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Name Date Class,13 DIRECTED READING WORKSHEET,Chemical Bonding. As you read Chapter 13 which begins on page 326 of your textbook answer the. following questions, 1 Read the title of the chapter List three things that you already. know about this subject, 2 Write two questions about this subject that you would like. answered by the time you finish this chapter,CHAPTER 13. 3 How does the photograph relate to the title of the chapter. Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. 4 How does the title of the Start Up Activity relate to the subject of. the chapter,Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding p 328.

5 Every substance in the world can be made out of about 100. elements True or False Circle one,1 DIRECTED READING WORKSHEETS 95. Name Date Class,Chapter 13 continued,Atoms Combine Through Chemical Bonding p 328. 6 Sugar is made from atoms of which of the following elements. Circle all that apply,a carbon c hydrogen,b nitrogen d oxygen. 7 A chemical bond is the of,attraction that holds a pair of atoms together. Electron Number and Organization p 329, 8 In order to make the overall charge of an atom zero there must be an.

equal number of negatively charged,and positively charged. 9 Valence electrons are the electrons in an atom s innermost. energy level True or False Circle one, Look at Figure 3 on page 330 Write the number of valence electrons. for each of the following elements,12 chlorine, Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. To Bond or Not to Bond p 330, 14 Which electrons determine whether or not an atom will form. a the electrons in the nucleus,b the electrons in the innermost energy level.

c the electrons in the outermost energy level,d None of the above. 15 An atom will not normally form a chemical bond if it has. valence electrons, 16 Which of the following does NOT describe how atoms can fill. their outermost energy level,a by sharing electrons with other atoms. b by losing electrons to other atoms,c by gaining electrons from other atoms. d by gaining kinetic energy from other atoms,96 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 2.

Name Date Class,Chapter 13 continued, 17 Why does a helium atom need only two valence electrons. Review p 331, Now that you ve finished Section 1 review what you learned by. answering the Review questions in your ScienceLog,Section 2 Types of Chemical Bonds p 332. 1 Three types of chemical bonds are,Ionic Bonds p 332. 2 Describe how two atoms can become ions,CHAPTER 13.

3 An atom that loses one or more electrons from its outermost. Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. energy level becomes a positively charged ion True or False. Circle one, 4 Which of the following elements give up electrons to other. atoms Circle all that apply,a sodium c chlorine,b aluminum d oxygen. 5 Why do the elements in Groups 1 and 2 react so easily. 6 Atoms of nonmetals lose one or more protons when they form. ionic bonds True or False Circle one,3 DIRECTED READING WORKSHEETS 97. NO CALCULATOR,Name Date Class,9 MATH SKILLS,Comparing Integers on a Number Line. An integer is any whole number 0 1 2 3 or its opposite A good way to compare. integers is with a number line which is used to represent positive and negative numbers. in order A number line looks like this,10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10.

The farther a number is to the right on a number line the greater the number The far. ther a number is to the left on a number line the smaller the number. PROCEDURE To compare integers on a number line simply place your values on. the line with positive numbers to the right of zero and negative numbers to the. left of zero The number that is the farthest to the right is the greatest number. The number that is the farthest to the left is the smallest number. SAMPLE PROBLEM Which is greater 8 or 3, Step 1 Draw your number line and select a point for 0 Then fill in the integer. values on the line, Step 2 Place the integers you are comparing on the number line. Because both numbers are negative they will both be to the left of zero. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10,MATH SKILLS. Because 3 is farther to the right than 8 3 is greater than 8. Practice Your Skills, Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. 1 Locate the following integers on the number line Then list them in order from. smallest to greatest on the line below,4 12 2 7 5 2 7 9 13.

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15. 13 7 5 2 2 4 7 9 12, 2 Use a number line to correctly place the sign greater than or less than between. the numbers in each of the following pairs,a 89 98 b 89 98 c 98 69. 3 This table shows estimates of the mean temperatures on the surface of nine planets. List the planets on the line below in order from hottest to coldest. Earth Jupiter Mars Mercury Neptune Pluto Saturn Uranus Venus. 8 C 150 C 37 C 179 C 225 C 236 C 185 C 214 C 453 C. NO CALCULATOR,4 MATH SKILLS FOR SCIENCE 11,NO CALCULATOR. Name Date Class,10 MATH SKILLS,Arithmetic with Positive and Negative Numbers. The absolute value of a number is its distance from zero on the number line For. example 7 a negative number and 7 a positive number are the same distance. from zero on the number line and both have an absolute value of 7 Using absolute. values simplifies the process of doing arithmetic with positive and negative numbers. 1 Find the absolute value of the following numbers. c 325 000 d 475,e 230 f 52, Part 1 Adding Positive and Negative Numbers NO CALCULATOR.

PROCEDURE Determine if you are adding numbers that have the same or. different signs Then follow the appropriate set of directions below. Example Adding Example,Adding same signs 3 5,opposite signs 3 5. Step 1 Add their Step 1 Subtract,absolute values 3 5 8 the smaller 5 3 2. absolute value,from the larger, Step 2 Make the Because 3 and Step 2 Choose Because 5 has a. sign of the answer 5 are both the sign of the greater absolute. Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. the same as the negative the number with the value than 3 and. sign of the orig answer will be greater absolute 5 is positive your. inal numbers negative value answer will also be,Answer positive. 3 5 8 Answer, 2 Complete the following equations When finished go back and check your signs.

a 14 17 b 9 23,c 16 21 d 12 12,e 15 4 f 7 7,NO CALCULATOR NO CALCULATOR. 12 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 5,NO CALCULATOR,Name Date Class. Arithmetic with Positive and Negative Numbers continued. Part 2 Subtracting Positive and Negative Numbers, PROCEDURE To subtract integers find the opposite of the number you are. subtracting Then add this opposite to the number you are subtracting from. The result is your answer,SAMPLE PROBLEM 3 5,NO CALCULATOR. Step 1 Find the opposite of the number you want to subtract. The opposite of 5 is 5, Step 2 Add this opposite to the number you are subtracting from.

Take It Away, 3 Complete the following subtraction problems Remember to check your work. a 5 7 b 11 5,c 1 1 d 22 8,e 14 3 f 9 4, Part 3 Multiplying and Dividing Positive and Negative Numbers. PROCEDURE To multiply or divide two integers multiply or divide their absolute. values Then apply the following rule to determine if the answer is positive or. MATH SKILLS, The product or quotient of two same sign numbers is positive. The product or quotient of two opposite sign numbers is negative. Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. SAMPLE PROBLEM A 7 11, Step 1 Multiply the absolute values to find the absolute value of the product. Step 2 Apply the rule of signs Because you are finding the product of opposite. sign numbers the product will be negative,SAMPLE PROBLEM B 12 4.

Step 1 Divide the absolute values to find the absolute value of the quotient. Step 2 Apply the rule of signs Because you are finding the quotient of same sign. numbers the quotient will be positive,NO CALCULATOR. 6 MATH SKILLS FOR SCIENCE 13,Name Date Class, Arithmetic with Positive and Negative Numbers continued. Challenge Yourself Multiply Your Way up the Pyramid. 4 Each brick s number is the product of the two numbers under it Starting on the. bottom row multiply to complete the empty bricks,Divide Your Way down Again. 5 Each brick s number is the quotient of the two numbers above it Starting from the. top left brick divide each brick by the number on its right side Place the quotient in. the empty brick below Continue until all the bricks are filled. 150 000 150 3, Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. 14 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 7,13 1 Section Review.

Name Date Class,Chapter 13 continued, 17 Why does a helium atom need only two valence electrons. Review p 331, Now that you ve finished Section 1 review what you learned by. answering the Review questions in your ScienceLog,Section 2 Types of Chemical Bonds p 332. 1 Three types of chemical bonds are,Ionic Bonds p 332. 2 Describe how two atoms can become ions,CHAPTER 13.

3 An atom that loses one or more electrons from its outermost. Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. energy level becomes a positively charged ion True or False. Circle one, 4 Which of the following elements give up electrons to other. atoms Circle all that apply,a sodium c chlorine,b aluminum d oxygen. 5 Why do the elements in Groups 1 and 2 react so easily. 6 Atoms of nonmetals lose one or more protons when they form. ionic bonds True or False Circle one,9 DIRECTED READING WORKSHEETS 97. Name Date Class,Chapter 13 continued, 7 The names of negative ions that form when atoms gain electrons. have the ending, 8 A large amount of energy is released when atoms of Group 17.

elements lose electrons True or False Circle one, 9 Which of the following are common properties of an ionic. compound Circle all that apply,a Its solid form is a crystal lattice. b It contains alternating positive and negative ions. c It is soft and pliable at room temperature,d Its positive and negative ions repel each other. e It has a low melting point,f It has a high boiling point. g It is neutral, 10 Look at Figure 8 on page 335 What force causes both the forma.

tion of ionic bonds and static cling,a the Earth s gravity. b the repulsion of like charges,c the attraction of opposite charges. d a magnetic pole,Review p 335, Now that you ve finished the first part of Section 2 review what you. learned by answering the Review questions in your ScienceLog. Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. Covalent Bonds p 336, 11 Covalent bonds form between atoms that require a large amount. of energy in order to lose an electron True or False Circle one. 12 In a covalent bond neither atom loses or gains an electron. Instead one or more electrons are,by the atoms shared or created.

13 Look at Figure 11 on page 336 The electrons that are shared by. two atoms spend most of their time,a near the smallest of the two atoms. b near the largest of the two atoms,c between the nuclei of the two atoms. d in the nuclei of the two atoms, 14 A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is a neutral. particle called a,98 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 10. Name Date Class,Chapter 13 continued,15 Draw the electron dot diagram for water.

16 Draw the electron dot diagram for krypton, 17 In an electron dot diagram each dot represents one proton. True or False Circle one, 18 Diatomic molecules are the simplest kinds of molecules They. consist of two atoms bonded together True or False. Circle one,CHAPTER 13,19 Give three examples of complex molecules. 20 Carbon is known as the building block of life Which of the. following is a property of this important element, Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. Circle all that apply,a Each of its atoms needs to make four bonds.

b It is found in all proteins, c It can bond with other elements and form long chains. d It is in a water molecule,Metallic Bonds p 339, 21 In a metal swimming protons surround the metal ions. True or False Circle one, 22 What are three properties of metals that are a result of metallic. 11 DIRECTED READING WORKSHEETS 99,Name Date Class,Chapter 13 continued. 23 Because ions in a metal can be easily rearranged without break. ing the metallic bonds metals tend to be easily,a shattered c reshaped.

b crystallized d broken, 24 Which of the following is NOT a typical property of a metal. a malleability c conductivity,b ductility d brittleness. 25 Besides being valuable in the jewelry industry gold is special. because it can be hammered into a very thin foil This property. a malleability c conductivity,b ductility d brittleness. Identify each of the following substances as containing mostly ionic. mostly covalent or mostly metallic bonds Refer back to the earlier. parts of Section 2 as needed Write I for ionic C for covalent and M. for metallic,26 copper wire,28 table salt,30 carbon dioxide. 31 plaster of Paris, Copyright by Holt Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved.

Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 1 Atoms Combine Through Chemical Bonding p 328 6 ugar is made from atoms of which of the following elements S Circle all that apply a carbon c hydrogen b nitrogen d oxygen 7 A chemical bond is the of attraction that holds a pair of atoms together Electron Number and Organization p 329 8 n order to make the overall charge of an atom zero there must be

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