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INES scale,7 Major accident,6 Serious accident,the environment. and people,5 Accident,4 Accident,3 Serious incident. 2 Incident,Degradation,of the defence,0 Deviations. Event below scale,What do we need to know about the transport. 1 n Why are radioactive materials transported p 2,2 n Hazards p 4. 3 n Transport safety p 6,4 n Transport modes p 8,5 n Incidents and accidents p 10. 6 n Packages adapted to the hazards p 14,7 n Regulations drafting and application p 16. Why are radioactive,materials transported,In France approximately 900 000 packages. are shipped every year, Since the beginning of the 19th nuclear industries the medical. century uranium has been sector and for scientific research. transported to help with the is estimated at approximately. manufacturing of enamels and 10 million which represents less. porcelains than 2 of all dangerous mate, With the development of artificial rial packages transported. radioactivity and fission energy,applications in the 1960s the. volume of radioactive materials,transported rose significantly. The number of packages of ra,dioactive materials transported. each year worldwide for the A type B package for the transport. requirements of nuclear or non of irradiated fuels. The nuclear fuel cycle, Every stage of the nuclear fuel new fuel is then burned in nuclear. cycle requires radioactive materials power plants The irradiated fuel is. to be transported from one facility then reprocessed to produce a new. to another fuel MOX or is stored,Extracted from the mine uranium. ore is transformed into nuclear fuel,after refining and enrichment The. Interim storage Fuel,manufacturing,Depleted UO2 and MOX. uranium Enriched Reactors,Enrichment,UF6 Plutonium. Conversion Irradiated fuel,Concentrated,Extraction Treatment plant Waste Disposal. of the uranium ore La Hague,Nuclear fuel cycle, Each arrow corresponds to the transport of radioactive materials. Other radioactive products, A number of radioactive prod scientific research laboratories. ucts are used for industrial level dating marking out non de. gauges density meters humid structive analyses etc. ity meters sterilisation gamma Sealed radioactive sources used. radiography etc and medical for non destructive testing may. radiology radiotherapy sterili be transported from one site to. sation etc requirements or in another,Production,of artificial. radioelements,Recovery of used sources,Transportation. Loading Sites,of sources,into the equipment Mobile devices. Industrial installations workshops,Hospital medical centres. Used sources,Research laboratories,Radioactive source uses. Each arrow corresponds to the transport of radioactive materials. The weight of the packages varies fifty for plutonium oxide pow. all categories included from a few der and around twenty for new. grams vials to one hundred tones MOX fuels,n 56 of the packages are. transported to carry out techni,cal inspections whereas 28 are. for medical use,n 15 concern the nuclear fuel,cycle The bulkiest and most. radioactive transports include,200 annual loads for new fuels. 200 for irradiated fuels around Vials containing radioactive. tracers used in medicine,Irradiation, Workers and population may diation protection with a thick. be exposed to the radiation ness suited to the nature and. emitted intensity of the radiation The, To prevent excessive exposure ALARA principle must also be. the packaging must offer ra implemented,Contamination. The transfer of radioactive parti on the skin or on the ground It. cles may produce the irradiation may be caused by either an insuf. of people either internally in the ficient decontamination of the. event of ingestion or inhalation or surface of the package or leakage. externally in the event of deposit of the radioactive products. Criticality, Some specific geometrical and with a sudden release of en. weight conditions of fissile ma ergy may cause the irradiation. terials may start a chain re of people and the release of. action The resulting intense radioelements into the environ. emission of gamma radiation ment,and neutrons possibly combined. Theft or misappropriation, Some sensitive materials such specifically equipped and moni. as plutonium or enriched ura tored in real time using global. nium may be misappropriated satellite positioning systems. for malicious intentions against GPS and escorted by the na. which protection is required tional police,For example some vehicles are. Chemical pollution, Some packages may consti which must also be taken into. tute chemical pollution hazards account in safety assessments. For example uranium hexafluo and in the event of an accident. ride UF6 used to manufacture may form a hydrofluoric acid. nuclear fuel is highly reactive HF and uranium oxyfluoride. with the humidity in the air UO2F2 cloud, Protecting the population and the environment from the risks of exposure. Transport safety,The defence in depth concept, The defence in depth concept is applied to deal with the hazards. related to the transport of radioactive materials,This concept comprises three components. The robustness of the packaging, The packaging is designed to n r esistance to fire 800 C fire. take predetermined accident for 30 minutes, conditions into account It must n resistance to immersion under. be as robust as the radioactivity 200 m of water, contained is high Tests are per The French competent author. formed on representative sam ity for the transport of radio. ples to test their resistance to,active materials for civil use. accidents For example for the,is the French Nuclear Safety. transport of irradiated fuels or,Authority ASN It certifies the. plutonium oxide in type B pack,compliance of the design of the. ages the following is checked,most radioactive packages or of. n resistance to impacts 48 km h,the packages containing fissile. n resistance to perforation drop,materials after technical assess. onto a steel bar,ment by IRSN,A type A package for radiopharmaceutical sources. Transport reliability, This reliability requires op is available for the vehicle s. erations to be carried out crew who are provided with. in accordance with the rules suitable training A radiation. stipulated in the regulations protection programme and. for the transport of dangerous a set of technical rules are. goods specific to each mode applied such as for exam. of transport ple package grouping limits, The marking and labelling of Compliance with these rules. packages and the placarding is checked during inspections. of vehicles provides informa organised by ASN and its re. tion on the hazards caused by gional divisions,the transport Documentation. Intervention in the event of an incident or accident. An emergency management sys n I RSN and other package. tem is planned if an incident or experts IRSN has a Techni. accident were to occur It aims cal Crisis Centre CTC for. to limit the consequences of inci advising the authorities on. dents or accidents and in particu the actions to take. lar to implement possible meas n l ocal medical experts hos. ures required for protecting the pital centres etc. public This involves the availabil n e ngineers from ASN and. ity of emergency plans and the its regional divisions who. periodic practice of emergency may participate in the. exercises The implementation local emergency units set. of these plans is coordinated by up by the Prefect. the Prefect and involves both the,public authorities and packages. consigners or carriers,n specialized brigades Depart. mental mobile radiological,intervention units or CMIR. n r adiation protection ex,perts IRSN French Atomic. Energy Commission,Transport modes,International regulations. Two principles serve as the basis for the international regulations on. the transport of radioactive materials, n the consignor and not carrier is the first responsible for safety. during transport, n safety is based on the defence in depth concept the first com. ponent of which is the robustness of the packaging This must be. adapted to the material transported and to predetermined trans. port accident conditions,Transport mode, This is chosen according to the existing infrastructure the economic. considerations the availability of a carrier the weight of the pack. age the activity and half life of the radioactive material the dis. tance to be travelled the number of handling operations required. and the risks of theft or misappropriation,Rail transport is a very safe. mode of transport for bulky,convoys and is in principle. chosen for heavy or bulky,packages so long as a rail. way link is available For ex,ample almost all irradiated. fuel designated for reproc,essing is transported by rail. to Valognes then by road to Specialised wagons for transporting. the La Hague plant irradiated fuel, However specific local and radioactive materials prevent. general traffic or parking rules such transport to be blocked in. applicable to the transport of congested traffic particularly. during peak traffic times and in pharmaceutical products and. residential areas medical sources are delivered,Most packages containing to hospitals by road. Maritime transport represents,4 of all transport of radioac. tive materials For example the,ships used to transport MOX fuel. to Japan are designed according,to the requirements of the Inter. national Maritime Organisation, they must be equipped with Loading of a ship used for transport. between France and Japan,special and redundant devices. such as double hulls fire extin, guishing and detection systems They are approved by the au. and anti collision radars thorities,Aircraft are often used to trans 100. port small urgent packages on 89,long distances for example 80. short lived radiopharmaceuti,cal products,a special case. Sending by post 20,Only packages of very low level Air Sea Rail. material can be sent by national 0,or international postal services. of the transport modes,Incidents and accidents, To date in France one to two transport accidents on average oc. curred per year resulting in a release of radioactivity into the envi. ronment These accidents have had limited consequences on human. health and on the environment In the most serious cases occurring. in France low levels of contamination were detected and it was pos. sible to treat them via isolated decontamination operations. List of significant accidents and incidents that occurred. in France or that incurred the responsibility of French. consignors, September 1983 n Montpellier sea without any notable conse. A collision occurred in the railway quences for the public or for the. station between a train and a environment,baggage truck loaded with type. A packages for medical use The June 1987 n Lailly en Val. ballast was contaminated and A semi trailer transporting a. cleaned rapidly No one was con package containing irradiated. taminated fuels had an accident The trailer,swerved into the ditch and the. August 1984 n North Sea package tipped over and got par. The Mont Louis freighter trans tially stuck in the loose soil of the. porting cylinders of UF6 sank just verge The package was recovered. off the Belgium coast All of the after approximately thirty hours. containers were recovered Seal The crash did not affect the leak. ing defects were detected result tightness of the package and did. ing in a few kilograms of uranium not cause any damage other than. hexafluoride being diluted in the superficial, Recovery of a cylinder of UF6 following The partially stuck package following the. the Mont Louis shipwreck accident at Lailly en Val. July 1990 n Saclay November 1997 n The Azores, A package containing a bottle The ship MSC Carla sank off the. of iodine 131 for medical uses Azores Islands with three irradia. which broke during transport was tors on board containing highly. opened The receptionist was con radioactive sources These irra. taminated He received a dose to diators manufactured in France. the thyroid estimated at 0 6 mSv were on their way to a Bos. ton hospital USA Assessments, November 1991 n Cherbourg showed that due to deep immer. Hoisting equipment broke and a sion approximately 3 000 m the. package containing irradiated fuel effect of dilution following degra. was dropped on a docked ship dation of the radioactive sources. Only superficial damage was ob by corrosion would limit the risks. served with no radiological con of exposure of the populations. sequences consuming the fish products The,doses calculated were at most. 5 10 9 mSv year,March 1996 n Le Havre, A cylinder of uranium hexaflu January 1998 n Les Adrets. oride suspended from hoisting, equipment became unhooked and Packages containing iodine solution. the cylinder was dropped on an were crushed in the van transport. other cylinder still chocked to the ing them during an accident on the. docked ship The cylinders were A8 motorway The contaminated. slightly deformed with no conse asphalt was removed. quences on the containment of,the material It was possible to.