C H A P T E R O

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The Great West In the wake of the Civil War Americans looked westward Republicans imple. mented an array of policies to foster economic development in the Great West Ranchers farmers. and lumbermen cast hungry eyes on the remaining lands held by Native Ameri cans Steamboats and. railroads both visible in the background of this image became celebrated as symbols of the expanding. reach of U S economic might This 1881 promotional poster illustrates the bountiful natural resources to. be found out west as well as the land available for ranching farming and commerce The men in the. lower left corner are surveying land for sale Library of Congress. 510 PART 5 Creating and Preserving a Continental Nation 1844 1877. Charles Sumner proposed in fact that Britain settle. The Republican Vision the Alabama claims by handing over Canada. Such dreams were a logical extension of pre Civil,Reshaping the former Confederacy was only part of. War conquests especially in the Mexican War With,Republicans plan for a reconstructed nation They. the coasts now linked by rail merchants and manufac. remembered the era after Andrew Jackson s destruc, turers looked across the Pacific hungry for trade with. tion of the Second National Bank as one of economic. Asia Americans had already established a dominant, chaos when the United States had become vulnerable. presence in Hawaii where U S whalers and merchant, to international creditors and market fluctuations.
ships stopped for food and repairs With the advent of. Land speculation on the frontier had provoked extreme. steam powered vessels both the U S Navy and private. cycles of boom and bust Failure to fund a transconti. shippers wanted more refueling points in the Caribbean. nental railroad had left different regions of the country. and Pacific,disconnected This Republicans believed had helped. Even before the Civil War these commercial aims, trigger the Civil War and they were determined to set. had prompted the U S government to force Japan to,a new direction. open trade For centuries since unpleasant encounters. Even while the war raged Congress made vigorous, with Portuguese traders in the 1600s Japanese leaders. use of federal power launching the transcontinental rail. had adhered to a policy of strict isolation Americans. project and a new national banking system Congress. who wanted coal stations in Japan argued that trade. also raised the protective tariff on,would extend what one missionary called commerce.
Explain a range of manufactured goods,knowledge and Christianity with their multiplied. Consequences from textiles to steel and on some,blessings Whether or not Japan wanted these bless. In what ways did Repub agricultural products like wool. ings was irrelevant In 1854 Commodore Matthew, licans use federal power and sugar At federal custom. Perry succeeded in getting Japanese officials to sign the. on the world stage and houses in each port foreign man. in what ways did they Treaty of Kanagawa allowing U S ships to refuel at. ufacturers who brought merchan, continue policies from the two ports By 1858 America and Japan had com. dise into the United States had, pre Civil War era menced trade and a U S consul took up residence in.
to pay import fees These tariff,Japan s capital Edo now known as Tokyo. revenues gave U S manufactur,Union victory also increased U S economic influ. ers who did not pay the fees a competitive advantage. ence in Latin America While the United States was,in America s vast domestic market. preoccupied with its internal war France had deposed. The economic depression that began in 1873 set,Mexico s government and installed an emperor On. limits on Republicans economic ambitions just as it. May 5 1867 Mexico overthrew the French invaders, hindered their Reconstruction plans in the South But.
and executed Emperor Maximilian But while Mex, their policies continued to shape the economy Though. ico regained independence it lay open to the eco, some historians argue that the late nineteenth century. nomic designs of its increasingly powerful northern. was an era of laissez faire or unrestrained capitalism. in which government sat passively by the industrial. A new model emerged for asserting U S power in, United States was actually the product of a massive. Latin America and Asia not by direct conquest but, public private partnership in which government played. through trade The architect of this vision was William. critical roles,Seward secretary of state from 1861 to 1869 under.
presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson,A New Yorker of grand ambition and ego Seward. The New Union and the World believed like many contemporaries that Asia would. The United States emerged from the Civil War with become the chief theatre of world events and that. new leverage in its negotiation with European coun commerce there was key to America s prosperity He. tries especially Great Britain whose navy dominated urged the Senate to purchase sites in both the Pacific and. the seas Britain which had allowed Confederate raid the Caribbean for naval bases and refueling stations. ing ships such as CSS Alabama to be built in its ship When Japan changed policy and tried to close its ports. yards submitted afterward to arbitration and paid the to foreigners Seward dispatched U S naval vessels to. United States 15 5 million in damages Flush with join those of Britain France and the Netherlands in. victory many Americans expected more British and reopening trade by force At the same time Seward. Spanish territories to drop into the Union s lap Senator urged annexation of Hawaii He also predicted that the. CHAPTER 16 Conquering a Continent 1854 1890 511,An American Merchant Ship in Yokohama Harbor 1861. After the United States forcibly opened Japan to foreign trade in 1854 American and European ships and. visitors became a familiar sight in the port of Yokohama In these 1861 prints two panels of a five panel. series artist Hashimoto Sadahide meticulously details activity in Yokohama Harbor On the left goods are. carried onto an American merchant ship on the right two women dressed in Western style watch the arrival. of another boat In the background a steamship flies the Dutch flag a rowboat heading to or from another. unseen ship carries the flag of France Library of Congress. United States would one day claim the Philippines and his Republican successors would follow thirty years. build a Panama canal later in an aggressive bid for global power. Seward s short term achievements were modest, Exhausted by civil war Americans had little enthusiasm. for further military exploits Seward achieved only two Integrating the National Economy. significant victories In 1868 he secured congressional Closer to home Republicans focused on transporta. approval for the Burlingame Treaty with China which tion infrastructure Railroad development in the United. guaranteed the rights of U S missionaries in China and States began well before the Civil War with the first. set official terms for the emigration of Chinese laborers locomotives arriving from Britain in the early 1830s. some of whom were already clearing farmland and Unlike canals or roads railroads offered the promise. building railroads in the West That same year Seward of year round all weather service Loco motives could. negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia After run in the dark and never needed to rest except to take. the Senate approved the deal Seward waxed poetic on coal and water Steam engines crossed high moun. tains and rocky gorges where pack animals could find. Our nation with united interests blest, no fodder and canals could never reach West of the. Not now content to poise shall sway the rest, Mississippi railroads opened vast regions for farming.
Abroad our empire shall no limits know, But like the sea in endless circles flow trade and tourism A transcontinental railroad execu. tive was only half joking when he said The West is. Many Americans scoffed at the purchase of Alaska a purely a railroad enterprise. frigid arctic tract that skeptics nicknamed Seward s Governments could choose to build and operate. Icebox But the secretary of state mapped out a path railroads themselves or promote construction by. 512 PART 5 Creating and Preserving a Continental Nation 1844 1877. Building the Central Pacific,In 1865 Chinese workers had labored. to build the 1 100 foot long 90 foot,high trestle over the divide between the. American and Bear rivers at Secret Town,in the Sierra Nevada Mountains In 1877. the Chinese workers shown in this photo,graph by Carleton Watkins were again at.
work on the site burying the trestle to,avoid replacement of the aging timbers. which had become a fire hazard University,of California at Berkeley Bancroft Library. private companies Unlike most European countries century legislatures gradually began to allow any busi. the United States chose the private approach The fed ness to become a corporation by simply applying for a. eral government however provided essential loans state charter Among the first corporations to become. subsidies and grants of public land States and locali large interstate enterprises private railroads were much. ties also lured railroads with offers of financial aid freer than earlier companies to do as they pleased. mainly by buying railroad bonds Without this aid rail After the Civil War they received lavish public aid with. networks would have grown much more slowly and few strings attached Their position was like that of. would probably have concentrated in urban regions American banks in late 2008 after the big federal bail. With it railroads enjoyed an enormous and reck out even critics acknowledged that public aid to these. less boom By 1900 virtually no corner of the coun giant companies was good for the economy but they. try lacked rail service Map 16 1 At the same time observed that it also lent government support to fabu. U S railroads built across the border into Mexico lous accumulations of private wealth. America Com pared p 514, Railroad companies transformed American capi Tariffs and Economic Growth Along with the trans. talism They adopted a legal form of organization the formative power of railroads Republicans protective. corporation that enabled them to raise private capital tariffs helped build other U S industries including tex. in prodigious amounts In earlier decades state legisla tiles and steel in the Northeast and Midwest and through. tures had chartered corporations for specific public tariffs on imported sugar and wool sugar beet farming. purposes binding these creations to government goals and sheep ranching in the West Tariffs also funded. and oversight But over the course of the nineteenth government itself In an era when the United States did. CHAPTER 16 Conquering a Continent 1854 1890 513,Time C A N A D A. Zone Mountain,Time Central,Seattle Zone,uperior Eastern.
Portland L,Minneapolis,St Paul i Boston,L Michigan. L OBuffalo,Detroit ie,Er New York,Chicago Cleveland Pittsburgh. Salt Omaha,Lake Washington,City Denver Cincinnati D C. San Francisco City St Louis,Memphis ATLANTIC,Los Angeles. Charleston,PACIFIC El Paso,New Orleans S,Gulf of Me x i co.
Railroad Growth between 1870 1890,Major rail lines in 1870 0 200 400 miles. Major rail lines added 1870 1890,0 200 400 kilometers. Expansion of the Railroad System 1870 1890, In 1860 the nation had 30 000 miles of rail track by 1890 it had 167 000 miles The tremendous. burst of construction during the last twenty years of that period essentially completed the nation s. rail network although there would be additional expansion for the next two decades The main. areas of growth were in the South and in lands west of the Mississippi Time zones introduced. by the railroad companies in 1883 are marked by the gray lines. not levy income taxes tariffs provided the bulk of trea factory For protectionist Republicans high tariffs were. sury revenue The Civil War had left the Union with a akin to the abolition of slavery they protected and. staggering debt of 2 8 billion Tariff income erased uplifted the most vulnerable workers. that debt and by the 1880s generated huge budget sur In these fierce debates both sides were partly right. pluses a circumstance hard to imagine today Protective tariffs did play a powerful role in economic. As Reconstruction faltered tariffs came under growth They helped transform the United States into a. political fire Democrats argued that tariffs taxed global industrial power Eventually though even pro. Amer i can consumers by denying them access to low tectionist Republicans had to admit that Democrats. cost imported goods and forcing them to pay subsidies had a point tariffs had not prevented industrial pov. to U S manufacturers Republicans claimed conversely erty in the United States Corporations accumulated. that tariffs benefitted workers because they created massive benefits from tariffs but failed to pass them. jobs blocked low wage foreign competition and safe along to workers who often toiled long hours for low. guarded America from the kind of industrial poverty wages Furthermore tariffs helped foster trusts corpo. that had arisen in Europe According to this argument rations that dominated whole sectors of the economy. grate the trans Mississippi west into the nation and how did this affect people living there 16 O n May 10 1869 Americans poured into the streets for a giant party In big cities the racket was incredible Cannons boomed and train whistles shrilled New York fired a hundred gun salute at City Hall Congregations sang

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