Chestnut Growers Guide to Pests and Diseases

Chestnut Growers Guide To Pests And Diseases-Free PDF

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Quick Guide to Chestnut Pests and Diseases,Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp continued. but they have a good track record of eventually reducing damage to acceptable levels These beneficial species. spend the winter in shriveled galls so it s important to leave the previous season s galls on the tree rather than. prune them out Cutting out galls is only helpful if you re dealing with one or two fresh galls on an isolated tree. Japanese Beetle,Popillia japonica, Japanese beetles will gladly feed on more than 300 plant species including. chestnuts Adults are bulky insects about three eighths of an inch long. with metallic green bodies coppery wing covers and a row of five white. tufts just below each wing cover They first appear in late spring or. summer and continue to feed and mate and feed some more for the. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica rest of the season They eat leaves but not the veins producing a characteristic. Photo courtesy of Steven Valley lacy looking damage Established trees can generally withstand the defoliation. Oregon Dept of Agriculture but young trees may need special treatment On cool mornings below about. ForestryImages org,73 F beetles can be easily knocked off the. plant into a bucket of soapy water and several, pesticides are labeled for Japanese beetles Although traps are available they re. usually counterproductive because they attract more beetles than they catch. Lacy leaves are typical damage,caused by Japanese beetles.
Photo by Sara Fitzsimmons,Periodical Cicadas,Magicicada species. Periodical cicadas kill branch tips and reduce or eliminate nut production for three. years at least they don t do it very often These insects spend most of their lives under. ground emerging as noisy red eyed adults only once every 13 or 17 years Adult. females do the most serious damage by carving slits in the undersides of small branches. and laying eggs there The tips of these branches turn brown and droop called. flagging To find out whether and when to expect periodical cicadas in your area. consult with your extension agent or use maps such as those at magicicada org. Minimize damage by waiting until after an emergence. Typical of cicada damage year to plant saplings which cicadas can kill Protect. many branch tips on this other trees by draping them with bird netting one. tree have turned brown quarter to one half inch mesh If you install netting. and died Photo by Sara before cicadas emerge gather and fasten it around the. Fitzsimmons, trunk Otherwise wait until cicadas have been active. for a few days and drape it loosely over the tree,Red eyed and noisy periodical cicadas emerge just. once every 13 or 17 years Photo courtesy of Jon Yuschock. ForestryImages org, 18 T h e J o u r n a l Of T h e A m e r i ca n C h e s t n u t F o u n d at i o n M A y J UNE 2 0 1 3. Ambrosia Beetles, Ambrosia beetles can be deeply discouraging as they sweep.
through a chestnut orchard wiping out trees But when you re. feeling philosophical consider that they re also farmers When. an adult female carves out a tunnel in a tree trunk she deposits. spores of a symbiotic ambrosia fungus and lays her eggs The. larvae feed on the growing fungus never on the wood itself. When they emerge as adults they too carry fungus spores to. Ambrosia beetles damage trees by carrying the next tree to start a new garden. pathogens deep into the wood Photo courtesy of, Unfortunately ambrosia fungi can cause a tree s vascular system. Daniel Adam Office National des For ts ForestryImages org. to clog up and the beetles also shuttle around plant pathogens. See page 28 for special report on ambrosia beetles Small trees less than three inches in diameter are the most. likely to be attacked and damage from the beetles and fungi often kills them at best it stunts their growth or. sets you back to a resprout, Once beetles make it inside the trunk there s no remedy so the key is to catch them early Start monitoring in. early spring before budbreak using purchased or homemade traps baited with ethanol See page 29 for. instructions on building ethanol traps As soon as ambrosia beetles show up in the traps you know it s time. to spray Coat trunks of small trees with an approved pyrethroid insecticide and repeat the spray every two to. three weeks Once chestnuts are fully leafed out they seem to be safe for the season. Although dozens of ambrosia beetle species live in the eastern United States just a handful of introduced species. are really pestiferous Among the most severe are granulate ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus crassiusculus black. stem borer X germanus and fruit tree pinhole borer Xyleborinus saxeseni Like most ambrosia beetles they. are a few sixteenths of an inch long bullet shaped and black or brown Get familiar with online identification. resources or consult your extension agent If in doubt any ambrosia beetle in your trap probably means it s. time to treat, Little beige worms inside your chestnuts are likely the larvae of. long snouted beetles called weevils The lesser chestnut weevil. Curculio sayi is a common problem but a handful of fairly. similar species can also infest your crop damaging the nuts but. not the tree See special weevil report on page 24 Adults range. in color from gray to brown and are about one sixth to one half. an inch long Females use their long proboscis to drill holes in. developing chestnuts where they lay their eggs The larvae tunnel. Small chestnut weevil Curculio sayi The weevil uses. through the nuts as they feed, its long snout to drill holes in chestnuts into which. it lays its eggs Photo courtesy of Jennifer C Giron. By the time chestnuts fall to the ground in the autumn the larvae. Duque University of Puerto Rico ForestryImages com. are nearly developed and ready to chew their way out leaving a. visible pinhole They burrow a few inches into the ground and. spend the winter or sometimes a year or more inactive under ground Finally adult weevils make their way. back into your trees in search of nuts, If left unmanaged these beetles can ruin an entire nut crop Even the tiniest amount of weevil damage drastically.
reduces germination and nobody wants to eat a wormy chestnut Commercial nut producers with heavy. infestations may need to spray in late summer or early fall when adult weevils are active. w w w A C F o r g T h e J o u r n a l Of T h e A m e r i ca n C h e s t n u t F o u n d at i o n 19. Quick Guide to Chestnut Pests and Diseases,Weevils continued. In other cases good sanitation alone should do the trick That means harvesting directly off the tree and collecting. fallen nuts daily before larvae escape into the ground Depending on your goals simply burn the nuts or store. them in a thick plastic bucket to capture emerging larvae Destroy the larvae and use the good nuts that don t. have holes in them If you plan to eat the nuts dunk freshly harvested chestnuts in 120 F water for 20 minutes. The heat kills eggs and larvae inside the nuts usually when they re still too small to notice Bon app tit. Sucking Insects, Many small soft bodied insects drink plant sap using flexible straw like. mouth parts They can deplete a tree s resources and inject toxic saliva that. causes leaves and shoots to become distorted and yellow Aphids whiteflies. phylloxerans and leafhoppers can all damage chestnuts although they re. rarely bad enough to warrant treatment Aphids are small soft grenade. shaped insects with or without wings whiteflies are minute white bugs that. often flutter off leaves when disturbed Both groups make sweet sticky. excrement that can be messy and promote mold growth but their natural. enemies usually keep them in check Phylloxerans can cause more severe. yellowing and crinkling of leaves look for yellow or orange slow moving. soft bodied insects clustered along leaf veins Similar damage can also result. from potato leafhoppers bright green wedge shaped insects that scamper. quickly across the leaves If any of these groups reach damaging levels. check with your extension agent for a positive ID and treatment. recommendations,Chestnut saplings show leaf curl caused. by aphids Photo by Sara Fitzsimmons,Gypsy Moth,Lymantria dispar. Gypsy moths have defoliated millions of acres of forest and. may be the most notorious caterpillars on the continent. When they hatch in the spring they cause shot hole damage. in foliage As they grow older caterpillars develop two. recognizable rows of blue and red spots on their backs. they can devour entire leaves After feeding for several. weeks they spin cocoons and remain inactive until adults. Gypsy moth caterpillars are voracious and can defoliate. entire orchards Photo courtesy Haruta Ovidiu University of. emerge in midsummer mate and lay clusters of several. Oradea ForestryImages org hundred eggs Gypsy moth abundance varies wildly from. year to year so keep in touch with your extension agent to. find out when to expect an outbreak Chestnuts can usually. withstand up to 50 defoliation before they require treatment For small scale control wrap an apron of burlap. around the tree trunk Large caterpillars will rest there and can be easily found and destroyed On a larger scale. spraying a pesticide such as Bt protects trees during outbreak years Spraying also a good choice for smaller. saplings where wrapping is not a viable solution, 20 T h e J o u r n a l Of T h e A m e r i ca n C h e s t n u t F o u n d at i o n M A y J UNE 2 0 1 3.
Other Caterpillars, Although gypsy moths are the most severe many moth. caterpillars find their way to chestnut leaves and some may. cause obvious damage Orangestriped oakworm Anisota. senatoria and yellownecked caterpillar Datana ministra. are two conspicuous species that appear in late summer. Both are boldly striped with black and orange or yellow. and often feed in clusters when small Leaf rollers leaf. skeletonizers bagworms and armyworms are all groups of. caterpillars that you may find on chestnut They can make. a tree look bad but birds diseases and parasites usually. do a good job of controlling them If you reach 50, defoliation or if you have two bad caterpillar years in a row. you may need to treat Several pesticides are effective and. your extension agent can recommend one for your particular. Orangestriped oakworm is one of several types of caterpillar. caterpillar that can do damage to foliage but seldom. pose a serious threat to the tree, Photo courtesy of Clemson University ForestryImages org. Chestnut Blight, With all the work that TACF has done to produce blight resistant. chestnuts it is hard sometimes to remember that they are only blight. resistant not blight proof Even with Restoration Chestnut 1 0 trees. a certain percentage will succumb to the blight and many chestnuts. planted today in backyards or small orchards are from earlier stages. in the breeding process and are less resistant This means that chestnut. blight will still claim a significant number of trees. Chestnut blight starts when the pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica. enters the chestnut through a crack or wound in the bark Once. established it sends out threads of fungus that eventually encircle the. stem creating raised or sunken cankers On young trees with smooth. bark the canker often appears orange in color As it expands the. infection cuts off the flow of water and nutrients beyond the canker. When the fungus encircles the trunk every part of the tree beyond. the canker dies When the fungus is reproducing the surface of the. blister can be covered in orange pimple like structures called stromata. The fungus is very good at spreading as it can travel both in water. and through the air and it is very effective at hitching a ride on insects. birds or mammals, Although in the wild there is little one can do to stop the.
This blight canker shows both raised and sunken blight in the home orchard there is one simple treatment. attributes The canker has completely encircled the stem that can be applied to individual trees that may slow the. and the reproductive orange stromata are clearly visible. Photo by Paul Franklin progression of the disease The soil around the tree contains. w w w A C F o r g T h e J o u r n a l Of T h e A m e r i ca n C h e s t n u t F o u n d at i o n 21. Quick Guide to Chestnut Pests and Diseases,Chestnut Blight continued. millions of microorganisms some of which may attack or slow the spread of Cryphonectria parasitica Gather. soil from around the tree add water until it makes a thick paste and pack it around the canker holding it in. place with 4 inch wide shrink wrap purchased from a building supply store Extend the mudpack about a foot. above and below the canker so the canker cannot expand beyond the treatment area You must treat all the. cankers on a tree and inspect the tree monthly treating new cankers and replacing the mudpacks on old cankers. annually As the tree grows larger it becomes more difficult to reach and treat all the cankers but this method. can extend the life of the tree,Phytophthora Ink Disease or Root Rot. Chances are if you live south of Pennsylvania and your chestnut. seedlings or trees suddenly wilt and die the culprit is Phytophthora. a deadly pathogen that lives in soil and kills plants by destroying. the roots Also known as ink disease and root rot Phytophthora. was accidentally imported to North America from Asia in the late. This tiny insect about the size of two poppy seeds was accidentally introduced into North America from China nearly 40 years ago It now attacks all chestnut species in 13 states and Ontario Canada including almost the entire historical range of American chestnut Its damage can be severe but the good news is that its natural enemies are spreading along with it Gall wasps lay their eggs

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