Chapter 02 Electronic Flight Instruments

Chapter 02 Electronic Flight Instruments-Free PDF

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Primary Flight Display PFD Cross Checking the Primary Flight Instruments. A PFD presents information about primary flight instruments The PFD is not intended to change the fundamental way in. navigation instruments and the status of the flight in one which you scan your instruments during attitude instrument. integrated display Some systems include powerplant flying The PFD supports the same familiar control and. information and other systems information in the same performance or primary and supporting methods you use. display A typical primary flight display is shown in with conventional flight instruments For example when. Figure 2 1 using the primary and supporting method to maintain level. flight the altimeter is still the primary instrument for pitch. Primary Flight Instruments while the attitude indicator is a direct indicator and the. Flight instrument presentations on a PFD differ from vertical speed indicator provides supporting information. conventional instrumentation not only in format but However you need to train your eyes to find and interpret. sometimes in location as well For example the attitude these instruments in their new formats and locations. indicator on the PFD in Figure 2 1 is larger than conventional. round dial presentations of an artificial horizon Airspeed and Common Errors Altitude Excursions and Fixation. altitude indications are presented on vertical tape displays Pilots experienced in the use of conventional flight. that appear on the left and right sides of the primary flight instruments tend to deviate from assigned altitudes during. display The vertical speed indicator is depicted using their initial experience with the PFD while they adjust to the. conventional analog presentation Turn coordination is tape display presentation of altitude information Another. shown using a segmented triangle near the top of the attitude common error is the tendency to fixate and correct deviations. indicator The rate of turn indicator appears as a curved line as small as one to two feet at the expense of significant. display at the top of the heading navigation instrument in the deviations on other parameters. lower half of the PFD,Tape displays are used to A segmented triangle is. depict airspeed and altitude used to show turn coordination. 5200 20 DI,An analog gauge is used to,10 10 5100 5 depict vertical speed. 14 3 50 20 0,TAS 157 KTS,GS 140 KTS 29 92,02 0 display is 270. PSS11 A curvilinear,0 show rate of turn,VOR Alt Bug. 113 10 5020 FT,Aux VSI Bug,GPS2 500 FPM,Range Baro Set.
View 29 92,Range View Hdg Sync,Conventional symbology is used to depict. heading and navigational information,Figure 2 1 A typical primary flight display PFD. Enhancements to the Primary Flight Instruments Other valuable enhancements include trend indicators which. Some PFDs offer enhancements to the primary flight process data to predict and display future performance For. instruments Figure 2 2 shows an airspeed indicator that example some systems generate trend vectors that predict. displays reference speeds V speeds and operating ranges the aircraft s airspeed altitude and bank angle up to several. for the aircraft Operating ranges are depicted using familiar seconds into the future. color coding on the airspeed indicator One negative human. factor concerning this type of presentation should be Primary Flight Instrument Systems. remembered while most of the displays are intuitive in that The primary flight instruments that appear on a PFD are driven. a high indication such as climb pitch or vertical speed is by instrument sensor systems that are more sophisticated than. corrected by lowering the nose of the aircraft the situation conventional instrument systems The attitude of the aircraft. with the usual airspeed vertical tape is the opposite In most may be measured using microelectronic sensors that are more. current displays the lower speeds are at the lower side of the sensitive and reliable than traditional gyroscopic instruments. airspeed indicator while the upper or higher speeds are in the These sensors measure pitch roll and yaw movements away. top portion of the airspeed display area Therefore if a low from a known reference attitude Aircraft heading may be. airspeed is indicated you must lower the nose of the aircraft determined using a magnetic direction sensing device such. to increase which is counterintuitive to the other indications as a magnetometer or a magnetic flux valve. 90 General cruising speed Attitude and heading systems are typically bundled together as. G an attitude heading reference system AHRS which contains. Best rate of climb speed, not only the sensors used to measure attitude and heading. Airborne airspeed, but also a computer that accepts sensor inputs and performs. calculations Some AHRSs must be initialized on the ground. 70 prior to departure The initialization procedure allows the. 4 Best angle of climb speed,Rotation speed, system to establish a reference attitude used as a benchmark.
for all future attitude changes As in any navigation system. attitude heading reference systems accumulate error over. time For this reason AHRSs continually correct themselves. 50 using periods of stable flight to make small corrections to the. Ground airspeed,Flap range, reference attitude The system s ability to correct itself can. 40 be diminished during prolonged periods of turbulence Some. AHRSs can be reinitialized in flight while others cannot The. TAS 64KT pilot must become familiar with the operating procedures and. capabilities of a particular system, Figure 2 2 Vertical airspeed tape type indicator Information on altitude and airspeed is provided by sensors. that measure static and ram air pressure An air data computer. Figure 2 3 shows an attitude indicator that presents red ADC combines those air pressure and temperature sensors. symbols to assist in recovery from unusual attitudes The with a computer processor that is capable of calculating. symbols on the display recommend a lower pitch attitude pressure altitude indicated airspeed vertical speed and. true airspeed An air data attitude heading reference system. 050 060 070 080 090 100 110 120, ADAHRS combines all of the systems previously described. into one integrated unit,40 Navigation Instruments. PFDs and multi function displays MFDs typically combine. 20 several navigation instruments into a single presentation. 20 The instrument appearing at the bottom of the PFD in. Figure 2 1 contains two navigation indicators a course. deviation indicator and a bearing pointer These instruments. can be displayed in a variety of views and can be coupled. to many of the navigation receivers e g instrument landing. Figure 2 3 Attitude indicator with symbols to assist in recovery. system ILS global positioning system GPS very high. from unusual attitude frequency VHF omnidirectional range VOR available. in the aircraft The pilot must therefore be sure to maintain identify communication and navigation radio frequencies at. an awareness of which navigation receivers are coupled to the top of the display. each navigation indicator,Making Entries on the PFD.
MFDs may provide the same type of display as installed in PFDs have evolved and have become more than flight. the PFD position but are usually programmed to display just displays in many cases The amount of data available for. the navigation information with traffic systems data radar display can overwhelm the pilot with data Therefore. Stormscope Strikefinder However in many systems the many manufacturers have integrated data control and. MFD can be selected to repeat the information presented display controls into the display unit itself usually around. on the PFD thereby becoming the standby PFD The pilot the perimeter of the unit These data and display controls. should be absolutely certain of and proficient with the standby provide different ways of selecting necessary information. modes of operation such as altimeter settings radials and courses Figure 2 6. illustrates two different kinds of controls for making entries. More sophisticated PFDs present three dimensional 3D on primary flight displays Some PFDs utilize a single knob. course indications The primary flight display in Figure 2 4 and button selectable windows to determine which entry is. shows a 3D course indication called a highway in the sky to be made Other PFDs offer dedicated knobs for making. HITS display This display provides both lateral and vertical entries quantities are sometimes entered in one location and. guidance along the planned flight path while simultaneously displayed in another Still other units retain all controls on. presenting a 3D picture of the surrounding terrain Keeping a separate control panel in the console or on the instrument. the symbolic aircraft within the green boxes on the display panel. ensures that the flight remains within the selected GPS. route and altitude Consult the AFM and avionics manual Failures and the Primary Flight Display. for required navigational configuration for this function to Instrument System Failure. be available The competent pilot is familiar with the behavior of each. instrument system when failures occur and is able to. Other Flight Status Information recognize failure indications when they appear on the primary. An important feature of the PFD is its ability to gather flight display Manufacturers typically use a bold red X. information from other aircraft systems and present it to over or in place of the inoperative instruments and provide. the pilot in the integrated display For example the PFD in annunciator messages about failed systems It is the pilot s. Figure 2 5 presents many useful items about the status of the job to interpret how this information impacts the flight. flight The top bar shows the next waypoint in the planned. flight route the distance and bearing to the waypoint and the The inoperative airspeed altitude and vertical speed. current ground track The outside air temperature OAT is indicators on the PFD in Figure 2 7 indicate the failure of. shown in the lower left corner of the display The transponder the air data computer As do all electronic flight displays. code and status are shown with the current time in the lower navigation units area navigation RNAV flight management. right corner This PFD also allows the pilot to tune and systems FMS and instrumentation sensors rely on steady. 050 060 070 080 090 100 110 120 uninterrupted power sources of 24 VDC or 12 VDC power. Any interruptions in the power supplies such as alternator. regulator failure drive belt failure lightning strikes wiring. harness problems or other electrical failures can completely. disrupt the systems leading to erratic indications or. completely inoperative units Especially in standard category. aircraft not designed or built with the redundancy inherent. in transport category aircraft a proficient and prudent pilot. plans for failures and has alternate plans and procedures. 880 B readily available, Figure 2 4 An attitude indicator with HITS display symbology. Next waypoint in the planned route Distance to the active waypoint Current track of aircraft. NAV1 108 00 113 00 WPT,PT ECA DIS 12 0NM DTK 049 TRK 360. 134 000 118 000,NAV2 108 00 110 60 123 800 118 000 COM2. Outside air temperature Transponder code,OAT 7 C XPDR 5537. T LCL23 00 34,Figure 2 5 PFD flight status items,Some primary flight displays use a single.
knob and button selectable windows to,determine which entry is to be made. DTK 049 TRK 360 134 000 118 000 COM1,123 800 118 000 COM2. 5100 FT 4300,5100 20 DIM,20 20 10 Other primary,4200 flight displays offer. dedicated knobs for making entries,10 10 5000 5 1,50 20 0 60. 10 10 5 20,20 20 10 1,ILS 20 3800,270 Hdg Bug, Window displays values 500 FPM Button selects window.
S c XPDR 5537 IDNT LCL23 00 34,Knob enters value,Figure 2 6 Making entries on a PFD. Every aircraft equipped with electronic flight instruments. must also contain a minimal set of backup standby, instruments Usually conventional round dial instruments. they typically include an attitude indicator an airspeed. indicator and an altimeter Pilots with previous experience in. conventional cockpits must maintain proficiency with these. instruments those who have experience only in advanced. GS 135 KTS 29 92 cockpits must be sure to acquire and maintain proficiency. 270 Hdg Bug,300 with conventional instruments,Bearing Alt Bug. GPS2 6500 FT,Awareness Using Standby Instruments, Range Baro Set Because any aircraft system can fail your regular proficiency. View 29 92, Range View Hdg Sync flying should include practice in using the backup standby.
instrumentation in your aircraft The backup standby. instrument packages in technically advanced aircraft pro vide. considerably more information than the needle ball and. Figure 2 7 A PFD indicating a failed air data computer. airspeed indications for partial panel work in aircraft with. The inoperative attitude indicator on the PFD in Figure 2 8 conventional instrumentation Even so the loss of primary. indicates the failure of the AHRS By understanding which instrumentation creates a distraction that can increase the. flight instruments are supported by which underlying systems risk of the flight As in the case of a vacuum failure the wise

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