Bridging Theory and Practice in the Leadership Classroom

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Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. While contemporary models of leadership argue that leadership can be taught and. learned many are unable to address the gap between theory and practice in the classroom Some. appropriate models for teaching leadership to undergraduates have been explored and explicated. Komives Longerbeam Owen Mainella Osteen 2006 However these models primarily. identify the ways students develop in their understanding of leadership Alternatively particular. models identify specific elements of an unidentified general pedagogy rather than putting forth a. comprehensive model Elsewhere models and methods for learning about leadership provide. useful frameworks but rarely specific practices for teachers that bridge the gap between learning. about theory and integrating theory into practice Astin Astin 1996 Komives et al 2011. Sharon Daloz Parks seminal text Leadership Can Be Taught A Bold Approach for a. Complex World 2005 documented an approach used at Harvard Graduate School with mid. career executives called Case in Point CIP teaching that explicitly acknowledges the need to. address the gap between theory and practice However while CIP recognizes a need to create. curriculum that engages students in developing skills and strategies for practicing leadership in a. complex world the strategies used within CIP are difficult at best to translate from its specific. Harvard graduate context to more universal contexts which require addressing several major. differences in student characteristics and experience including 1 a lack of extensive and shared. lived experiences of leadership 2 students consumer mindset toward education 3 often the. inattention of large and or research universities to student development and 4 the differing. places students fall along developmental trajectories. Description of Practice Overview of Lesson Project Plan The Intentional. Emergence IE Model for Leadership Education relies on three components intention. emerging moments and the alignment of these two to define the most optimal bridging. moments to engage within the classroom, Intention The first component of the model intention may seem deceptively simple. because many instructors rely heavily on planning for the class Such intentional construction of. a unit lesson plan or assignment is critical to the academic rigor and success of a leadership. course but it is not uncommon that intention falls along the lines of interesting activities or. simulations without a deeper scaffolding process from one moment class and course to the. next For example without intentional scaffolding from one core concept or skillset to the next. students may lose the larger educational goal amidst a sea of disconnected activities It is the. planning intention that allows an instructor to answer the most critical question To what. end To what end are we using this simulation To what end are students conducting interviews. of local leaders To what end will this activity lead us today Tomorrow At the end of the. experience, As Figure 1 demonstrates sources for intention are available to the leadership educator. through many planning venues and tools which create the foundation for intention in the. Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. Figure 1 Examples of planning sources which create the intentional foundation. Emergence It is often clear to see how necessary well scaffolded lesson plans are to. moving students along the continuum of development in their understanding and leadership skill. building However highly controlled and well planned lessons are not enough to transform. theory into lived practice The ability to connect content to moments of consequence is where. transformation is possible Emergent moments in the classroom hold the key to this bridge from. theory to practice Jeffrey Goldstein 1999 in the inaugural issue of the Journal entitled. Emergence Complexity and Organization states Emergence refers to the arising of novel and. coherent structures patterns and properties during the process of self organization in complex. systems Emergent phenomena are conceptualized as occurring on the macro level in contrast to. the micro level components and processes out of which they arise Goldstein 1999 p 49. There are three important aspects of this definition to consider in the context of teaching. arising patterns self organizing and macro vs micro levels The first aspect of this definition to. consider is the arising of novel and coherent structures patterns and properties which is the. heart of the work In traditional CIP teaching people call this working with the here and now. When instructors create the holding space and set an intention they actively create space for the. work that needs to be addressed by the group It is the intentional orchestration of these novel. and coherent structures that bridges the gap between theory and practice so profoundly. Second is the idea that e mergent phenomena are conceptualized as occurring on the. macro level in contrast to the micro level components and processes out of which they arise. Goldstein 1999 p 49 In leadership terms this would be the idea of the big picture versus the. details or the balcony and the dance floor in terms of Heifetz s 1998 Adaptive Leadership. model Instructors must be able to engage at the micro level the dance floor as an authentic. member of the community but our primary responsibility is to be vigilantly aware of the patterns. that are emerging at the macro level the balcony overlooking the dance floor in order to call. these out to the class, Finally although Goldstein posits that it is the act of self organization in complex. systems that creates emergence within teaching self organizing is also a result of using what. emerges What follows after the arising and overt identification of patterns is a process of. spontaneous self organizing around a new level of understanding it is the bridging of theory to. Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. This spontaneous self organizing process also surfaces a key element of the IE model and. how it differs from classic CIP teaching While the foundations of both theories are similar and. vital to learning noticing and engaging what is happening in the moment IE focuses more on. what the system does with the here and now through organizing bridging and leading to the next. moment where effective and compassionate action can be taken. Figure 2 Examples of sources for emergent moments, Arising Teachable Moments Instructors who are new to emergent pedagogy can. sometimes err too far on the emergence side of the model which leaves students confused as to. the larger point of their learning and experiences However it is the confluence of intention and. emergence that creates the ideal teachable moments in the leadership classroom those moments. where theory and practice are most likely to support long term changes in default leadership. Figure 3 When intention and emergence meet ideal teachable moments arise. However not all emerging teachable moments can or should be engaged in the moment. they arise In an average 90 minute course period there may be a plethora of emergent moments. that overlap with the deeper intention for the course and the class period however only a few of. these moments will be engaged during that time, Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference.
Figure 4 Teaching moments actually engaged, Engaging with these emergent and relevant moments creates a vibrant learning. environment where students are connecting what is happening with larger leadership concepts. At its best IE helps students make rich connections between theory and practice through various. inductive and deductive reasoning activities adding connections between concepts and students. current mental schema of ideas Deepening these connections and building them even further. allows the learning to come alive and be taken from inside the classroom to outside of it That. is the ultimate leadership educator s goal to take the learning into the world. Figure 5 The Intentional Emergence Model, Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. Discussion of Outcomes Results, Proof of the effectiveness of the IE model comes from an ongoing program evaluation. and research initiative The IE model has nearly a decade of evaluation behind it through which. we have established a culture of curiosity exploration and ongoing improvement Through. complex survey techniques that embed demographic data into student responses we are able to. identify better understand and adapt to students unique needs as well as recognize the nuances. across course sections and instructors We found instructors employing the IE model. consistently receive 30 higher student satisfaction ratings over their counterparts After. standardizing the IE model across sections the gap dissipated increasing the average course. recommendation rate by 10 and the overall course experience by 23 With 40 of students. enrolling in our courses through peer recommendation the rapid enrollment growth of 15 each. year also demonstrates increase in student experience. Moving beyond student self report we adopted a research agenda to better assess the. impact of the IE Model on its students The initial research findings on the IE model also indicate. that the model is highly effective in retaining students persistence toward graduation and. campus engagement when compared to matched samples of peers For example students who. took even one course using this model of teaching were six times more likely to be retained their. first and second years of college than students who were not exposed to this model n 528 e. 6 692 B 1 901 p 001 A comprehensive analysis of SERU Student Experience in the. Research University data corroborated these findings Students who participated in one course. using the IE had significantly greater academic engagement 211 p 001 more. engagement in advanced scholarship 129 p 05 and greater development of an. understanding of diversity over their peers 200 p 05. Reflections of the Practitioner, The success of this way of teaching and learning hinges on the quality and ownership of. the instructor base The foundations of IE requires that instructors hold several core practices. and assumptions most of which are opposed to those of the classical education model As such. instructors must do a lot of unlearning of core assumptions for example the expectations we. have of the role of a formal authority in facilitating and decision making stepping outside of. competency and giving control to the students and the moments that emerge using the class as a. metaphor for real moments in the world and allowing for students to be teachers as well. As part of this unlearning a cohort of new instructors proceed through a rigorous nine. month on boarding process see Figure 6 For one semester instructors observe at least 10 class. sessions while engaging in monthly trainings that discuss core assumptions like the foundations. of students learning the assumptions we bring about power and authority into the classroom. weaning off our need for complete control and appearance of competency After a successful. teaching demonstration instructors are placed with a mentor instructor to co teach for a. semester This immersive training experience allows for new instructors to practice these core. tenets and assumptions every day and how to merge the intention of the curriculum with the. daily execution Here instructors learn how to make questions about assignment deadlines or. attendance policies into leadership lessons and give the work back to the students. Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. Figure 6 Instructor Training Process, Even when instructors move into teaching independently they are invited to continued.
training sessions with the program These trainings focus on developing Instructor Artistry. continuing to develop instructor knowledge about topics like cognitive learning theory creating. strategies to connect concepts and current events and exploring the impact of instructor identity. on authority and power in the classroom These training opportunities are not only great. professional development experiences but they also aid in creating a robust instructor. community As leadership is a practice teaching is also a practice and these trainings offer new. ways instructors can keep practicing see Figure 7 for an example of concepts covered. Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. Figure 7 Making it Real Finding Moments of Connection. Journal of Leadership Education DOI 1012806 V15 I4 C1 Volume 15 Issue 4 Conference. In addition to these artistry trainings the program holds an annual training for all. instructors to further cultivate a culture of community create more consistency by conveying. curriculum changes program updates and hold specific training sessions on topics like. responding to student writing student mental health pedagogical training and more. In the IE approach the teaching team often times includes at least one teaching assistant. Teaching assistants are upper level students who have previously taken the course and are ready. to explore the dimensions of authority positional power and facilitation in a classroom setting. Bridging Theory and Practice in the Leadership Classroom Intentional Emergence as a Modern Pedagogy Linnette Werner Ph D Director of the Undergraduate Leadership Minor David Hellstrom Instructor Coordinator and Teaching Specialist Jessica Chung Curriculum and Instructor Coordinator Katherine Kessenich Program Evaluation Coordinator and Teaching Specialist Leonard Taylor Jr Ph D Research

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