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COPYRIGHT 2006 BY,Center for Integrated Facility Engineering. If you would like to contact the authors please write to. c o CIFE Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept,Stanford University. Terman Engineering Center,Mail Code 4020,Stanford CA 94305 4020. A Guide for applying the principles of Virtual Design and Construction VDC. in the Lean Project Delivery Process LPDS, Atul Khanzode1 Martin Fischer2 Dean Reed3 Glenn Ballard4. Abstract The objective of this paper is to introduce the concepts of Virtual. Design and Construction VDC and explain how these concepts could be. applied to the Lean Project Delivery Process The Lean Project Delivery. Process has been developed by the Lean Construction Institute and is based. on the principles of applying the theory of Lean Production to construction. projects VDC has been developed by CIFE Stanford University and is the use. of multi disciplinary performance models for the design and construction of. capital facilities This paper presents a guide to practitioners on how to use. the tools and principles of Virtual Design and Construction in the Lean Project. Delivery Process A short background of both the principles of VDC and the. Lean Project Delivery Process is presented This is followed by a discussion. about the benefits and challenges of applying VDC during the Lean Project. Delivery process Some of the key findings of this study include. VDC tools like product process and organization modeling tools can. be applied very effectively to accomplish the objectives of the LPDS. Product modeling tools like 3D modeling can be effectively applied to. the Project Definition Lean Design and Lean Assembly phases of the. Product and process modeling tools like 4D models can be applied. during the Lean Supply and Lean Assembly phases of the LPDS. Graduate Research Assistant Stanford University CA USA and Business Analyst DPR. Construction Inc Redwood City CA USA, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Stanford University CA USA and Director of.
CIFE Stanford University CA USA, Chief Planner and Scheduler Lean Implementation Manager DPR Construction Inc Redwood City. Co Founder and Research Director Lean Construction Institute Ketchum ID USA and Associate. Adjunct Professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California. Product organization and process modeling tools such as the POP. method can be used to analyze the tradeoffs between product. organization and process during the Lean Design phase of the LPDS. Introduction Over the last 30 years many industries have seen dramatic. productivity improvements As some authors have discussed productivity in. the construction industry over the same period has steadily declined. Teicholz 2001, Figure 1 Productivity index for the construction industry compared with all. non farm industries It shows the steady decline of productivity in the. construction industry over a period from 1964 1998 Reproduced from the. discussion by Paul Teicholz on article US Construction labor productivity. trends 1970 1998 page 427 Journal of Construction Engineering and. Management September October 2001, Although there has been some spirited discussion in the research community. over the measures of construction productivity it is hard to ignore the fact. that other industries clearly have made some rapid strides in productivity. improvement compared to the construction industry in general Some of. these productivity improvements have been attributed to the use of. information technology and a rethinking of the processes in other industries. Drucker 2006 An example of this is the application of the lean. manufacturing processes in the automobile industry By some accounts the. right application of Lean principles has resulted in at least 2 times. improvement in productivity for some companies in the automobile sector. Womack et al 1996, Over this same 30 year period there have been rapid advances in the. technology and tools used in the construction industry including everything. from information technology tools like computer aided drafting CAD web. based collaboration tools and large mechanical equipment used for. excavation and hauling of large amounts of materials The individual players. in the industry Architects General Contractors and Sub contractors have. benefited from these advances in technology but if we consider the industry. as a whole our productivity continues to decline Some of this decline could. be blamed on the inherent waste in the construction delivery process For. example one of the recent US Government case studies has identified that. the industry wastes 15 8 billion each year because of the fragmentation and. lack of interoperability between tools to share information between the. project participants Gallaher et al 2004 Not surprisingly the major focus of. a variety of research initiatives in the construction industry is on finding a more. integrated approach to construction and studying processes that have. helped make dramatic productivity improvements in other industries. The research at the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering CIFE at. Stanford University has focused on developing an integrated model based. approach to address some of the underlying issues affecting productivity in. construction CIFE conceptualizes projects as a set of information flows that. can be modeled and represented in a computer using symbolic. representations of Products Organizations and Processes The essential. premise is that these symbolic models can then be simulated to observe the. interplay between the form function and behavior of the products. organizations and processes that they represent CIFE argues that an. integrated model based approach that allows professionals to capture and. simulate the project performance using symbolic representations of a project. in the form of Product Organization and Process models is what is needed to. help bring about a change in the industry An example of this is a product. process model or 4D visualization model which allows a multi disciplinary. stakeholder team to quickly and rapidly visualize and analyze the different. construction sequences and helps in the decision making process. The Lean Construction Institute LCI has focused on applying the principles of. Toyota s Lean Production system to the way construction projects are. delivered The LCI advocates a philosophy that construction projects are. really production systems and can therefore be managed using lean. production theory and techniques LCI argues that to address the. fundamental productivity issues in the industry a new conceptualization of. construction as a production system is needed Howell et al 1999. It is beyond the scope of this paper to theorize which approach is better In. fact some large owners and general contractors are starting to explore the. use of these approaches to improve the performance on their projects Reed. et al 2006 Khanzode et al 2005 No guidelines currently exist on how to. concurrently utilize the technology tools and VDC approach during the lean. project delivery process This paper will provide initial guidelines to do so. Background on Virtual Design and Construction Virtual Design and. Construction or VDC was pioneered by the research over the last two. decades at CIFE Stanford University CIFE defines Virtual Design and. Construction VDC as the use of multi disciplinary performance models of. design construction projects including the Product i e facilities Work. Processes and Organization of the design construction operation team in. order to support business objectives Fischer et al 2004 VDC allows a. practitioner to build symbolic models of the product organization and. process P O P early before a large commitment of time or money is made. to a project Thus VDC supports the description explanation evaluation. prediction alternative formulation negotiation and decisions about a. project s scope organization and schedule with virtual methods The. objective of VDC therefore is to use these virtual models of product. organization and process to simulate the complexities of the construction. project delivery to understand the pitfalls the project teams are likely to. encounter to analyze these pitfalls and address them in a virtual world. before any of the construction work ever takes place in the real world. A variety of tools and techniques have been developed under the VDC. framework including, Product visualization tools 3D object modeling technology such as.
AutoCAD ADT Revit The product visualization tools are used to. create a common understanding amongst the project participants on. how the building or the project will look like when it is completed It. can also be used to coordinate the work of various disciplines like. mechanical electrical and plumbing Clayton et al 2002. Product and process modeling and visualization tools 4D visualization. tools such as CommonPoint Project 4D and NavisWorks Timeliner. These tools allow project teams to not only visualize the 3D model of. the building but to also understand how the building will be. constructed over time Koo et al 2000, Organizational and process modeling tools such as VDT and. SimVision These tools allow a project team to simulate the. organizational effort that will be needed to complete the project and. identify potential risks in project organization that might lead to. eventual project delays Christiansen 1992, Online collaboration tools iRoom Project Based Learning Lab These. tools allow collocated and geographically distributed team of project. participants to collaborate using a shared model of product. organization and process Shreyer et al 2002 Fruchter 1999. Techniques to analyze the effectiveness of multi stakeholder meetings. in order to meet the business objectives of the project and the client. Bicharra Garcia et al 2003, A number of recent research studies have focused on documenting the. benefits of using these tools and techniques to support the project delivery. These tools and techniques have been applied in a variety of projects and to. accomplish the objectives including, Visualization of construction activities to identify time space constraints. Haymaker et al 2001, Photo realistic representation of the built spaces for effective.
communication Fischer 2003, 3D modeling used for coordination of various disciplines like. Mechanical Electrical Plumbing and Fire Protection MEP FP Staub. French et al 2001, Constructability analysis of various construction methods Akinci et al. Evaluation of site logistics plans Heesom et al 2004. Evaluation and analysis of various project sequences early on in the. design phases of the project Heesom et al 2004, Prediction of time space conflicts or constraints lay down areas. during the entire project duration Haymaker et al 2001. Use of shared product models to extract quantities and reduce the. time for creating estimates Staub French et al 2003. In addition to the product and process visualization tools CIFE has also. developed the iRoom which provides a common framework for integration of. data from commonly used engineering applications such as Microsoft Excel. Microsoft project Architectural Desktop etc and allows for rapid and. iterative collaboration between a multi stakeholder project team. VDC also provides a method to analyze the effectiveness of meetings. between a multi stakeholder project team using the DEEPAND framework. Bicharra Garcia et al 2003 DEEPAND stands for Description Explanation. Evaluation Prediction Alternative Formulation Negotiation and Decision. making The framework provides a way to measure the effectiveness of a. meeting by classifying the discussion in a meeting as one of the seven. DEEPAND activities and helps project teams move from the descriptive. explanative tasks to the more value adding evaluative and predictive tasks. by using tools and techniques of VDC to share the project information in a. more effective manner, One of the areas of research in VDC is the Perspective approach Haymaker. et al 2003 Using the Perspective approach a multi disciplinary team of. designers engineers and contractors can iteratively construct geometric. engineering views called Perspectives from information in other Perspectives. and control the integration of this multi disciplinary evolving project model as. the project progresses, One of the techniques developed at CIFE to integrate the various views.
generated by the multi disciplinary design team is the Narrative approach. which allows a multi disciplinary team to formally represent the design. process and the reasoning behind a design rationale Haymaker et al 2004. Background on Lean Construction and the Lean Project Delivery System Lean. Construction Ballard 2000 was pioneered by the Lean Construction Institute. Lean construction is the application of the Toyota Production System TPS. principles to the construction project delivery process The ultimate goal of. lean construction is to eliminate waste from construction and deliver a. product that a customer wants instantly Just like the Toyota Production. System TPS philosophy Liker 2004 which is a departure from the mass. production philosophy lean construction is a departure from the traditional. approach to construction project delivery The basic ide. CIFE CENTER FOR INTEGRATED FACILITY ENGINEERING A Guide to Applying the Principles of Virtual Design amp Construction VDC to the Lean Project Delivery Process By Atul Khanzode Martin Fischer Dean Reed amp Glenn Ballard CIFE Working Paper 093 DECEMBER 2006 STANFORD UNIVERSITY

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