Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth

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AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth. Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw, 6 In 1953 at the University of Chicago Stanly Miller and Harold Urey tested the Oparin. Haldane hypothesis with this apparatus It is shown in Chapter 4 Figure 4 2 so you have seen. it before Explain the elements of this experiment using arrows to indicate what occurs in. various parts of the apparatus,Sealed container to make a. different atmosphere filled with,gases supposed to be present in early. atmosphere pressure and temperature,are set to approximate the conditions. thought to have existed Electrodes,simulated the addition of lightening.
as energy and water created from,condensation was collected. 7 What was collected in the sample for chemical analysis What was concluded from the results. of this experiment, amino acids formed which suggested that organic molecules could. have formed on early Earth, 8 What are protobionts What properties of life do they demonstrate. Protobionts are little vessels that contain organic molecules. capable of metabolism and replication, What did Thomas Cech propose was the first genetic material DNA or RNA. 10 What are ribozymes,RNA catalyst that can copy RNA strands.
11 Explain the evidence for an early RNA world, Simplest model RNA is simple single strand and can code. for protein and with ribozymes can replicate it self key. ingredients for basic life,Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 2. AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth. Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw, Concept 25 2 The fossil record documents the history of life. 12 sedimentary formed by layers of,In what type of rock are fossils found. settling matter like dust sand mud,silt depend on source.
13 What do we not know from analyzing rock strata, Exact age radiometric dating can provide estimates don t. have complete records gaps, 14 Rocks and fossils are dated in several ways Relative dating uses the order of rock strata to. determine the relative age of fossils Radiometric dating uses the decay of radioactive isotopes. to determine the age of the rocks or fossils It is based on the rate of decay or half life of the. isotope To determine the absolute age of a fossil radiometric dating is used Use this figure to. explain the concept of radiometric dating Label key elements. If you know the,normal amt of,an element and,what it decays into. like C14 N14,and we know half life,time for 1 2 to. decay then you,can estimate time of,death As long as.
you were alive you,were intaking C14, 15 What is the age range for which carbon 14 dating may be used. up to 75 000 years, 16 To date fossils outside the rage of carbon 14 dating researchers use indirect methods of. establishing absolute fossil age Explain two of these methods potassium 40 and magnetism. K 40 use amount left in rock layers indirect and it has. half life of 1 3 By, magnetism uses periodic reversal of Earth s magnetic field. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 3, AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth. Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw,17 What are three groups of tetrapods.
reptiles amphibians mammals, 18 Cite three ways of distinguishing mammal fossils from the other two groups of tetrapods. jaw teeth ear bones, Concept 25 3 Key events in life s history include the origins of single celled and multicelled. organisms and the colonization of land, 19 What was the earliest form of life on the planet How long ago did this life form first occur. Simple prokaryotes heterotrophic fed on organic molecules in. primordial ocean did not make own Cell membrane RNA. enough organic chemicals proteins to facilitate basic chemical. reactions Might have been 3 9 BYA, 20 What unique ability was originated with cyanobacteria How did this alter life on Earth and. lead to a wave of mass extinctions, cyanobacteria introduced ability to make own food from sunlight.
also generated oxygen as a by product eventually oxygen builds up. in atmosphere Many of early prokaryotes were likely poisoned by. oxygen and did not survive this change, 21 The first eukaryotes did not appear until approximately 2 1 billion years ago Using the figure. label and explain the evolution of eukaryotes by endosymbiosis. Some prokaryotes may have ingested,but not digested other prokaryotes. If the ingested prokaryotes were,efficient aerobic bacteria or. photosynthetic they may have,stayed alive within,host and helped support. host Evidence for this,includes that both,mitochondria and chloroplasts have double.
membrane have their circular DNA separate from,host can divide separately from host. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 4, AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth. Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw, 22 Summarize three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis. 23 Use the clock model to note the following events in the life of the planet origin of the Earth. appearance of prokaryotes evolution of atmospheric oxygen occurrence of eukaryotic cells. multicellularity and life moves onto land For each event also label the number of years ago it. Concept 25 4 The rise and fall of dominant groups reflect continental drift mass extinctions and. adaptive radiations, 24 If you have not studied geology you will find this concept introduces a fascinating look at the. changes in our planet as explained by continental drift Define continental drift How can. continents move,Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 5.
In the last chapter 14 Rocks and fossils AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

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