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3 1 Multimedia Definition, The term multimedia constituents of two words multi and medium. Multi refers to many i e at least two Media is the plural of medium Medium. refers to storage transmission communication representation presentation. input interaction and perception meaning that it can refer to different level of. abstraction It also refers to a basic information type like text graphics images. audio animation video etc Therefore multimedia is as an integration of many. types of media i e text graphics images audio animation video etc on a. single medium in the same information unit, The Columbia Encyclopaedia has defined multimedia as in personal. computing software and applications that combines text high quality sound. two and three dimensional graphics animation images and full motion video. Lagasse 2000, According to Vaughan multimedia is any combination of text sound. animation and video delivered by computer or other electronic or digitally. manipulated means It is a woven combination of digitally manipulated text. photographs graphic art sound animation and video elements Vaughan. Newton defines multimedia as the combination of different types of. media in the communication of information between two users and their. computers The format in which the information for communication exists. differs but it usually includes voice communication sound processing and. image processing Multimedia means that convergence of the technologies. from the different industries into a communication medium that presents the. synthesis of interactive computers highly fidelity video and sound Multimedia. is thus the combination of standard data processing with text graphics. animation sound and video Newton 1998, Dahmer defines the term as something that combines the capabilities. of technologies that used to be separate it can combine things like text. graphics sounds and still or motion pictures in a smooth way to present. information Print telecommunications video broadcasting and computers. have merged and the result is what we now call multimedia Dahmer 1993. The simultaneous use of two or more different forms of media text. graphics animation sound and video for effective information communication. is referred as multimedia Graphics and sound digital or analog video. animations hypermedia interactivity computer games virtual reality. electronic books CD ROM HDTV telecommunications and many others have. all been terms associated with the definition of multimedia at one time or. another Stubley 1994 Multimedia is a technology engaging a variety of. media including text audio video graphics and animation either separately or. in combination using computers to communicate ideas or to disseminate. information,3 2 Genesis of Multimedia, The genesis of multimedia can be traced back from some notable.
inventions The invention of printing press in 1450 by Gutenberg brought a. revolution in the growth of recorded knowledge Radio transmission was. invented by G Marconi in 1885 and he detected radio waves beamed across. the Atlantic in 1901 which is now a major medium for audio broadcasting. In the area of still pictures the evolution of microfilm was in 1839 and. negative film in 1841 Photography came into existence in 1851 Moving. pictures i e cinematographic film was invented in 1870 Sound recording discs. came into existence in 1877 and magnetic tape recorder in 1898 Sound tape. was used first time in the year 1899 In 1908 video tape and Television were. invented Electronic camera was invented in 1934 Taylor 1982. Evolution of microcomputers in 1945 had made revolution in the field. of computer technology Optical storage system was evolved in 1985 and it is. notable in this regard Vaughan 2008 Television was the new media for. twentieth century it brought the video and has changed the world of mass. communication, Origin of multimedia is frequently connected with the emergence of. Memex Memex is a mechanical device designed by Bush in 1945 for storing. organizing and retrieving information in the form of text and graphics Bush. 1945 Doug Englebert in 1962 designed a system called NLS oN Line. System which had interactive multi user editing and branching of different. files and texts having searching facility Engelbart 1993. In 1965 Theodor Nelson had designed a system named as hypertext in. 1965 which was based on the concept of Memex Nelson 1965 Hypertext. means a non sequential reading and writing allowing authors to link. information create paths through a corpus of related material annotate existing. text create notes and points readers to either bibliographical data or the body of. the referenced text It is text in electronic form that take advantage of the. interactive capabilities Conklin 1987 When text is stored in a computer the. computer s powerful processing capabilities can be applied to make the text. more accessible and meaningful The text can then be called hypertext because. the words sections and thoughts are linked The user can navigate through text. in a nonlinear way quickly and intuitively, Hypertext systems are currently used for electronic publishing and. reference works technical documentation educational courseware interactive. kiosks electronic catalogues interactive fiction text and image databases. Another development in this field is hypermedia A multimedia program. developed in a hypertext environment is hypermedia It is simply the extension. of hypertext that incorporates other media elements in addition to text With. hypermedia systems author can create linked corps of materials that include. text static and animated graphics video sound music etc Yankelovich. Haan Meyrowit Drucker 1988 The basic difference between hypermedia. and multimedia is in the organization and the linkages of the information. fragments The information fragments in the multimedia are organized linearly. whereas in hypermedia these are organized non linearly with links to each. other Ramaiah 1992, Theodor Nelson started another project named as XANDU in 1960s a. global literary system aimed as instantaneous repository and delivery system. for the published works like text graphics audio video etc so that any user. may rapidly get any frame or whole work Nelson 1980 Gregory 1983 In. late 1970s Van Dam designed a File Retrieving and Editing SyStem FRESS. by incorporating the best ideas of Engelbart s NLS oN Line System and. Hypertext Editing System Van Dam 1971 This was followed by another. system INTERMEDIA designed by Meyrowitz at Brown University for. conducting research on use of hypertext in teaching Yankelovich et al 1988. At the start of 1990s multimedia was meant as combination of text with. document images Andleigh Thakrar 2003, Multimedia technology got revolutionized with the introduction of. Internet In 1991 Tim Berner Lee developed a global hypertext project known. as World Wide Web designed to allow people to work together by combining. their knowledge in a web of hypertext documents He is the primary inventor of. the World Wide Web and HTML the system of text links and multimedia. capabilities that made the Internet accessible to mass audiences Berner Lee. In twenty first century multimedia is used on internet for various. multimedia applications Now most of the websites on internet have. multimedia capabilities Multimedia blogs audio and video archives podcasts. multimedia galleries webcasts multimedia in social networking websites etc. are today s common applications of multimedia on internet. 3 3 Components of Multimedia, There are five components of multimedia i e text sound images.
animation and video These are explained in detail as under Vaughan 2008. 3 3 1 Text, Text or written language is the most common way of communicating. information It is one of the basic components of multimedia It was originally. defined by printed media such as books and newspapers that used various. typefaces to display the alphabet numbers and special characters Although. multimedia products include pictures audio and video text may be the most. common data type found in multimedia applications Besides this text also. provides opportunities to extend the traditional power of text by linking it to. other media thus making it an interactive medium,i Static Text. In static text the words are laid out to fit in well with the graphical. surroundings The words are built into the graphics just like the graphics and. explanation given in the pages of the book the information is well laid out and. easy to read The learners are able to look at the pictures and read the textual. information as they are available on the similar screen Kindersley 1996. ii Hypertext, A hypertext system consists of nodes It contains the text and links. between the nodes which define the paths the user can follow to access the text. in non sequential ways The links represent associations of meaning and can be. thought of as cross references This structure is created by the author of the. system although in more sophisticated hypertext systems the user is able to. define their own paths The hypertext provides the user with the flexibility and. choice to navigate through the material Text should be used to convey. imperative information and should be positioned at appropriate place in a. multimedia product Well formatted sentences and paragraphs are vital factors. spacing and punctuation also affects the readability of the text Fonts and styles. should be used to improve the communication of the message more. appropriately,3 3 2 Image, Images are an important component of multimedia These are generated. by the computer in two ways as bitmap or raster images and as vector images. i Raster or Bitmap Images, The most common and comprehensive form of storage for images on a.
computer is a raster or bitmap image Bitmap is a simple matrix of the tiny dots. called pixel that forms a raster or bitmap image Vaughan 2008 Each pixel. consists of two or more colours The colour depth is determined by how much. data in bits is used to determine the number of colours e g one bit is two. colours four bits means sixteen colours eight bits indicates 256 colours 16. bits yields 65 536 colours and so on Depending on the hardware capabilities. each point can display from two to millions of colours Comprehensive image. means that an image looks as much as possible like the real word or original. product This means that the proportion size colour and texture must be as. accurate as possible Bitmap formats are Windows Bitmap BMP Device. Independent Bitmap DIB and Windows Run Length Encoded RLE. Hillman 1998,ii Vector Images, Vector images base on drawing elements or objects such as lines. rectangles circles and so forth to create an image The advantage of vector. image is the relatively small amount of data required to represent the image and. therefore it does not requires a lot of memory to store The image consists of a. set of commands that are drawn when needed A bitmap image requires the. number of pixels to produce appropriate height width and colour depth the. vector image is based on a relatively limited number of drawing commands. The falls drop of vector images is the limited level of detail that can be. presented in an image Hillman 1998 Mostly used vector format is Windows. metfile in windows operating system, Compression techniques are used to reduce the file size of images that is. useful for storing large number of images and speeding transmission for. networked application Compression formats used for this purpose are GIF. TIFF and JPEG,3 3 3 Animation, Animation consists of still images displayed so quickly that they give. the impression of continuous movement The screen object is a vector image in. animation The movement of that image along paths is calculated using. numerical transformations applied to their defining coordinates To give the. impression of smoothness the frame rate has to be at least 16 frames per. second and for natural looking motion it should be at least 25 frames per. second Animations may be two or three dimensional In two dimensional. animation the visual changes that bring an image alive occur on the flat X and. Y axis of the screen while in three dimensional animation it occurs along the. entire three axis X Y and Z showing the image from all the angles Such. animations are typically rendered frame by high end three dimensional. animation softwares Animation tools are very powerful and effective There. are two basic types of animations path animation and frame animation. i Path Animation, Path animations involve moving an object on a screen that has a. constant background e g a cartoon character may move across the screen. regardless any change in the background or the character. ii Frame Animation, In frame animations several objects are allowed to move simultaneously.
and the objects or the background can also change, The moving objects are one of the most appropriate tools to enhance. understanding as they allow the learner to see the demonstration of changes. processes and procedures Earnshaw Vince 1995 Animation uses very. little memory in comparison to digital video as it consists of drawing and. moving instructions Animation is very useful for such multimedia applications. where moving visuals are required but where digital video may be unsuitable. unnecessary or too expensive in terms of disc space or memory. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION The objective of this chapter is to present a detailed account of multimedia technology The chapter commences with multimedia technology its definitions genesis components etc It provides an overview of multimedia production and its application in various fields including libraries and information centers Computer technology has

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