Brain Based Learning Semantic Scholar

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Brain Based Learning 293,Introduction, Neuroscience research findings are now scientifically confirming many learning. theories first introduced during the educational reform efforts of the 1960s. Lackney n d Researchers have explored many different aspects of the brain. including anatomy circulation electrical activity glucose metabolism and. neuronal growth Even with the growth of scientific information the human brain. is for the most part still unknown as the brain is extremely complex The brain. is the major controller of the body similar to a computer s CPU central. processing unit It is the information processor of the human body The brain is. capable of multitasking and it assembles patterns composes meaning and. sorts daily life experiences from an extraordinary number of clues Jensen. 2000 p 12 The brain in addition to being extremely complex is a dynamic and. adaptive system The brain contains hundreds of billions of neurons and. interneurons that produce an enormous number of neural nets or groups of. neurons working together from which our daily experience is created Lackney. The brain s activity is controlled by genetics development experience culture. environment and emotions and it is constantly under stimulation to change. Gardner 1999 Since the 1980s significant scientific findings have emerged. about how learning occurs By the 1990s the scientific community had started. to increase dramatically with new information about the brain Developments in. technology have allowed researchers to see inside the brain and visualize how. the structures in the brain communicate Common imaging techniques used by. researchers include computerized axial tomography CAT or computerized X. rays functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and positron emission. tomography PET These tools have allowed scientists to learn more about the. brain and findings made through them are influencing the worlds of education. science and medicine, With advances in technology and knowledge about the brain there has been the. development of brain compatible or brain based learning Brain based learning. is a new paradigm that has tremendous implications for educators and students. This chapter will define brain based learning and will provide an overview of the. anatomy brain chemistry neuronal connections and current neuroscience. research that are important in understanding how learning occurs Neuroscience. research needs to be translated into brain based learning strategies that can be. used by educators and instructional design theories need to be developed in. response to the new brain based information being discovered by scientists. These theories should attempt to translate the neuroscience research and. provide methods that help educators to develop instructional strategies Follow. Copyright 2006 Idea Group Inc Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written. permission of Idea Group Inc is prohibited,294 Cercone. ing this discussion recommendations will be made for the design and develop. ment of a distance learning or online course,The Biology of Learning. According to Jensen 2000 brain based learning is learning in accordance with. the way the brain is naturally designed to learn p 6 Research about how the. brain learns is being conducted across several disciplines including psychology. neuroanatomy genetics biology chemistry sociology and neurobiology Jensen. 2000 Brain based learning is biologically driven and the conclusions developed. to date have not been definitive Research continues and our understanding of. brain based learning will be subject to future changes The brain based learning. approach is not a recipe for all learning but it can be used to develop strategies. that are based on the current available research,Brain Anatomy Chemistry Structure.
and Body Connections, To understand how the brain learns a basic understanding of the anatomy and. physiology of the brain is necessary The largest portion of the brain is called the. cerebrum The cerebrum is the most highly evolved part of the brain and is. sometimes called the neocortex Higher order thinking and decision making. occurs here The cerebrum is composed of two hemispheres that are connected. by a neural highway the corpus callosum Information travels along the corpus. callosum to each hemisphere so that the whole brain is involved in most activities. Each cerebrum is composed of four lobes frontal parietal temporal and. occipital Each lobe is responsible for specific activities and each lobe depends. on communication from the other lobes as well as from the lower centers of the. brain to complete its jobs, Every task that the brain completes requires communication and coordination. among several of its parts For example use of the thumb requires input from the. cerebellum the midbrain and the motor and sensory areas of the frontal and. parietal lobes The task of learning functions in a similar way as multiple areas. of the brain must communicate and work together for learning to occur. The brain is composed of over 100 billion neurons that are interconnected by. electrical circuits Communication between neurons occurs as information is. Copyright 2006 Idea Group Inc Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written. permission of Idea Group Inc is prohibited,Brain Based Learning 295. passed from one neuron to the next by an electrochemical process Each neuron. has an extension the axon which carries the electrochemical impulse to. neighboring neurons Figure 1 These axons carry information on a one way. circuit away from the cell body of the neuron Axons connect with other neurons. at synapses which are connecting junctions For example every muscle is. connected by axons to the brain The brain initiates an impulse of energy that. travels along the axon which terminates at a synapse on the muscle and causes. the muscle to perform the activity, Axons modify and grow in response to any brain activity such as learning. Learning puts demands on the brain and the brain responds by developing new. circuits to connect new information to current or past knowledge According to. Fishback 1999 the creation of neural networks and synapses are what. constitutes learning n p, There are billions of neurons and the number of synapses is more than 10 000.
times the number of neurons Hill 2001 A single neuron can have from a few. thousand up to one hundred thousand synapses and each synapse can receive. information from thousands of other neurons The resulting 100 trillion synapses. make possible the complex cognition of human learners p 74 Communication. between neurons at a synapse is accomplished by the release of chemicals and. electrical signals At the synapse an axon sends messages to the next organ or. nerve by releasing hormones or neurotransmitters such as adrenaline and. dopamine These transmitters tell the organ or nerve what to do For example. the axon of the sciatic nerve thousands of axons bundled together in connective. tissue sends information from the brain to the legs The sciatic nerve sends a. Figure 1 Nerve cell or neuron with synapse,starts here. This synapse may be con and sends,nected to muscles organs message along. etc The neurotransmitter is axon to the,released at the synapse next nerve cell. Synapse with,neruotransmitter,chemical being released to. another nerve cell,Neurons or nerve cells that connect at a synapse.
Copyright 2006 Idea Group Inc Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written. permission of Idea Group Inc is prohibited,296 Cercone. neurotransmitter chemical across the synapse to the muscle that it innervates. causing a muscle contraction, The midbrain area is deep inside the cerebrum and includes the limbic system. hypothalamus hippocampus and amygdala This area works with the cerebrum. but is responsible for emotions attention sleep body regulation hormones. sexuality and smell This area of the brain is often called the gatekeeper. because all incoming traffic from the body has to pass through it The midbrain. controls to where incoming information goes Jensen 2000. The deepest part of the brain the brain stem is often considered the oldest and. most primitive part of the brain It is sometimes called the reptilian brain and is. responsible for our instinctual or survival behaviors This area of the brain is the. first to respond to trouble and is the area of the flight or fight response For. example the brain can downshift to the brain stem when a student feels. threatened during a test When that happens the brain reacts to the situation and. it is no longer able to store or learn any information thus learning becomes. impossible Jensen 2000 Both the midbrain and the brain stem will be explored. further in the discussion of emotions and learning. Neuroflexibility, Scientists once believed that the brain becomes rigid with age It is now known. that the brain is dynamic and flexible even as one ages In other words the brain. is plastic The physical brain is literally shaped by experience axonal circuits. change modify and redevelop as human s age We now know that the human. brain actually maintains an amazing plasticity throughout life We can literally. grow new neural connections with stimulation even as we age This fact means. nearly any learner can increase their intelligence without limits using proper. enrichment Jensen 2000 p 149, In addition to adding new circuits as axonal circuits age pruning occurs Pruning. is the removal of connections that are no longer needed The brain modifies its. structure based on incoming information The brain changes physiologically as. a result of experience and it happens much quicker than originally thought The. environment in which the brain operates determines to a large degree the. functional ability of the brain Roberts 2002 p 282. According to Lackney n d pruning occurs even in children and research has. shown that axons continue to grow throughout life You can teach old dogs a. few new tricks after all This is a huge discovery and has implications for life. long learning n p Lackney provided an example of how this occurs in an adult. who is learning how to drive a stick shift after having only driven an automatic. automobile At first the task is frustrating and awkward for the learner but. Copyright 2006 Idea Group Inc Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written. permission of Idea Group Inc is prohibited,Brain Based Learning 297.
eventually the skills become automatic This is a clear example of growing new. neural connections and the principle of plasticity in connection with the develop. ment of body kinesthetic intelligence Lackney n d n p. Learning is also due to input to the brain Sensory information e g aural visual. and tactile information enters the brain along multiple nerve receptors Sensory. input causes axons to react by budding branching and reaching out to other. neurons thus leading to the development of new connections in the brain If the. information is novel the brain needs to develop these budding new pathways It. is when an axon grows and meets up with another neuron that learning occurs. This explains why adult students need consideration of their prior experiences. Adults need to connect new information with old information As they do this. their neural pathways change to connect new information to the older pathways. already developed in the brain Neural circuits continue to grow even with age. Neuronal growth which is initiated by learning explains scientifically what. happens with assimilation and accommodation The terms assimilation and. accommodation are associated with cognitive learning theory In assimilation. incoming information is changed to fit into existing knowledge structures i e. neuronal structures that already exist Ally 2004 Accommodation occurs. when an existing cognitive structure i e current neuronal circuits is changed. to incorporate new information Ally 2004 Research on the neuroscience of. learning is providing scientific evidence to support the learning theories that have. been used for years,Learning and the Brain, Everyone s brain is uniquely shaped by genetics the environment social. phenomena and experience The interconnections or the existing neural net. works are unique for each person The connections between neurons are. developed because of the individual s experiences and form a personal. cognitive map Jensen 2000 p 15, According to Leamnson 2000 our genes control what cells do and how they do. it However after birth chance plays a larger role than genetic code in. determining whether one budding neuron will grow to another Genetics. determines only the types of cells that get connected The actual axonal. connections are said to be epigenetic meaning that they are beyond or. independent of genetic instructions n p Epigenetic development can be seen. in identical twins who have different fingerprints as well as different vein. patterns yet have identical DNA Leamnson 2000 reported. Copyright 2006 Idea Group Inc Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written. permission of Idea Group Inc is prohibited,298 Cercone. It happens that the connections that growing axons make upon contact with. a permissive cell are often temporary There have long been micros. neuroanatomy genetics biology chemistry sociology and neurobiology Jensen 2000 Brain based learning is biologically driven and the conclusions developed to date have not been definitive Research continues and our understanding of brain based learning will be subject to future changes The brain based learning approach is not a

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