CLARKS HILL LAKE WATER QUALITY STUDY U APPLIED BIOLOGY 1

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MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART,NATIONALBUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A. jm EF F CT Ej,DEC 0 6 1985,Approved for public releoa el. i i Distribution Unlimited 4J,APPLIED BIOLOGY N,i i641 DeKalb Industrial Way eDecatur. Georgia 30033 0 404 296 3900,A UNCLASSIFIED, A SECU ITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE When Date wntered. READ INSTRUCTIONS,REPORTDOCUMENTATION BEFORE COMPLETING FORM.
I R RM RT DOCUGMENTATIONSNcCCIPIENT S CATALOG NUMBER. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study Final,6 PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER. 7 AUTHOR 3 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER e,DACW2I 81 C 0011. 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT TASK. Applied Biology Inc AREA WORK UNIT NUMBERS,641 DeKalb Industrial Way. Decatur GA 30033, 11 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 REPORT DATE. U S Army Engineer District Savannah June 1982,P 0 Box 889 13 NUMBER OF PAGES.
Savannah GA 31402 0889, 14 MONITORING AGENCY NAME ADDRESS if different from Controlling Office 1S SECURIIY CLASS of this report. UNCLASSIFIED,ISa DECLASSIFICATION DOWNGRADING,16 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT of this Report. Approved for public release distribution unlimited. 17 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT of the abstract entered In Block 20 it different from Report. IS SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES, 19 IKY WORDS Continue on reverse side if necesary and identify by block number. South Carolina,Hill Lake Sediments,Chemical contamination. Savannah River,Water quality,20L ABSTrRAc amtf e am reverse ai.
C ff neearand lidenily by block number, A study of selected chemical physical and biological parameters from. Clarks Hill Lake Georgia and South Carolina was conducted by Applied Biology. Inc for the Department of the Army Savannah District Corps of Engineers. from February to October 1981 Data are presented for 20 sampling sites. i located in Clarks Hill Lake its tributaries and portions of the Savannah. River downstream from the dam Water and sediment chemical and physical. parameters macroinvertebrate phytoplankton zooplankton and periphyton com. munity composition and density bacteriological parameters and pesticide and. D O JQ 3 EL NOF I OV 65IS OSOLETE,SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGF wthe Oft fl. UNCLASSIFIED, SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOE Whm Data Rnteod. heavy metal concentrationa from tissues of mollusc Corbicula white cat. fish and largemouth bass were analyzed, Clarks Hill Lake is characterized by large annual temperature variationa. and development of strong thermal gradients during summer stratification. Deep hypolimnion waters gradually become depleted of dissolved oxygen by. late summer Clarks Hill Lake waters are soft and have a low carbonate. bicarbonate, buffering capacity resulting in fluctuations in pH conductivity.
and various other physicochemical parameters between the epilimnion and hypo. limnion during summer stratification, Total phosphate concentrations in Clarks Hill Lake are high The Savannah. and Broad Rivers and the Georgia and South Carolina Little Rivers are major. sources of phosphate input into the lake Total phosphate levels have increas. ed at lake and tributary stations since a 1973 study at Clarks Hill Lake Al. though total phosphate levels are high they are within the range of those. observed in other southeastern lakes and reservoirs. Determination of various pesticide concentrations in sediments and in. tissue samples from Corbicula white catfish and largemouth bass showed no. apparent contamination or biomagnification of these parameters within Clarks. Hill Lake Heavy metal concentrations in sediments tissues and wholewater. samples were generally higher at tributary stations than at lake stations. Primary productivity in Clarks Hill Lake is generally limited by low. orthophosphate and nitrate nitrite concentrations Present nutrient con. contrations are below critical values at which algal blooms commonly occur. Phytoplankton densities and chlorophyll a measurements showed a seasonal. pattern of increasing productivity from early spring through the fall Stand. ing crops were high at tributary stations and lowest near the dam A similar. pattern of density distribution was also noted for the zooplankton community. of Clarks Hill Lake, The benthic and drift macroinvertebrate communities of the lake were. low in density and diversity as compared to other southeastern lakes and. reservoirs The benthos was predominated by the Asiatic clam Corbicula. fluminea and the drift community was predominated by chironomid insects. The overall trophic condition of Clarks Hill Lake can be considered Meso. trophic characteristic of waters with moderate nutrient concentrations Data. from the major tributaries entering the lake suggest that the Georgia and. South Carolina Little Rivers the Broad and upper Savannah Rivers are eutrophic. UNCLASSIFIED,SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEr tn Et. Y 1 P7 I m m M I Z m o o J m o,CLARKS HILL LAKE,WATER QUALITY STUDY. Prepared for,U S ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS,SAVANNAH DISTRICT.
Accesi0 l For,21 81 C 0011,CONTRACT NO DACW,t D INC Way. 641 DeKaib Industrial li ii I C ili,Georgia 30033,Section Page. ABSTRACT 1 1,A INTRODUCTION A 1,B CHEMISTRY,Introduction B i. Materials and Methods B i,Results and Discussion B 3. Summary B 18,Literature Cited B 20,C BACTERIA,Introduction C i.
Materials and Methods C 1,Results and Discussion C i. Summary C 2,Literature Cited C 3,D MACROINVERTEBRATES. Introduction D 1,Materials and Methods D 1,Results and Discussion D 3. Summary D 12,Literature Cited D 13,E PHYTOPLANKTON. Introduction E 1,Materials and Methods E i,Results and Discussion E 3.
Summary E 6,Literature Cited E 8,F ZOOPLANKTON,Introduction F i. Materials and Methods F i,Results and Discussion F 2. Summary F 5,Literature Cited F 6,r 7 C K ur i t w b. Section Page,G PERIPHYTON,Introduction G 1,Materials and Methods G 1. Results and Discussion G 3,Summary G 5,Literature Cited G 7.
H EXECUTIVE SUMMARY H 1,I RECOMMENDATIONS I i, kA study of selected chemical physical and biological parameters. from Clarks Hill Lake Georgia and South Carolina was conducted by. Applied Biology Inc for the Department of the Army Savannah District. Corps of Engineers from February to October 1981 Data are presented for. 20 sampling sites located in Clarks Hill Lake its tributaries and por. tions of the Savannah River downstream from the dam Water and sediment. chemical and physical parameters macroinvertebrate phytoplankton. zooplankton and periphyton community composition and density bac. teriological parameters and pesticide and heavy metal concentrations. from tissues of mollusc Corbicula white catfish and largemouth bass. were analyzed, Clarks Hill Lake is characterized by large annual temperature. variations and development of strong thermal gradients during summer. stratification Deep hypolimnion waters gradually become depleted of. dissolved oxygen by late summer Clarks Hill Lake waters are soft and. have a low carbonate bicarbonate buffering capacity resulting in fluc. tuations in pH conductivity and various other physicochemical parameters. between the epilimnion and hypolimnion during summer stratification. Total phosphate concentrations in Clarks Hill Lake are high The. Savannah and Broad Rivers and the Georgia and South Carolina Little. Rivers are major sources of phosphate input into the lake Total. phosphate levels have increased at lake and tributary stations since a. 1973 study at Clarks Hill Lake Although total phosphate levels are. high they are within the range of those observed in other southeastern. lakes and reservoirs, Determination of various pesticide concentrations in sediments and. in tissue samples from Corbicula white catfish and largemouth bass. showed no apparent contamination or biomagnification of these parameters. within Clarks Hill Lake Heavy metal concentrations in sediments. tissues and wholewater samples were generally higher at tributary sta. tions than at lake stations, Primary productivity in Clarks Hill Lake is generally limited by low. orthophosphate and nitrate nitrite concentrations Present nutrient con. centrations are below critical values at which algal blooms commonly. occur Phytoplankton densities and chlorophyll a measurements showed a. seasonal pattern of increasing productivity from early spring through the. fall Standing crops were high at tributary stations and lowest near the. dam A similar pattern of density distribution was also noted for the. zooplankton community of Clarks Hill Lake, The benthic and drift macroinvertebrate communities of the lake were.
low in density and diversity as compared to other southeastern lakes and. reservoirs The benthos was predominated by the Asiatic clam Corbicula. fluminea and the drift community was predominated by chironomid insects. The overall trophic condition of Clarks Hill Lake can be considered. mesotrophic characteristic of waters with moderate nutrient con. centratiops Data from the major tributaries entering the lake suggest. that the Georgia and South Carolina Little Rivers the Broad and upper. Savannah Rivers are eutrophic,A INTRODUCTION, Clarks Hill Dam and Lake Figure A i is a multipurpose project. designed to reduce flooding on the Savannah River generate electric. power and increase the depth of the Savannah River for navigation. downstream from Augusta Georgia Clarks Hill Dam is located 386 2 kilo. meters above the mouth of the Savannah River between Georgia and South. Carolina approximately 35 kilometers above Augusta Georgia The. Savannah District U S Army Corps of Engineers began construction of the. dam in August 1946 and completed the lake in July 1954 Clarks Hill Dam. was the first hydroelectric facility built on the Savannah River The. hydroelectric power plant at the dam has seven generators each with a. capacity of 40 000 kilowatts The average annual energy output of Clarks. Hill Power Plant is 700 million kilowatt hours The dam maintains a. minimum release flow of 5800 cubic feet per second cfs for navigational. purposes below Augusta A typical flow of 6300 cfs is provided 80. percent of the year under normal operating conditions The lake is. designed for a maximum drawdown of 5 5 meters 18 feet from the top of. power pool elevation of 100 6 meters 330 feet msl to a minimum pool. elevation of 95 1 meters 312 feet msl, Because of below average rainfall in Georgia and surrounding states. during 1981 the pool elevation at Clarks Hill Lake receded to a near. record level of 96 8 meters 317 6 feet msl by late November Figure. A 2 Average monthly releases from Clarks Hill Dam for 1981 were below. 5800 cfs for every month but January and March Table A i. Clarks Hill Lake is one of the largest inland bodies of water in the. southeast providing fishing boating camping hunting picnicking and. other forms of recreation to the public The lake impounds approximately. 64 kilometers of the Savannah River and portions of the Broad River and. Georgia and South Carolina Little Rivers The lake has 1930 kilometers. of shoreline and provides a total flood control storage of 390 000 acre. feet of water The mean depth of the lake is 11 meters with a maximum. depth of approximately 45 meters at the face of the dam Clarks Hill. Lake has over 15 tributaries with a combined drainage area of 15 609. square kilometers The lake has a mean hydraulic retention time of. approximately 136 days EPA 1976, Applied Biology Inc was contracted by the Army Corps of. Engineers Savannah District to conduct a biological and water quality. investigation of Clarks Hill Lake from February through October 1981. The objectives of this study were to 1 characterize any environmental. or water quality problems in the lake 2 obtain data to develop guidance. for lake control discharge water quality relationships and 3 establish. baseline conditions for future comparisons and to facilitate coordination. of state agencies in implementing watershed pollution control measures. Biological and water quality sampling stations were located in Clarks. Hill lake and surrounding waters Figure A 1 Table A 2 Plates 1 14. The sampling schedule and list of measured parameters is presented in. Table A 3 Climatological data is presented in Table A 4 Participating. staff and their expertise are listed in Table A 5,R d1 d B Ls eII. 1 S o BoL C e 4 S 0 U T H,FA P I N A, A i of biological and chemickal apigsainClrsHl ae 91.
RESERVOIR ELEVATION IN FEET ABOVE M S L, Plate 1 Station 10 on the Broad River looking downstream from. Georgia Highway 17 Typical vegetation consists of, sweetgum tulip popular white oak water oak and other. Plate 2 The Broad River looking southwest from Bobby Brown. State Park Station 8 is near the opposite shore The. gradually sloping shoreline which typifies most of Clarks. Hill Lake is evident in this photograph as are pines the. Clarks Hill Lake Georgia and South Carolina was conducted by Applied Biology Inc for the Department of the Army Savannah District Corps of Engineers from February to October 1981 Data are presented for 20 sampling sites i located in Clarks Hill Lake its tributaries and portions of the Savannah River downstream from the dam Water and

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