follow Up Your Communication to Confirm It. Confirm it Communicate both for the short run and for the long run. Be sure your actions support your communications,Be a good and empathetic listener. Be flexible to other s views conditions circumstances etc. Pathways to Higher Education 38,C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills. How to Help How to Help Others Understand You,Others to Talk specifics. Understand You,Go directly to the subject,Build self esteem. Summary of Summary of Presentation Structure,Presentation.
Structure Managerial style,Tell Sell Consult Join,Opening Gmb audience s attention. Presentation Preview State your Establish Establish main. structure main need for discussion area,points change. Body Provide Explain First discuss,information how you ideas uncritically. will satisfy 5 second debate,needs and argue ideas. Use explicit transitions and internal,Conclusion Restate Appeal Reach group.
main for consensus and,points or audience recommendations. tie to action,Desired Audience Audience Speaker and. result learns acts audience learn,Goals for Using,Goals for Using Aids. Clarify your structure such as an agenda chart at the. Clarify beginning of your presentation or main topic slide merged out. as you speak, Emphasize Emphasize your important ideas such as a list of your. recommendations, Demonstrate Demonstrate relationships such as pie charts to show.
relationships, components or line charts to show changes over time Visual. pictures are generally more effective than overwhelming lists. of numbers or statistics Of course your data may be. summarized on a handout and passed out at the end of the. presentation,Occasions Types of Occasions, Formal These are aids created before the presentation such as. Formal finished clip charts chart cards desk top charts 35mm. slides and overhead transparencies They may be, professionally printed often in color They assure you of a. great deal of control over your presentation with relatively. little audience involvement,Pathways to Higher Education 39. C8 1 Communication Skills Communication Skills, Semi formal Semi formal These are aids created partially before and partially.
during the presentation such as flipcharts or overhead. transparencies You may want to elicit some audience. response you would write on a partially prepared chart or. you may want to cross out something on a prepared slide and. write over it in a different color to emphasize a change. Informal Informal These are aids created during the presentation such. as chalk boards blank flipchart or blank overhead, transparencies They are more flexible spontaneous and. audience involving than other aids but you exert less control. over their content,Practice your B Practice your presentation. presentation, Unfortunately many business and professional speakers neglect. this step But you should remember that credibility of your content is. not enough you must also establish credibility as a speaker. Practicing in advance will increase your self confidence and poise. improve your wording so it flows naturally and spontaneously. identify any gaps in your speech deal with distractions and make. sure your visual aids are smoothly integrated into your speech. 1 Use cards, 1 Use cards Getting your speech onto cards has three main. advantages 1 cards are easy to hold 2 they allow you to add. subtract or rearrange your material easily and 3 they force you to. prune your speech down to outline so you cannot read it word by. is as undesirable as the opposite extreme cynical refusal to believe anything The intelligent course is to learn when to be critical in your reading and listening and how to use the tools of critical thinking to place the proper evaluation on what you read or hear In short both reader and listener are involved in the complicated processes of they make use of the same basic knowledge and

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