Classification functions and structure

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Lipids are non polar, hydrophobic compounds , insoluble in water . but soluble in organic solvents,Lipids have a very heterogeneous. chemical structure and play, very different functions. LIPID FUNCTIONS,The biological, functions of the lipids are very diverse . Fats and oils, principal stored forms of, energy in many organisms .
Phospholipids and sterols , make up about half the mass. of biological membranes , Steroid hormones , sex hormones . glucocorticoides and, mineralocorticoides, Liposoluble vitamins . vitamins A D E and K, Lipids are classified into 2 general groups . I Non hydrolysable non saponifiable lipids , Derived lipids Fatty acids.
Fatty alcohols, Fatty aldehydes, Hydrocarbons, Terpenes fat soluble Vitamin A E and K. made up of repeating isoprene units , Sterols and steroids Cholesterol. Androgens and estrogens Sex hormones , Adrenal corticosteroids. Bile acids, II Hydrolysable saponifiable lipids, Simple Lipids consist from only two components . a Triglycerides neutral fats and oils storage, lipids Esters of three molecules of fatty acids plus one molecule of.
b Waxes Composed of esters of fatty, acids with alcohol other than glycerol . Complex Lipids membrane lipids , consist from more than two components. a Phospholipids , glycerophospholipids composed of glycerol fatty acids and. phosphoric acid bound to a nitrogenous base , sphingophospholipids sphingomyelins containing. sphingosine fatty acids phosphoric acid choline and no glycerol . b Glycolipids Sphingoglycolipids , Cerebrosides contains.
sphingosine fatty acid and, galactose or glucose . Gangliosides contains, sphingosine fatty acid and. an oligosaccharide, Sulpholipids , Sulphur containing glycolipids . The principal classes of storage and,membrane lipids. Fatty acids, Fatty acids are present in all organisms as components.
of storage and membrane lipids , The naturally occurring fatty acids are carboxylic acids. with unbranched hydrocarbon chains of 12 24 carbon atoms . Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an even number. of carbon atoms , Some fatty acids contain one or more double bonds and. are therefore unsaturated Double bonds in fatty acids. usually have the cis configuration , 1 Saturated fatty acids general formula CnH2n 1COOH . have no double bonds in the chain , C11H23COOH CH3 CH2 10 COOH lauric acid C12 . C13H27COOH CH3 CH2 12 COOH myristic acid C14 , C15H31COOH CH3 CH2 14 COOH palmitic acid C16 .
C17H35COOH CH3 CH2 16 COOH stearic acid C18 , The conformation of carbon chain is a zigzag For example . palmitic acid , 2 The unsaturated acids with one double bond. monounsaturated acids CnH2n 1 COOH , palmitoleic acid C16 9. C15H29COOH CH3 CH2 5 CH CH CH2 7 COOH, oleic acid C18 9. C17H33COOH CH3 CH2 7 CH CH CH2 7 COOH, 3 The unsaturated acid with two double bounds .
CnH2n 3 COOH ,linoleic acid C18 9 12 C17H31COOH,CH3 CH2 4 CH CH CH2 CH CH CH2 7 COOH. 4 The unsaturated acids with three double bounds ,CnH2n 5 COOH . linolenic acid C18 9 12 15 C17H29COOH,CH3 CH2CH CH CH2 CH CH CH2 CH CH CH2 7 COOH. 5 The unsaturated acids with four double bounds, CnH2n 7 COOH . arahidonic acid C20 5 8 11 14 C19H31COOH, All polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic .
linoleic and linolenic acid are essential fatty acids . they are not produced in human organism and have to. be supplied in the diet They are indispensable, components of nutrition . Storage Lipids, Animal fats and vegetable oils are the most widely. occurring lipids Although they look different animal fats. such as butter and lard fat are solids and vegetable oils are. liquids their structures are closely related Chemically fats. and oil are triacylglycerols also called triglycerides esters of. glycerol with three long chain carboxylic acids , Triglycerides are completely unpolar . Classification functions and structure Elena Ri vneac PhD Associate Professor Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry State University of Medicine and

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