Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

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196 Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts. entrance rates and job opportunities Balfanz Byrnes 2012 Ferrell et al 2013. Kearney Graczyk 2014 Compared to their peers students who don t attend school. regularly have lower academic performance limited future employment opportunities. and will experience social and emotional problems in adulthood Askeland et al 2015. Buscha Conte 2014 Nolan et al 2013 Thornton Darmody McCoy 2013. Absenteeism not only affects the academic progress of the student but also influences. the in class planning of teachers and at the same time the motivations of the other. students in the class Thornton Darmody McCoy 2013 Chronic absenteeism has a. significant relationship with certain dangerous behaviors such as substance abuse. violence physical injury suicide showing sexually explicit behavior at an early. age pregnancy and eventual dropout Ferrell et al 2013 Gage et al 2013 Kearney. Graczyk 2014 Nolan et al 2013 Thornton Darmody McCoy 2013. School dropout is defined as the failure of a student in completing the current stage of. education he or she is enrolled for several reasons Dekkers Claassen 2001 In our. day societies are intensively facing school dropout problems that have personal social. and financial dimensions and trying to develop policies in order to prevent or decrease. this problem Heers et al 2014 De Witte Csillag 2014 Estevao Alvares 2014. Studies show that individuals who drop out of school have more health problems have. an increased risk of involvement in crime are obliged to work at a job with a low. income Cabus Witte 2015 Carlson 2014 Carr Galassi 2012 Estevao. Alvares 2014 Fan Wolters 2014 Lamote et al 2013 Ta et al 2013 live ten. years shorter than the average and perform their social responsibilities such as voting in. elections less compared to the others Dockery 2012. Some researches examining the causes of absenteeism and dropouts are available in our. country Ak z m et al 2014 Alt nkurt 2008 Bayhan Dalg 2012 G mleksiz. zda 2013 Haberli G ven 2012 zba 2010 ztekin 2013 Sar 2013 im ek. ahin 2012 Ta et al 2013 Tayl 2008 Uysal 2008 Y ld z Kula 2012 When. the results of these studies were analysed it has been observed that the causes of school. absenteeism and school dropouts are mostly originated from family school and student. Aim of the Study, The aim of this study is to present the causes of student absenteeism and school. dropouts in D zce Province and to develop some suggestions regarding the solution of. these problems,Research Model, In the present study case study design which is one of the qualitative research. approaches was used as the research model One of the most important characteristics. of a case study which is widely used in qualitative research is that it enables the. thorough examination of one or several cases Y ld r m im ek 2006 In this study. it was endeavored to conduct a thorough examination of cases of absence and dropout. International Journal of Instruction January 2016 Vol 9 No 1. ahin Arseven K l 197,Study Group, The study group consisted of 64 school principals who worked at primary secondary. and high schools in the province center and the districts of D zce in the academic year. of 2014 2015,Data Collection, A semi structured interview form consisting of nine questions was used as the data. collection tool Following the literature review the draft interview form that was. prepared by the researchers was put into its final form based on the opinion of an. educational sciences expert and made ready for implementation The semi structured. interview form was aimed to be delivered to all school principals 64 of them filled in. the interview forms and sent them back to the researchers. Data Analysis, The data obtained from the study was analyzed by using content analysis method The.
research data were coded respectively by two researchers and then the main themes were. formed together by the researchers Common themes were determined by bringing. together the codes that were related to one another. Validity and Reliability, To maintain the validity and reliability of the study the internal consistency of the sub. themes that emerged as the result of the content analysis and the internal consistency of. the main themes were checked and a logical integrity was maintained The procedures. and stages of the study were defined clearly and in detail The opinion of an expert was. taken when associating the research data with the research results The raw data of the. study were saved in order to examine when needed, In this section the causes of absenteeism and school dropouts were discussed and. interpreted under five categories based on the analysis of the collected data respectively. 1 Causes of Absenteeism and School Dropouts Originating from the Family. The causes of absenteeism and school dropouts that originate from the family were. gathered under five main themes The main themes and sub themes that indicate the. causes of absenteeism and school dropouts that originate from the family are given in. Table 1 Causes of absenteeism and school dropouts originating from the family. Main Theme 1 Family Child Relationship,Absenteeism f School Dropouts f. Not taking care of child 25 Not taking care of child 10. Not wakening up child on time not,preparing for school. 22 Not establishing relations with the school 3, Missing the school vehicle 12 Being overly oppressive on child 3.
Unable to have good communiation with,Working mothers and fathers 4 child. International Journal of Instruction January 2016 Vol 9 No 1. 198 Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts. Being overly oppressive on child 4 Failure to be a good role model to child 3. Not providing necessary authority on child Accepting the failure of child 2. Accepting the failure of child 2 Working mothers and fathers 1. Not establishing relations with the school Not providing necessary authority on child 1. Not motivating child to school 2 Not keeping track of the child s friends 1. Main Theme 2 Ignoring of Absenteeism,Absenteeism f School Dropouts f. Family plans like family visits shopping,Leaving the city or town 11. Activities like funerals weddings,engagements see off to soldier etc. Family choice 7,Inviting guests 1,Main Theme 3 Family Problems.
Absenteeism f School Dropouts f, Family problems like divorce family Family problems like divorce family. violence etc,24 violence etc, Having someone at home in need of care 8 Having someone at home in need of care 3. Death of parents 1 Death of parents 1,Main Theme 4 View of Education. Absenteeism f School Dropouts f, Failure to understand the importance of Failure to understand the importance of. 16 education,Lack of education 8 Lack of education 10.
Not sending daughters to school for,religious reasons. Sending children to religious education,institutions. Getting girls married at an early ages 2,Main Theme 5 Economic Impossibilities. Absenteeism f School Dropouts f, Financial difficulties 14 Financial difficulties 15. Makingchildwork at homeor at,seasonalworks,13 Startingtowork at an early age 7.
Makingchildwork at home or at seasonal,Makingchildtotakecare of his siblings 9 works. Inabilitytoprovideforschoolsupplies 4,Not beingabletogivepocketmoneytochild 3. Inabilitytoprovide a,suitableworkingenvironment at home. Lack of care for the child is regarded as the most important family based cause of both. absenteeism and school dropout Working conditions of parents could decrease the time. they spend for and their control over their children and increase absenteeism and school. dropout rates It is observed that the children of families who cannot have a good. communication with their children who are highly oppressive or who have no authority. on their children and have accepted the failure of their children show considerably high. cases of absenteeism and school dropout, International Journal of Instruction January 2016 Vol 9 No 1. ahin Arseven K l 199, Families may prefer not to send their children to school because of several reasons such.
as going shopping funerals weddings going out of the city or district or having guests. at home It is considered that this case clearly presents the importance the families place. on absenteeism and hence to education, Family problems such as divorce domestic violence and death of a parent have a highly. negative effect on the student s attendance at school In such cases students lack. concern love and parental control and become more inclined to show aimless attitudes. such as absenteeism and school dropout, Parents lack of education and accordingly their disregard for education appear as an. important cause of absenteeism and school dropout According to research findings. many families think that the education of girls is not important girls are forced to get. married at an early age and kept at home to provide help with housework Besides it is. also seen that some families take their children from mainstream schools to have them. get religious education, Poor economic situations of families play a significant role in absenteeism and then. dropping out of school Children of seasonal worker families or children that are forced. to work as seasonal workers are kept away from school for a long time and this has a. considerably negative effect on the children s school lives It can be said that. particularly the obligation of boys to work at a job and contribute to the economy of the. family and thus beginning to work at an early age is a highly important factor in school. 2 Causes of Absenteeism and School Dropouts Originating from Administrator. and Teacher Behaviors, The causes of absenteeism and school dropout originating from administrator and. teacher behaviors were gathered under four main themes The main themes and sub. themes that indicate the causes of absenteeism and school dropouts that originate from. administrator and teacher behaviors are given in Table 2. Table 2 Causes of absenteeism and school dropouts originating from administrator and. teacher behaviors,Main Theme 1 Administrators Student Relationship.
Absenteeism f School Dropouts f, Negative attitudes to student 8 Negative attitudes to student 9. Being overly oppressive on student 7 Being overly oppressive on student 9. Negative attitudes when students are late 1 Not paying attention to students 2. Main Theme 2 Teacher Student Relationship,Absenteeism f School Dropouts f. Unable to make students love classes and,15 Being overly oppressive on student 10. Negative attitudes to student 13 Negative attitudes to student 10. Unable to make students love them 6 Not paying attention to students 6. Being overly oppressive on student 5 Not giving love to students 4. Unable to make students love classes and,Not giving love to students 4 2. International Journal of Instruction January 2016 Vol 9 No 1. 200 Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts. Failure to provide effective guidance to,Not paying attention to students 4 2.
Not recognizing students 4 Frighten of students 1, Unable to communicate positively with Not concerning about psychological. parents of students problems of students, Failure to provide effective guidance to Unable to communicate positively with. students parents of students, Saying bad words to students 1 Forcing capacity of students 1. Frighten of students 1 Not being tolerant to students 1. Success oriented approach 1 Humiliation of students 1. Forcing capacity of students 1 Unable to gain self confidence to students 1. Unable to make students love them 1,Judging students 1. Not creating educational awareness in,Main Theme 3 In Class Behaviors of the Teacher.
Absenteeism f School Dropouts f,Unable to organize effective learning. Homework pressure 19 1,environment, Failure to provide student s participation in Failure to provide student s participation. class in class, Unable to organize effective learning Unable to make the learning environment. environment fun,Deficiencies in classroom management 2. Unable to make the learning environment,Occupational inability 1.
Not making courses in the first and last week,of schools. Main Theme 4 Attitude towards Absenteeism,Absenteeism f School Dropouts f. Not contacting with parents about absences 15 Not monitoring absenteeismrigorously 3. Not contacting with parents about,Not monitoring absenteeismrigorously 7 2. Not implementing the laws and,Not investigating the causes of absenteeism 4 1. regulations, The lack of sanctions of absenteeism 2 The lack of sanctions of absenteeism 1.
Not paying attention to absenteeism 1 Not taking precautions about absenteeism 1. Negative behaviours of directors towards the student and extremely oppressive attitudes. lead students to absence and to drop out of school Furthermore it is observed that. students who are afraid of the harsh and negative attitudes of directors when they are. late to school prefer not to go to school on that day Besides teachers negative and. extremely oppressive attitudes towards the students come out as an important factor in. the students attendance at school, The most important cause listed under the theme of in class behaviours of the teacher. was found as homework pressure Students who do not or cannot do the assigned. 198 Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts International Journal of Instruction January 2016 Vol 9 No 1 Being overly oppressive on child 4 Failure to be a good role model to child 3 Not providing necessary authority on child 3 Accepting the failure of child 2 Accepting the failure of child 12 Working mothers and fathers Not establishing relations with the school 2 Not

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