C Programming Tutorial NTNU

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C PROGRAMMING TUTORIAL,Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint com. tutorialspoint com,COPYRIGHT DISCLAIMER NOTICE, All the content and graphics on this tutorial are the property of tutorialspoint com Any content from. tutorialspoint com or this tutorial may not be redistributed or reproduced in any way shape or form without the. written permission of tutorialspoint com Failure to do so is a violation of copyright laws. This tutorial may contain inaccuracies or errors and tutorialspoint provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy of. the site or its contents including this tutorial If you discover that the tutorialspoint com site or this tutorial. content contains some errors please contact us at webmaster tutorialspoint com. Table of Contents,C Language Overview 1,Facts about C 1. Why to use C 2,C Programs 2,C Environment Setup 3,Text Editor 3. The C Compiler 3,Installation on Unix Linux 4,Installation on Mac OS 4.
Installation on Windows 4,C Program Structure 5,C Hello World Example 5. Compile Execute C Program 6,C Basic Syntax 7,Tokens in C 7. Semicolons 7,Comments 8,Identifiers 8,Keywords 8,Whitespace in C 9. C Data Types 10,Integer Types 10,Floating Point Types 11. The void Type 12,C Variables 13, Variable Declaration in C Error Bookmark not defined.
Variable Initialization in C Error Bookmark not defined. Lvalues and Rvalues in C 15,C Constants and Literals 17. Integer literals 17,Floating point literals 18,Character constants 18. String literals 19,Defining Constants 19,The define Preprocessor 19. The const Keyword 20,C Storage Classes 22,The auto Storage Class 22. The register Storage Class 22,The static Storage Class 23.
The extern Storage Class 24,C Operators 25,Arithmetic Operators 25. Relational Operators 26,Logical Operators 28,Bitwise Operators 29. Assignment Operators 31,Misc Operators sizeof ternary 33. Operators Precedence in C 33,Decision Making in C 35. if statement 36,Flow Diagram 36,Example 36,if else statement 37.
Flow Diagram 38,Example 38,The if else if else Statement 39. Example 39,Nested if statements 40,Example 40,switch statement 41. Flow Diagram 42,Example 42,Nested switch statements 43. Example 43,The Operator 44,C Loops 45,while loop in C 46. Flow Diagram 46,Example 47,for loop in C 47,Flow Diagram 48.
Example 48,do while loop in C 49,Flow Diagram 50,Example 50. nested loops in C 51,Example 52,break statement in C 53. Flow Diagram 53,Example 54,continue statement in C 54. Flow Diagram 55,Example 55,goto statement in C 56,Flow Diagram 56. Example 57,The Infinite Loop 57,C Functions 59,Defining a Function 59.
Example 60,Function Declarations 60,Calling a Function 60. Function Arguments 61,Function call by value 62,Function call by reference 63. C Scope Rules 65,Local Variables 65,Global Variables 66. Formal Parameters 67,Initializing Local and Global Variables 67. C Arrays 69,Declaring Arrays 69,Initializing Arrays 70.
Accessing Array Elements 70,Multi dimensional Arrays 71. Two Dimensional Arrays 71,Initializing Two Dimensional Arrays 72. Accessing Two Dimensional Array Elements 72,Passing Arrays as Function Arguments 73. Example 74,Return array from function 75,Pointer to an Array 77. C Pointers 79,What Are Pointers 80,How to use Pointers 80.
NULL Pointers in C 81,Pointer arithmetic 81,Incrementing a Pointer 82. Decrementing a Pointer 83,Pointer Comparisons 83,Array of pointers 84. Pointer to Pointer 86,Passing pointers to functions 87. Return pointer from functions 88,C Strings 91,C Structures 94. Defining a Structure 94,Accessing Structure Members 95.
Structures as Function Arguments 96,Pointers to Structures 97. C Unions 100,Defining a Union 100,Accessing Union Members 101. Bit Fields 103,Bit Field Declaration 104,Typedef 106. typedef vs define 107,Input Output 108,The Standard Files 108. The getchar putchar functions 108,The gets puts functions 109.
The scanf and printf functions 110,File I O 111,Opening Files 111. Closing a File 112,Writing a File 112,Reading a File 113. Binary I O Functions 114,Preprocessors 115,Preprocessors Examples 115. Predefined Macros 116,Preprocessor Operators 117,Macro Continuation 117. Stringize 117,Token Pasting 118,The defined Operator 118.
Parameterized Macros 119,Header Files 120,Include Syntax 120. Include Operation 121,Once Only Headers 121,Computed Includes 122. Type Casting 123,Integer Promotion 124,Usual Arithmetic Conversion 124. Error Handling 126,The errno perror and strerror 126. Divide by zero errors 127,Program Exit Status 128,Recursion 129.
Number Factorial 129,Fibonacci Series 130,Variable Arguments 131. Memory Management 133,Allocating Memory Dynamically 133. Resizing and Releasing Memory 134,Command Line Arguments 136. C Language Overview, This chapter describes the basic details about C programming language how it emerged. what are strengths of C and why we should use C, T he C programming language is a general purpose high level language that was.
originally developed by Dennis M Ritchie to develop the UNIX operating system at Bell. Labs C was originally first implemented on the DEC PDP 11 computer in 1972. In 1978 Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie produced the first publicly available. description of C now known as the K R standard, The UNIX operating system the C compiler and essentially all UNIX applications programs. have been written in C The C has now become a widely used professional language for. various reasons,Easy to learn,Structured language,It produces efficient programs. It can handle low level activities, It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms. Facts about C, C was invented to write an operating system called UNIX. C is a successor of B language which was introduced around 1970. The language was formalized in 1988 by the American National Standard Institute. The UNIX OS was totally written in C by 1973,TUTORIALS POINT.
Simply Easy Learning Page 1, Today C is the most widely used and popular System Programming Language. Most of the state of the art softwares have been implemented using C. Today s most popular Linux OS and RBDMS MySQL have been written in C. Why to use C, C was initially used for system development work in particular the programs that make up. the operating system C was adopted as a system development language because it. produces code that runs nearly as fast as code written in assembly language Some. examples of the use of C might be,Operating Systems. Language Compilers,Assemblers,Text Editors,Print Spoolers. Network Drivers,Modern Programs,Language Interpreters.
C Programs, A C program can vary from 3 lines to millions of lines and it should be written into one or. more text files with extension c for example hello c You can use vi vim or any. other text editor to write your C program into a file. This tutorial assumes that you know how to edit a text file and how to write source code. using any programming language,TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning Page 2. C Environment Setup, This section describes how to set up your system environment before you start doing your. programming using C language, Before you start doing programming using C programming language you need the following. two softwares available on your computer a Text Editor and b The C Compiler. Text Editor, This will be used to type your program Examples of few editors include Windows Notepad.
OS Edit command Brief Epsilon EMACS and vim or vi, Name and version of text editor can vary on different operating systems For example. Notepad will be used on Windows and vim or vi can be used on windows as well as Linux or. The files you create with your editor are called source files and contain program source. code The source files for C programs are typically named with the extension c. Before starting your programming make sure you have one text editor in place and you. have enough experience to write a computer program save it in a file compile it and finally. execute it,The C Compiler, The source code written in source file is the human readable source for your program It. needs to be compiled to turn into machine language so that your CPU can actually. execute the program as per instructions given, This C programming language compiler will be used to compile your source code into final. executable program I assume you have basic knowledge about a programming language. Most frequently used and free available compiler is GNU C C compiler otherwise you can. have compilers either from HP or Solaris if you have respective Operating Systems. Following section guides you on how to install GNU C C compiler on various OS I m. mentioning C C together because GNU gcc compiler works for both C and C. programming languages,TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning Page 3. Installation on UNIX Linux, If you are using Linux or UNIX then check whether GCC is installed on your system by.
entering the following command from the command line. If you have GNU compiler installed on your machine then it should print a message. something as follows,Using built in specs,Target i386 redhat linux. Configured with configure prefix usr,Thread model posix. gcc version 4 1 2 20080704 Red Hat 4 1 2 46, If GCC is not installed then you will have to install it yourself using the detailed. instructions available athttp gcc gnu org install, This tutorial has been written based on Linux and all the given examples have been. compiled on Cent OS flavor of Linux system,Installation on Mac OS.
If you use Mac OS X the easiest way to obtain GCC is to download the Xcode development. environment from Apple s web site and follow the simple installation instructions Once you. have Xcode setup you will be able to use GNU compiler for C C. Xcode is currently available at developer apple com technologies tools. Installation on Windows, To install GCC at Windows you need to install MinGW To install MinGW go to the MinGW. homepage www mingw org and follow the link to the MinGW download page Download. the latest version of the MinGW installation program which should be named MinGW. version exe, While installing MinWG at a minimum you must install gcc core gcc g binutils and. the MinGW runtime but you may wish to install more. Add the bin subdirectory of your MinGW installation to your PATH environment variable so. that you can specify these tools on the command line by their simple names. When the installation is complete you will be able to run gcc g ar ranlib dlltool and. several other GNU tools from the Windows command line. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning Page 4,C Program Structure. Let s look into Hello World example using C Programming Language. B efore we study basic building blocks of the C programming language let us look a. bare minimum C program structure so that we can take it as a reference in upcoming. C Hello World Example, A C program basically consists of the following parts. Preprocessor Commands,Statements Expressions, Let us look at a simple code that would print the words Hello World.
include stdio h,my first program in C,printf Hello World n. Let us look various parts of the above program,TUTORIALS POINT. Simply Easy Learning Page 5, 1 The first line of the program include stdio h is a preprocessor command which tells. a C compiler to include stdio h file before going to actual compilation. 2 The next line int main is the main function where program execution begins. 3 The next line will be ignored by the compiler and it has been put to add additional. comments in the program So such lines are called comments in the program. 4 The next line printf is another function available in C which causes the message. Hello World to be displayed on the screen, 5 The next line return 0 terminates main function and returns the value 0. Compile Execute C Program, Let s look at how to save the source code in a file and how to compile and run it Following.
are the simple steps, 1 Open a text editor and add the above mentioned code. 2 Save the file as hello c, 3 Open a command prompt and go to the directory where you saved the file. 4 Type gcc hello c and press enter to compile your code. 5 If there are no errors in your code the command prompt will take you to the next line and. would generate a out executable file,6 Now type a out to execute your program. 7 You will be able to see Hello World printed on the screen. gcc hello c,Hello World, Make sure that gcc compiler is in your path and that you are running it in the directory. containing source file hello c,TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning Page 6.
C Programs A C program can vary from 3 lines to millions of lines and it should be written into one or more text files with extension c for example hello c You can use vi vim or any other text editor to write your C program into a file This tutorial assumes that you know how to edit a text file and how to write source code

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