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chertok cover full 12 21 04 1 51 PM Page 1,and People. Much has been written in the West on the history, People of the Soviet space program but few Westerners. have read direct first hand accounts of the men,and women who were behind the many Russian. accomplishments in exploring space The memoirs,of Academician Boris Chertok translated from the. original Russian fills that gap, Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930.
at an aviation factory near Moscow Twenty seven, years later he became deputy to the founding figure. of the Soviet space program the mysterious Chief,Designer Sergey Korolev Chertok s sixty year long. career and the many successes and failures of the,Soviet space program constitute the core of his. memoirs Rockets and People In these writings spread. over four volumes Academician Chertok not only, describes and remembers but also elicits and extracts. profound insights from an epic story about a society s. quest to explore the cosmos, Volume I In Volume 1 Chertok describes his early years as.
an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany,after the end of World War II when the Soviets. captured Nazi missile technology and expertise,Volume 2 takes up the story with the development. of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM and ends with the launch of Sputnik and,the early Moon probes In Volume 3 Chertok recol. lects the great successes of the Soviet space program. in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first. space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events. connected with the Cold War Finally in Volume 4,Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet. lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the. Moon in the 1960s ending with his remembrances,of the Energiya Buran project.
Cover photo, Standing from right to left Major B Chertok Major Musatov Colonel. N Pilyugin and officers of the Seventy fifth Guards Division. Bleicherode Germany 1945 From the author s archives. 5 4110 Boris E Chertok,Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page i. Rockets and People,Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page ii. Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page iii,Rockets and People. Boris Chertok,The NASA History Series,National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
NASA History Office,Office of External Relations,Washington DC. January 2005,NASA SP 2005 4110,Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page iv. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Chertok B E Boris Evseevich 1912,Rakety i lyudi English. Rockets and people by Boris E Chertok edited by Asif A Siddiqi. p cm NASA History Series NASA SP 2005 4110,Includes bibliographical references and index. 1 Chertok B E Boris Evseevich 1912 2 Astronautics, Soviet Union Biography 3 Aerospace engineers Soviet Union.
Biography 4 Astronautics Soviet Union History, I Siddiqi Asif A 1966 II Title III Series IV SP 2005 4110. TL789 85 C48C4813 2004,629 1 092 dc22,2004020825,Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page v. I dedicate this book,to the cherished memory,of my wife and friend. Yekaterina Semyonova Golubkina,Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page vi. Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page vii,Series Introduction by Asif A Siddiqi ix.
Foreword by Lt Gen Thomas P Stafford USAF Ret xxi,Preface to the English Language Edition xxiii. A Few Notes about Transliteration and Translation xxv. List of Abbreviations xxvii,1 Introduction A Debt to My Generation 1. 2 On the Times and My Contemporaries 5,3 Between Two Aerodromes 29. 4 School in the Twenties 41,5 Factory No 22 57,6 In the Bolkhovitinov Design Bureau and KOSTR 99. 7 Arctic Triumphs and Tragedies 117,8 Everything Real Is Rational 139.
9 Return to Bolkhovitinov 147,10 On the Eve of War 157. 11 At the Beginning of the War 173,12 In the Urals 187. 13 15 May 1942 193,14 Back in Moscow 201,15 Moscow Poznan Berlin 211. 16 May Days in Berlin 223,17 What Is Peenem nde 239. 18 To Thuringia 271,19 Nordhausen City of Missiles and Death 277.
20 Birth of the Institute RABE 287,21 Operation Ost 299. 22 Special Incidents 309,23 In Search of a Real Boss 319. 24 Korolev Glushko and Our First Encounters in Germany 325. 25 Engine Specialists 333,26 The Institute Nordhausen 345. Chertok front matter 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page viii,Chertok series intro 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page ix. Series Introduction, I n an extraordinary century Academician Boris Yevseyevich Chertok.
lived an extraordinary life He witnessed and participated in many important tech. nological milestones of the twentieth century and in these volumes he recollects. them with clarity humanity and humility Chertok began his career as an electri. cian in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow Thirty years later he was one of. the senior designers in charge of the Soviet Union s crowning achievement as a. space power the launch of Yuriy Gagarin the world s first space voyager Chertok s. sixty year long career punctuated by the extraordinary accomplishments of both. Sputnik and Gagarin and continuing to the many successes and failures of the. Soviet space program constitutes the core of his memoirs Rockets and People In. these four volumes Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers but. also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest. to explore the cosmos, Academician Chertok s memoirs forged from experience in the Cold War. provide a compelling perspective into a past that is indispensable to understanding. the present relationship between the American and Russian space programs From. the end of the World War II to the present day the missile and space efforts of the. United States and the Soviet Union and now Russia have been inextricably. linked As such although Chertok s work focuses exclusively on Soviet programs. to explore space it also prompts us to reconsider the entire history of spaceflight. both Russian and American, Chertok s narrative underlines how from the beginning of the Cold War the. rocketry projects of the two nations evolved in independent but parallel paths. Chertok s first hand recollections of the extraordinary Soviet efforts to collect. catalog and reproduce German rocket technology after World War II provide a. parallel view to what historian John Gimbel has called the Western exploitation. and plunder of German technology after the war 1 Chertok describes how the. Soviet design team under the famous Chief Designer Sergey Pavlovich Korolev. 1 John Gimbel Science Technology and Reparations Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany Stanford. Stanford University Press 1990,Chertok series intro 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page x. Rockets and People, quickly outgrew German missile technology By the late 1950s his team produced. the majestic R 7 the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile Using this. rocket the Soviet Union launched the first Sputnik satellite on 4 October 1957. from a launch site in remote central Asia, The early Soviet accomplishments in space exploration particularly the launch.
of Sputnik in 1957 and the remarkable flight of Yuriy Gagarin in 1961 were. benchmarks of the Cold War Spurred by the Soviet successes the United States. formed a governmental agency the National Aeronautics and Space Administra. tion NASA to conduct civilian space exploration As a result of Gagarin s. triumphant flight in 1961 the Kennedy Administration charged NASA to achieve. the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. before the end of the decade 2 Such an achievement would demonstrate Ameri. can supremacy in the arena of spaceflight at a time when both American and. Soviet politicians believed that victory in space would be tantamount to preemi. nence on the global stage The space programs of both countries grew in leaps and. bounds in the 1960s but the Americans crossed the finish line first when Apollo. astronauts Neil A Armstrong and Edwin E Buzz Aldrin Jr disembarked on the. Moon s surface in July 1969, Shadowing Apollo s success was an absent question What happened to the Sovi. ets who had succeeded so brilliantly with Sputnik and Gagarin Unknown to most. the Soviets tried and failed to reach the Moon in a secret program that came to. naught As a result of that disastrous failure the Soviet Union pursued a gradual and. consistent space station program in the 1970s and 1980s that eventually led to the. Mir space station The Americans developed a reusable space transportation system. known as the Space Shuttle Despite their seemingly separate paths the space. programs of the two powers remained dependent on each other for rationale and. direction When the Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991 cooperation replaced. competition as the two countries embarked on a joint program to establish the first. permanent human habitation in space through the International Space Station ISS. Academician Chertok s reminiscences are particularly important because he. played key roles in almost every major milestone of the Soviet missile and space. programs from the beginning of World War II to the dissolution of the Soviet. Union in 1991 During the war he served on the team that developed the Soviet. Union s first rocket powered airplane the BI In the immediate aftermath of the. war Chertok then in his early thirties played a key role in studying and collect. ing captured German rocket technology In the latter days of the Stalinist era he. worked to develop long range missiles as deputy chief engineer of the main. research institute the NII 88 pronounced nee 88 near Moscow In 1956. 2 U S Congress Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences Documents on International Aspects of the. Exploration and Uses of Outer Space 1954 1962 88th Cong 1st sess S Doc 18 Washington DC GPO 1963. pp 202 204,Chertok series intro 12 21 04 11 25 AM Page xi. Series Introduction, Korolev s famous OKB 1 design bureau spun off from the institute and assumed a. leading position in the emerging Soviet space program As a deputy chief designer. at OKB 1 Chertok continued with his contributions to the most important. Soviet space projects of the day Vostok Voskhod Soyuz the world s first space. station Salyut the Energiya superbooster and the Buran space shuttle. Chertok s emergence from the secret world of the Soviet military industrial. complex into his current status as the most recognized living legacy of the Soviet. space program coincided with the dismantling of the Soviet Union as a political. entity Throughout most of his career Chertok s name remained a state secret. When he occasionally wrote for the public he used the pseudonym Boris. Yevseyev 3 Like others writing on the Soviet space program during the Cold War. Chertok was not allowed to reveal any institutional or technical details in his writ. ings What the state censors permitted for publication said little one could read a. book several hundred pages long comprised of nothing beyond tedious and long. personal anecdotes between anonymous participants extolling the virtues of the. Communist Party The formerly immutable limits on free expression in the Soviet. Union irrevocably expanded only after Mikhail Gorbachev s rise to power in 1985. and the introduction of glasnost openness, Chertok s name first appeared in print in the newspaper Izvestiya in an article. commemorating the thirtieth anniversary of the launch of Sputnik in 1987 In a. wide ranging interview on the creation of Sputnik Chertok spoke with the. utmost respect for his former boss the late Korolev He also eloquently balanced. love for his country with criticisms of the widespread inertia and inefficiency that. characterized late period Soviet society 4 His first written works in the glasnost. period published in early 1988 in the Air Force journal Aviatsiya i kosmonavtika. Aviation and Cosmonautics underlined Korolev s central role in the foundation. and growth of the Soviet space program 5 By this time it was as if all the patched. up straps that held together a stagnant empire were falling apart one by one even. as Russia was in the midst of one of its most historic transformations the flood. gates of free expression were transforming the country s own history People like. Chertok were now free to speak about their experiences with candor Readers. could now learn about episodes such as Korolev s brutal incarceration in the late. 1930s the dramatic story behind the fatal space mission of Soyuz 1 in 1967 and. details of the failed and abandoned Moon project in the 1960s 6 Chertok himself. 3 See for example his article Chelovek or avtomat Human or Automation in the book by M Vasilyev. ed Shagi k zvezdam Footsteps to the Stars Moscow Molodaya gvardiya 1972 pp 281 287. 4 B Konovalov Ryvok k zvezdam Dash to the Stars Izvestiya October 1 1987 p 3. 5 B Chertok Lider Leader Aviatsiya i kosmonavtika no 1 1988 pp 30 31 and no 2 1988 pp 40 41. 6 For early references to Korolev s imprisonment see Ye Manucharova Kharakter glavnogo konstruktora. The Character of the Chief Designer Izvestiya January 11 1987 p 3 For early revelations on Soyuz 1 and the. Moon program see L N Kamanin Zvezdy Komarova Komarov s Star Poisk No 5 June 1989 pp 4 5 and L. N Kamanin S zemli na lunu i obratno From the Earth to the Moon and Back Poisk no 12 July 1989 pp. chertok cover full 12 21 04 1 51 PM Page 1 Rockets and People Rockets and People Volume I Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok translated from the original Russian fills

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