Biosecurity of Pigs and Farm Security

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Table of Contents,A Introduction 3,B Biosecurity 3. B1 Prioritization of Biosecurity Factors to Implement 4. B2 Location of Farm 6,B3 Sources of Swine Diseases 6. B4 Purchasing Replacement Gilts and Boars 7,B5 Isolation of Incoming Pigs 8. B6 Pig Flow 9,B7 Fencing 10, B8 Assessing Visitor Risk and Controlling Access 10. B8 1 Risk Assessment 10,B8 2 Entrance to Farm 10,B8 3 Signage 11.
B8 4 Parking Area 11,B8 5 Unauthorized Entry by Intruders 11. B8 6 Authorized Visitors 11,B8 7 Farm Employee 13,B9 Worker Training and Abidance 14. B10 Feed Delivery and Feed Storage 14,B11 Water Supply 15. B12 Air Filtration 15,B13 Vehicles 16,B14 Equipment and Consumable Supplies 16. B15 Farm Machinery and Equipment 17,B16 Bedding Material 17.
B17 Hygiene and Sanitation of Buildings 17,B18 Boot Baths 17. B19 Dead Pig Postmortem and Disposal 18,B20 Wild Mammals Birds Parasites and Pets 18. B21 Loading Unloading Chute and Load Out Area 22,B22 Manure Disposal and Waste Management 23. B23 Herd Health Management 23,B24 Facility Maintenance 24. B25 Maintenance of Biosecurity Program 24,C Farm Security 24.
C1 Develop Farm Security Plan 25,C2 Training for Emergency 25. C3 Access and Barriers to Farm 25,C4 Hazardous Materials 26. C5 Visitors and Personnel 26,C6 Hiring New Employees 26. C7 Employee Training 27,C8 Employee Monitoring 27,C9 Community Involvement 28. C10 Law Enforcement Involvement 28, This publication is partially funded by the United States Department of Agriculture National Research Initiative of the.
National Institute of Food and Agriculture Grant 2008 04179 received by Donald G Levis. 2 The Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska All rights reserved. Risk factors for security of a farm and biosecurity of pigs on the farm are unique to that farm. Therefore each biosecurity plan should be farm specific The best plans are created by working with. a swine veterinarian or veterinary consultant who has extensive knowledge of the farm employees. and local risk factors,A Introduction, Biosecurity of pigs at the farm level is the set of prac. tical measures taken to prevent entrance of infection into Buildings and. Used for Pork, a pig farm and control the spread of infection within Structures. Production, that farm The goal of a biosecurity program is to keep. out pathogens that the herd has not been exposed to and. to minimize the impact of endemic pathogens Pig farm. security can be defined as the planning and implementa Pork Consumable. Management, tion of a program to minimize various types of risk that. Procedures Production Supplies and, can have detrimental effects on the farmstead and pigs Equipment.
Biosecurity and security procedures are intertwined to. enhance the health and productivity of pigs Numerous. factors are involved in the development and maintenance. Transportation Workers, of a cost effective program for biosecurity These factors. of Pigs Veterinarians, can be thought of as links in a chain a biosecurity pro. Consultants, gram is only as strong as its weakest link The purpose. of this publication is to provide information about the. various aspects to consider when implementing and, managing a biosecurity and farm security program It Figure 1 Components of a pig farm required for. is not practical nor is it recommended for every farm adequate biosecurity. to implement all of the procedures described All farm. biosecurity and security risk factors are unique to that. farm and thus each biosecurity plan should be farm. specific The best plans are created by working with a Biosecurity is made up of three separate but often. swine veterinarian or veterinary consultant who has blended sets of actions and overlapping components. extensive knowledge of the farm employees and local These are bio exclusion bio containment and bio. risk factors management The goals of the production unit or farm. will determine how these are blended into a biosecurity. plan Most often producers focus on bio exclusion and. B Biosecurity bio management while neglecting bio containment The. purpose of bio containment is preventing the spread of. The components of a pork operation that need to disease agents to neighbors or even long distance trans. be biosecure are shown in Figure 1 The application of fer but also the very important process of protecting the. biosecurity measures differs among farms due to the food supply for consumers It is the single most impor. geographic location of the farm proximity to other tant component of strategies that will be implemented. pig farms epidemiological situation causes distribu if a foreign animal disease is introduced into the United. tion and control of disease in the herd type of swine States Even though it is often ignored in day to day pro. operation level of technology used for production and duction biosecurity this component is extremely impor. whether other people are employed on the farm The tant in any pig production system and often is the right. development and implementation of a biosecurity pro thing to do for neighbors and other pig producers in a. gram provides an essential component of many on farm community. food safety programs greater consumer acceptability of. the quality and safety of the food supply healthy animals Bio exclusion is simply preventing the introduction. that are more productive improved animal welfare and of unwanted disease agents into the farm or system This. improved efficiency and profitability for the pork pro is where most producers focus and has been the focus of. ducer In addition supermarket buyers and consumers recent research Bio management is the combined effort. want pork producers to use less medication when pro to control economically important infectious diseases. ducing pork that are already present in the farm population Room. The Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska All rights reserved 3. disinfection vaccines all in all out pig movement and at other locations such as a buying station slaughter. many other procedures designed to reduce the patho plant or off site farm. gen level or enhance immunity levels in the pigs are key. It is common for small and medium sized pork, components of bio management Each of these areas can.
operations to house their animals outdoors Prevent. have significant impact on the economic viability of a. ing the introduction of disease is difficult when pigs are. producer or producers in a geographically linked animal. housed outdoors or have access to outdoor lots because. agriculture area, producers cannot control pig contact with wildlife stray. Disease control is one of the most challenging animals rodents insects aerosols containing disease. areas for pork producers regardless of whether the pigs agents contaminated soil and people Feral and wild. are housed indoors or outdoors Pork producers aim pigs are one of the greatest risks to outdoor produc. for minimal clinical disease status bio management ers since they carry most pig disease agents including. because it is economically and technically infeasible pseudo rabies and brucellosis which have been eradicated. to exclude all important pathogens from a herd of from U S and Canadian domestic pigs Securing an. swine However certain disease agents should always be outdoor facility is always challenging however various. excluded since bio management methods are ineffective procedures can be used that discourage unwanted visi. while exclusion opportunities are practical To develop tors and pests. a useful biosecurity plan it is necessary to know 1 the. prevalence of diseases that can affect your herd 2 how B1 Prioritization of Biosecurity Factors to. each disease is transmitted 3 how each disease can be Implement. controlled 4 how to prevent each disease from entering. the herd and 5 the potential cost of an introduction B1 1 Small Farms This publication provides infor. and outbreak mation about numerous factors that can influence. bio security of pigs and farms Some factors are more. All biosecurity efforts come with a cost and ineffec. important to implement for biosecurity on small farms. tual methods should be avoided Likewise production. such as 100 sows or less Farms with a small number of. practices that impose the greatest risk should be the. pigs typically do not have employees Managers of small. focus rather than low risk activities It is essential to. pig farms who work with a swine veterinarian and me. have a swine veterinarian help develop the written and. ticulously implement the following biosecurity principles. detailed biosecurity plan Biosecurity plans are intended. generally have high herd health status, to prevent adverse situations and improve the pork pro. duction business All it takes is one breach of on farm Bring in only clean breeding stock verified by a. biosecurity to ruin a herd s health status or that of a swine veterinarian. neighbor s This loss could have long lasting and devas Always take extra care that biosecurity is a priority at. tating production and financial effects on any farm The the marketing access point and other trips to town. following situations contribute the greatest risks to the. health of pigs in a swine operation These factors will be Always make sure to keep boots hands pickup. discussed later in more detail cab and trailer a clean zone so pathogens are. not hauled home,Adding new pigs to the farm without a quarantine. period Use batch farrowing whereby all the pigs are moved. at the same time and same age during each phase of. Failing to quarantine new additions for 30 to 60 days production weaning nursery grower and finisher. Failing to require testing for specific diseases prior to Make sure all tail end pigs from the growing finishing. addition phase are moved off site before a batch of sows farrow. Failing to require vaccination for specific diseases Use the same breeding stock for four to eight parities. prior to addition,When repopulating the sow herd, Allowing pigs to return from fairs shows or exhibi. tions without quarantine and testing Option 1 Replacing entire sow herd. Allowing other domestic or wild animals to have Make sure the entire sow herd has been de. contact with the pigs feedstuffs or water sources populated. Failing to prevent disease transfer via pig transpor Make sure all pigs from the growing finish. tation human contact other vehicular traffic or ing phase are marketed or moved off site. equipment used with more than one animal or used before replacement animals arrive on the. 4 The Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska All rights reserved. If possible have the depopulation period Appropriate Biosecurity Intervention Value BIV. occur during the summer months to take,advantage of the dry environment and high.
ultraviolet light period to help kill patho DD, All replacements should come from a single DEV Disease Exclusion Value per pig per year often. source which could be home raised gilts or very difficult to determine other than historical. purchased females experience, RR percent Risk Reduction per year for each interven. This option will affect cash flow due to,tion from the PRRS Risk Assessment Tool etc. lower productivity at the beginning and end,DD Degree of Difficulty Ranking 1 10 with 10 very. of each turnover of the sow herd,difficult maintain.
If pigs are finished indoors the availability IC Intervention Cost per pig per year. of space might be a problem during the, middle of the high productivity period Using this formula each agent and each intervention. strategy can be qualitatively and semi quantitatively ana. Option 2 Partial replacement of sow herd, lyzed These computations can then be used for choosing. A proportion of the sows are replaced on a those strategies that have a final BIV greater than zero. regular quarterly or longer period Although arbitrary the DD allows consideration of a. customized score for the complexity of an intervention. All the replacement animals should come, and the ability of the farm staff to adopt implement and. from a single source such as original source, sustain an intervention procedure or process It becomes. of the sows being replaced, farm or system specific which is ideal in the real world.
The replacement source has the same health If several diseases have similar risk reduction for the. status as the farm This requires monitor same intervention the DEVs can be added together and. ing of the source farm and communication the sum entered into the equation As multiple agents. preferably veterinarian to veterinarian prior are considered the strength of the intervention strategy. to receiving each group of replacement becomes apparent Of course not all the risk factors. stock values of disease exclusion or the percent RR are known. If possible have the depopulation period but a veterinarian can arrive at reasonable approxima. occur during the summer months to take tions by using the risk assessment tool Holtkamp et al. advantage of the dry environment and high 2011 published information and biosecurity experts. ultraviolet light period to help kill pathogens Developing a value equation for each disease is often. a matter of benchmarking diseased pigs with those that. B1 2 Larger Farms Strategies for biosecurity of the are free of disease in the same system Some average. Biosecurity of Pigs and Farm Security Donald G Levis Professor Emeritus Department of Animal Science University of Nebraska Lincoln Rodney B Baker Senior Clinician Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

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