C How to Program with an introduction to C Global

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HOW TO PROGRAM,EIGHTH EDITION,GLOBAL EDITION,with an introduction to C. This page intentionally left blank,HOW TO PROGRAM,EIGHTH EDITION. GLOBAL EDITION,with an introduction to C,Paul Deitel. Deitel Associates Inc,Harvey Deitel,Deitel Associates Inc. Global Edition contributions by,Piyali Sengupta, Boston Columbus Hoboken Indianapolis New York San Francisco.
Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal. Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo. Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao, Vice President and Editorial Director ECS Marcia J Horton. Executive Editor Tracy Johnson Dunkelberger,Editorial Assistant Kelsey Loanes. Assistant Acquisitions Editor Global Editions Aditee Agarwal. Program Manager Carole Snyder,Project Manager Robert Engelhardt. Project Editor Global Editions K K Neelakantan,Media Team Lead Steve Wright. R P Manager Rachel Youdelman,R P Senior Project Manager William Opaluch.
Senior Operations Specialist Maura Zaldivar Garcia. Senior Manufacturing Controller Global Editions Kay Holman. Inventory Manager Bruce Boundy,Marketing Manager Demetrius Hall. Product Marketing Manager Bram Van Kempen, Media Production Manager Global Editions Vikram Kumar. Marketing Assistant Jon Bryant, Cover Designer Chuti Prasertsith Michael Rutkowski Marta Samsel. Cover Art Igoror Shutterstock,Pearson Education Limited. Edinburgh Gate,Essex CM20 2JE,and Associated Companies throughout the world.
Visit us on the World Wide Web at,www pearsonglobaleditions com. Pearson Education Limited 2016, The rights of Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in. accordance with the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. Authorized adaptation from the United States edition entitled C How to Program with an introduction to C 8st edition. ISBN 978 0 13 397689 2 by Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel published by Pearson Education 2016. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any. form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without either the prior written. permission of the publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright. Licensing Agency Ltd Saffron House 6 10 Kirby Street London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners The use of any trademark in this text does not. vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks nor does the use of such trademarks. imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1,ISBN 10 1 292 11097 X,ISBN 13 978 1 292 11097 4. Typeset by GEX Publishing Services,Printed in Malaysia.
In memory of Dennis Ritchie,creator of the C programming language. and co creator of the UNIX operating system,Paul and Harvey Deitel. Trademarks, DEITEL the double thumbs up bug and DIVE INTO are registered trademarks of Deitel and Associates. Apple Xcode Swift Objective C iOS and OS X are trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Inc. Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and or its affiliates. Microsoft and or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information. contained in the documents and related graphics published as part of the services for any purpose All. such documents and related graphics are provided as is without warranty of any kind Microsoft and. or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information. including all warranties and conditions of merchantability whether express implied or statutory fitness. for a particular purpose title and non infringement In no event shall Microsoft and or its respective sup. pliers be liable for any special indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting. from loss of use data or profits whether in an action of contract negligence or other tortious action. arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from the services. The documents and related graphics contained herein could include technical inaccuracies or typograph. ical errors Changes are periodically added to the information herein Microsoft and or its respective sup. pliers may make improvements and or changes in the product s and or the program s described herein. at any time Partial screen shots may be viewed in full within the software version specified. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Appendices F G and H are PDF documents posted online at the book s Companion. Website located at www pearsonglobaleditions com deitel. Preface 23,1 Introduction to Computers the Internet and. the Web 33,1 1 Introduction 34,1 2 Hardware and Software 35.
1 2 1 Moore s Law 35,1 2 2 Computer Organization 36. 1 3 Data Hierarchy 37, 1 4 Machine Languages Assembly Languages and High Level Languages 40. 1 5 The C Programming Language 41,1 6 C Standard Library 42. 1 7 C and Other C Based Languages 43,1 8 Object Technology 44. 1 8 1 The Automobile as an Object 45,1 8 2 Methods and Classes 45.
1 8 3 Instantiation 45,1 8 4 Reuse 45,1 8 5 Messages and Method Calls 46. 1 8 6 Attributes and Instance Variables 46,1 8 7 Encapsulation and Information Hiding 46. 1 8 8 Inheritance 46,1 9 Typical C Program Development Environment 47. 1 9 1 Phase 1 Creating a Program 48, 1 9 2 Phases 2 and 3 Preprocessing and Compiling a C Program 48. 1 9 3 Phase 4 Linking 48,1 9 4 Phase 5 Loading 49,1 9 5 Phase 6 Execution 49.
1 9 6 Problems That May Occur at Execution Time 49. 1 9 7 Standard Input Standard Output and Standard Error Streams 49. 1 10 Test Driving a C Application in Windows Linux and Mac OS X 49. 1 10 1 Running a C Application from the Windows Command Prompt 50. 1 10 2 Running a C Application Using GNU C with Linux 53. 8 Contents, 1 10 3 Running a C Application Using the Teminal on Mac OS X 56. 1 11 Operating Systems 59,1 11 1 Windows A Proprietary Operating System 59. 1 11 2 Linux An Open Source Operating System 59, 1 11 3 Apple s Mac OS X Apple s iOS for iPhone iPad and. iPod Touch Devices 60,1 11 4 Google s Android 60,1 12 The Internet and World Wide Web 61. 1 12 1 The Internet A Network of Networks 61, 1 12 2 The World Wide Web Making the Internet User Friendly 61.
1 12 3 Web Services 62,1 12 4 Ajax 64,1 12 5 The Internet of Things 64. 1 13 Some Key Software Terminology 64, 1 14 Keeping Up to Date with Information Technologies 66. 2 Introduction to C Programming 71,2 1 Introduction 72. 2 2 A Simple C Program Printing a Line of Text 72, 2 3 Another Simple C Program Adding Two Integers 76. 2 4 Memory Concepts 80,2 5 Arithmetic in C 81, 2 6 Decision Making Equality and Relational Operators 85.
2 7 Secure C Programming 89,3 Structured Program Development in C 101. 3 1 Introduction 102,3 2 Algorithms 102,3 3 Pseudocode 102. 3 4 Control Structures 103,3 5 The if Selection Statement 105. 3 6 The if else Selection Statement 106,3 7 The while Iteration Statement 110. 3 8 Formulating Algorithms Case Study 1 Counter Controlled Iteration 111. 3 9 Formulating Algorithms with Top Down Stepwise Refinement. Case Study 2 Sentinel Controlled Iteration 114, 3 10 Formulating Algorithms with Top Down Stepwise Refinement.
Case Study 3 Nested Control Statements 120,3 11 Assignment Operators 124. 3 12 Increment and Decrement Operators 125,3 13 Secure C Programming 127. 4 C Program Control 145,4 1 Introduction 146,Contents 9. 4 2 Iteration Essentials 146,4 3 Counter Controlled Iteration 147. 4 4 for Iteration Statement 148,4 5 for Statement Notes and Observations 151.
4 6 Examples Using the for Statement 152,4 7 switch Multiple Selection Statement 155. 4 8 do while Iteration Statement 161,4 9 break and continue Statements 162. 4 10 Logical Operators 164, 4 11 Confusing Equality and Assignment Operators 167. 4 12 Structured Programming Summary 169,4 13 Secure C Programming 174. 5 C Functions 189,5 1 Introduction 190,5 2 Modularizing Programs in C 190.
5 3 Math Library Functions 191,5 4 Functions 193,5 5 Function Definitions 193. 5 5 1 square Function 194,5 5 2 maximum Function 197. 5 6 Function Prototypes A Deeper Look 198,5 7 Function Call Stack and Stack Frames 200. 5 8 Headers 204, 5 9 Passing Arguments By Value and By Reference 205. 5 10 Random Number Generation 206, 5 11 Example A Game of Chance Introducing enum 210.
5 12 Storage Classes 214,5 13 Scope Rules 216,5 14 Recursion 219. 5 15 Example Using Recursion Fibonacci Series 222,5 16 Recursion vs Iteration 226. 5 17 Secure C Programming 227,6 C Arrays 246,6 1 Introduction 247. 6 2 Arrays 247,6 3 Defining Arrays 249,6 4 Array Examples 249. 6 4 1 Defining an Array and Using a Loop to Set the Array s. Element Values 249, 6 4 2 Initializing an Array in a Definition with an Initializer List 250.
6 4 3 Specifying an Array s Size with a Symbolic Constant and. Initializing Array Elements with Calculations 252,10 Contents. 6 4 4 Summing the Elements of an Array 253, 6 4 5 Using Arrays to Summarize Survey Results 254. 6 4 6 Graphing Array Element Values with Histograms 256. 6 4 7 Rolling a Die 60 000 000 Times and Summarizing the Results. in an Array 257, 6 5 Using Character Arrays to Store and Manipulate Strings 257. 6 5 1 Initializing a Character Array with a String 258. 6 5 2 Initializing a Character Array with an Intializer List of Characters 258. 6 5 3 Accessing the Characters in a String 258,6 5 4 Inputting into a Character Array 258. 6 5 5 Outputting a Character Array That Represents a String 259. 6 5 6 Demonstrating Character Arrays 259, 6 6 Static Local Arrays and Automatic Local Arrays 260.
6 7 Passing Arrays to Functions 262,6 8 Sorting Arrays 266. 6 9 Case Study Computing Mean Median and Mode Using Arrays 268. 6 10 Searching Arrays 273,6 10 1 Searching an Array with Linear Search 273. 6 10 2 Searching an Array with Binary Search 274,6 11 Multidimensional Arrays 278. 6 11 1 Illustrating a Double Subcripted Array 278,6 11 2 Initializing a Double Subcripted Array 279. 6 11 3 Setting the Elements in One Row 281, 6 11 4 Totaling the Elements in a Two Dimensional Array 281.
6 11 5 Two Dimensonal Array Manipulations 282,6 12 Variable Length Arrays 285. 6 13 Secure C Programming 288,7 C Pointers 306,7 1 Introduction 307. 7 2 Pointer Variable Definitions and Initialization 308. 7 3 Pointer Operators 309, 7 4 Passing Arguments to Functions by Reference 311. 7 5 Using the const Qualifier with Pointers 315, 7 5 1 Converting a String to Uppercase Using a Non Constant Pointer. to Non Constant Data 316, 7 5 2 Printing a String One Character at a Time Using a Non Constant.
Pointer to Constant Data 317, 7 5 3 Attempting to Modify a Constant Pointer to Non Constant Data 319. 7 5 4 Attempting to Modify a Constant Pointer to Constant Data 320. 7 6 Bubble Sort Using Pass by Reference 321,7 7 sizeof Operator 324. 7 8 Pointer Expressions and Pointer Arithmetic 327. 7 8 1 Allowed Operators for Pointer Arithmetic 327. 7 8 2 Aiming a Pointer at an Array 327,Contents 11. 7 8 3 Adding an Integer to a Pointer 328,7 8 4 Subtracting an Integer from a Pointer 328. 7 8 5 Incrementing and Decrementing a Pointer 328,7 8 6 Subtracting One Pointer from Another 329.
7 8 7 Assigning Pointers to One Another 329,7 8 8 Pointer to void 329. 7 8 9 Comparing Pointers 329,7 9 Relationship between Pointers and Arrays 330. 7 9 1 Pointer Offset Notation 330,7 9 2 Pointer Index Notation 331. 7 9 3 Cannot Modify an Array Name with Pointer Arithmetic 331. 7 9 4 Demonstrating Pointer Indexing and Offsets 331. 7 9 5 String Copying with Arrays and Pointers 332,7 10 Arrays of Pointers 334. 7 11 Case Study Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation 335. 7 12 Pointers to Functions 340, 7 12 1 Sorting in Ascending or Descending Order 340.
7 12 2 Using Function Pointers to Create a Menu Driven System 343. 7 13 Secure C Programming 345,8 C Characters and Strings 365. 8 1 Introduction 366,8 2 Fundamentals of Strings and Characters 366. 8 3 Character Handling Library 368, 8 3 1 Functions isdigit isalpha isalnum and isxdigit 368. 8 3 2 Functions islower isupper tolower and toupper 371. 8 3 3 Functions isspace iscntrl ispunct isprint and isgraph 372. 8 4 String Conversion Functions 374,8 4 1 Function strtod 374. 8 4 2 Function strtol 375,8 4 3 Function strtoul 376.
8 5 Standard Input Output Library Functions 376,8 5 1 Functions fgets and putchar 377. 8 5 2 Function getchar 378,8 5 3 Function sprintf 379. 8 5 4 Function sscanf 380, 8 6 String Manipulation Functions of the String Handling Library 381. 8 6 1 Functions strcpy and strncpy 382,8 6 2 Functions strcat and strncat 382. 8 7 Comparison Functions of the String Handling Library 383. 8 8 Search Functions of the String Handling Library 385. 8 8 1 Function strchr 386,8 8 2 Function strcspn 387.
8 8 3 Function strpbrk 387,8 8 4 Function strrchr 388. 2 Introduction to C Programming 71 2 1 Introduction 72 2 2 A Simple C Program Printing a Line of Text 72 2 3 Another Simple C Program Adding Two Integers 76 2 4 Memory Concepts 80 2 5 Arithmetic in C 81 2 6 Decision Making Equality and Relational Operators 85 2 7 Secure C Programming 89 3 Structured Program Development in C 101

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