BY THE PEOPLE Public Resource Org

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An address to the Government 2 0 Summit,Washington D C September 10 2009. http public resource org people,CC Zero No Rights Reserved. http creativecommons org publicdomain zero 1 0,BY THE PEOPLE. CARL MALAMUD, 1 Gettsyburg Address in Abraham Lincoln Speeches and Writings 1859 1865. Library of America 1989 For an analysis of the address see Gary Wills. Lincoln at Gettysburg The Words That Re Made America Simon Schuster. 1992 The de nitive Lincoln is Michael Burlingame Abraham Lincoln A. Life 2 Vols John Hopkins University Press 2008, 2 A good introduction to Franklin is Walter Isaacson Benjamin Franklin An.
American Life Simon Schuster 2003 though one should not neglect Carl. Van Dorn Benjamin Franklin Viking Press 1938 nor Benjamin Franklin. The Private Life of the Late Benjamin Franklin LL D Originally Written By. Himself And Now Translated From The French reprinted in Benjamin. Franklin Collected Writings Library of America 1793 reprinted 1987 For. Thomas Paine see David Freeman Hawke Paine Harper Row 1974 For. Paine s ideas re ected in the tenor of the times see Eric Foner Tom Paine. and Revolutionary America Oxford University Press 1976. 3 A good account of the differing perspectives of the Democratic Republican. populists and the more establishment oriented Federalists led by. Alexander Hamilton can be found in Jeffrey L Pasley The Tyranny of. Printers Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic University Press. of Virgina 2001 The role of printers and the press in fermenting political. change is further set out in Marcus Daniel Scandal Civility Journalism and. the Birth of American Democracy Oxford University Press 2009. 4 Adams has perhaps received a bum rap from history though some of that. reputation is self in icted starting when Adams joined Benjamin Franklin. in France to represent the Continental Congress Franklin promptly wrote. back that Mr Adams has given Offence to the Court here Benjamin. Franklin Letter to Samuel Huntington 1780 For a more sympathetic. portrait see John Patrick Diggins John Adams Times Books 2003. BY THE PEOPLE, 1 When Abraham Lincoln spoke of a government of the. people by the people for the people he was speaking of. more than the consecration of a battle eld he was, speaking of a wave of transformation that was changing. the way government related to the citizens it served. 2 This transformation was the second of three waves of. change The rst the Founder s wave began when, printers such as Ben Franklin and pamphleteers such as. Thomas Paine dared to involve themselves in civic affairs. publishing their opinions about how government should. function the policies it should follow daring even to say. that the people should go so far as to select their own. 3 This rst wave of transformation culminated when, Thomas Jefferson took the White House riding in on a crest. of populist sentiment a reaction against his more button. down predecessors George Washington and John Adams. While both Washington and Adams were revolutionaries. they were aristocratic revolutionaries governing from the. top down an elite who favored the populace with public. service by governing them, 4 John Adams took great pains to instill a sense of dignity.
some said majesty in the new of ces of government He. designed an of cial vice presidential uniform and,suggested that Washington be addressed as Your. Excellency Adams sense of pomp was such that the, Jeffersonians took to referring to him as His Rotundity. 5 Jefferson s dining table and informal dress habits are cited in Joyce. Appleby Thomas Jefferson Times Books 2003 p 41 While there is no. direct evidence of passers by being invited in for breakfast Jefferson was. known to be a friendly fellow and enjoyed his breakfast See Henry. Stephens Randall The Life of Thomas Jefferson Volume 3 Derby Jackson. 1858 p 505 quoting Daniel Webster s visit to Monticello His breakfast is. tea and coffee bread always fresh from the oven of which he does not. seem afraid with sometimes a slight accompaniment of cold meat. 6 Though some would argue that Lincoln s sole aims were the preservation of. the Union and the abolition or resolution through other means of the. question of slavery an argument can be made that Lincoln was one of a. series of leaders who also concerned themselves with the role of. government in creating a platform for the country See Lincoln s advocacy. in the middle of the war for The Homestead Act The Land Grant College Act. and The Paci c Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 George McGovern Abraham. Lincoln Times Books 2009 pp 210 211, 7 A good description of the sorry state of publik printing in America in the. years leading up to 1861 can be found in Robert E Kling Jr Government. Printing Of ce Praeger Library of U S Government Departments 1970. pp 13 18 See also Robert Washington Kerr History of the Government. Printing Of ce Government Printing Of ce 1881, 8 Lincoln s use of Defrees as editor is detailed in Douglas L Wilson Lincoln s. Sword The Presidency and the Power of Words Alfred A Knopf 2006 pp. 86 90 Lincoln and Defrees bickered over the use of everything from. excessive commas to undigni ed expressions such as sugar coated. for which Lincoln stuck to his guns in his Message of July 4 saying Defrees. that word expresses precisely my idea and I am not going to change it. The two worked out a detente Defrees said he would tell me he would. furnish the words and I might put the periods to suit. BY THE PEOPLE, and a strong sentiment for a more representative and.
responsive government started to take shape, 5 When Jefferson moved into the White House after his. raucous political campaign he felt so deeply that his duty. was to form a government for all the people of the United. States that he abolished the formal dining table in the. White House replacing it with a round one so nobody. could sit at the head Indeed if you happened to be. walking by the White House early in the morning and. knocked on the door you might be greeted by Jefferson. dressed in his bath robe who would likely invite you in for. a spot of breakfast,6 The rst great wave of transformation was a. government that spoke for the rst time in modern history. directly to and with its citizens The second wave the. Lincoln Wave was just as fundamental, 7 The same day Lincoln was inaugurated in 1861 a new. agency opened its doors a Government Printing Of ce. with a mission of Keeping America Informed Prior to. Lincoln the proceedings of government were reported by. the press in a summary and sporadic fashion The,proceedings of Congress were reported by the. Congressional Globe a private enterprise and the, executive and legislative branches were reported only if it.
struck the fancy of a newspaperman,8 The Government Printing Of ce created the rst. Of cial Journal of Government the Congressional Record. 9 The growth of government from Lincoln through the New Deal was driven. by countervailing forces to support yet also control the growth and. consequent abuses as both government and industry scaled to ever larger. sizes These contradictory impulses led to conservative patricians such as. Theodore Roosevelt taking on the mantle of trustbuster and free enterprise. businessmen such as Herbert Hoover taking on the mantle of safety. regulator Two good accounts of these times are John Milton Cooper Jr The. Warrior and the Priest Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt Harvard. University Press 1985 and Wiliam E Leuchtenburg The Perils of. Prosperity 2nd Ed University of Chicago Press 1958. 10 The toll of the industrial revolution on workers and families is told in many. forums but much can be learned from the stories of two of the hardest hit. the bakers and the dock workers See Maria Balinska The Bagel The. Surprising History of a Modest Bread Yale University Press 2008 and Marc. Levinson The Box How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and. the World Economy Bigger Princeton University Press 2006. 11 141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire Trapped High Up in Washington. Place Building Street Strewn With Bodies Piles of Dead Inside New York. Times Mar 26 1911 p 1 See also Frances Perkins Lecture Cornell. University Sept 30 1964 The number of dead varies from 141 to 148. 12 Quote is from Dorthy Sue Cobble and Michael Merrill Working Heroes. Frances Perkins AFL CIO 2009 See also Oral History Research Of ce. Interview with Frances Perkins Columbia University Libraries 1951 1955. and Frances Perkins The Roots of Social Security Social Security. Administration Headquarters Oct 23 1962 in which Miss Perkins. explains how they bootstrapped the Social Security Program by. misappropriating 125 000 from Henry Hopkins Perkins was also one of. the rst beta users of the new IBM machines See Frances Perkins Speech. on the 25th Anniversary of the Social Security Act Department of Health. Education and Welfare Aug 15 1960,BY THE PEOPLE, which recorded the oors in a full and mostly true fashion. The Printing Of ce also began publishing the Foreign. Relations of the United States the of cial record of the State. Department and Superintendent of Documents John, Defrees even served as Lincoln s personal editor for. messages of state such as the Emancipation Proclamation. 9 The Lincoln wave of transformation was one of fully. documenting government publishing the rule book that. governs our society But it was more it was also the. beginning of a formal process of involving citizens in the. workings of government a process which culminated,during FDR s New Deal. 10 This transformation in the nature of government was. spurred by broader changes in society changes that were. breathtaking in scope but often wreaked a terrible toll on. workers and families, 11 In 1911 in a sweatshop on the 9th and 10th stories of a.
New York tenement the nation reached a watershed The. Triangle Shirtwaist factory was a sweatshop crowded with. unsafe machinery and combustible materials with no re. escapes and the exit doors chained shut to keep workers. from taking breaks It was a powder keg that would, inevitably explode in a restorm and it did The Triangle. Shirtwaist Fire claimed the lives of 146 garment workers. 12 Standing across the street that terrible day in 1911 was. a young woman named Frances Perkins a social worker. and the executive secretary of the New York Consumers. 13 Kirstin Downey The Woman Behind the New Deal The Life of Frances. Perkins Nan A Talese 2009 p 48 See also David Von Drehle Triangle. The Fire That Changed America Grove Atlantic 2003, 14 Robert F Wagner Chairman Second Report of the Factory Investigating. Commission State of New York 1913 One can argue that re safety dates. back to Benjamin Franklin Writing as Anonymous to himself as Editor. On Protection of Towns from Fire Pennsylvania Gazette Feb 4 1734. Likewise the lore of building codes is that they reach back not only to. Washington and Jefferson but as far back as the Code of Hammurabi Rule. 229 If a builder builds a house for some one and does not construct it. properly and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner then that. builder shall be put to death 1790 BC The systematic promulgation of. codes of general applicability ourished in the period after 1915 with the. founding of the Building Of cials and Code Administrators International. BOCA This trend towards formal standardization re ected the broader. trend in the engineering community towards the creation of private codes. and laws See Edwin T Layton Revolt of the Engineers Press of Case. Western Reserve University 1971, 15 Perkins and Smith had previously become acquainted when she lobbied. the state legislature for a bill to limit the work week for women and. children to 54 hours Her rst reaction upon seeing Smith in action on the. oor of the Assembly was it s a pity he s a Tammany man Robert A. Slayton Empire Statesman The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith Free Press. 2001 pp 83 84,BY THE PEOPLE, League one of a new kind of civic organization advocating. better conditions for factory workers Perkins watched. helplessly as young women hands clasped in prayer leapt. to their deaths Later she recalled the experience was. seared on my mind as well as my heart a never to be. forgotten reminder of why I had to spend my life ghting. conditions that could permit such a tragedy, 13 Equally touched by the tragedy was a hard boiled.
politician Al Smith of Tammany Hall Smith was horri ed. and formed a citizen s commission to investigate When. Theodore Roosevelt was asked who should serve as the. chief investigator Teddy thought of the young social. worker he had heard so many good things about saying. with Frances you can t fail, 14 Perkins worked alongside a retired re engineer who. sought her out and insisted on taking part as a volunteer. and with their commission of citizens they created the rst. re code spelling out the minimum standards of safety to. be used in factories of ces and homes The re code was. adopted by New York City then spread throughout the. nation joined over time by other fundamental public. safety codes governing building electricity plumbing. elevators boilers and the other technical aspects of our. modern society, 15 When Al Smith took the governor s seat in New York he. brought Frances Perkins with him installing her on the. the bakers and the dock workers See Maria Balinska The Bagel The Surprising History of a Modest Bread Yale University Press 2008 and Marc Levinson The Box How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger Princeton University Press 2006

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