Biology Study Notes

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1 Honey bee Anatomy and Physiology 5, 1 1 The candidate will be able to give an in depth account with illustrations where 5. appropriate of 5,1 1 1 the structure of the egg of the honey bee 5. 1 1 2 the development of the embryo within the egg of the honey bee and the hatching of the. 1 1 3 the external and internal anatomy of the honey bee larva 7. 1 1 5 ecdysis moulting and its control by hormones 10. 1 1 6 the sealing of the cell larval orientation in the cell defecation and cocoon spinning 11. 1 1 7 the anatomy and metamorphosis of the propupa and pupa 11. 1 1 8 the moult from pupa to imago 12,1 1 9 the emergence of the imago from the cell 13. 1 1 10 the structure and main constituents of the cuticle of both larval and adult honey bees. including internal cuticular structures 13,1 1 11 the external anatomy of all castes 14. 1 1 12 the structure of the wings of the honey bee their articulation and action in flight 15. 1 1 13 the muscles associated with the wings of the honey bee and their control 17. 1 1 14 the structure of the legs of the honey bee their articulations associated muscles action. when walking and special uses 18, 1 1 15 the mouth parts of the honey bee their structure associated muscles glandular.
connections methods of use comparative sizes and shapes for different castes and tongue length. for different races 21, 1 1 16 the antennae their structure associated muscles and functions 23. 1 1 17 the sting its structure associated muscles glandular connections and method of use 23. 1 1 18 the composition of honey bee venom and its effect upon the insect animal or 25. human stung 25, 1 1 19 the structure and function of the hairs of the honey bee 26. 1 1 20 the function of enzymes 27, 1 1 21 the structure and function of the alimentary canal 27. 1 1 22 the histology of the alimentary canal and the production of the enzymes of digestion 29. 1 1 23 ingestion digestion assimilation and excretion in the honey bee 31. 1 1 24 the structure function and histology of the fat body of the honey bee 32. 1 1 25 the changes which occur in the fat body of the worker honey bee both during its life and at. different times of the year 33, 1 1 26 the structure function and histology of the respiratory system 33. 1 1 27 the diffusion of oxygen through the trachea and its supply to tissues 36. 1 1 28 the basis of cell respiration glycolysis and energy transfer 36. Glycolysis 37,Citric acid cycle 37,Electron transport chain 37.
1 1 29 the production of carbon dioxide and its excretion from the body 37. 1 1 30 the structure function and histology of the circulatory system 37. 1 1 31 the histology composition and function of the blood of the honey bee 38. 1 1 32 the exocrine glands of the honey bee including their structure histology and function 39. 1 1 33 the substances produced by the exocrine glands including a basic account of their chemical. composition 42, 1 1 34 the structure and position of the main endocrine glands namely the copora allata and the. prothoracic gland of the larva 46, 1 1 35 the source production and effects of juvenile hormone 46. 1 1 36 the source production and effects of the moulting hormone ecdysone 47. 1 1 37 the structure of the nervous system of the honey bee 47. 1 1 38 the basic function of nerve cells 48, 1 1 39 the brain its structure function and histology 49. 1 1 40 the eyes of the honey bee including development structure and histology 50. 1 1 41 the sight of the honey bee and of its perception of colour polarised light and form 52. 1 1 42 the structure of the sensory receptor organs of the honey bee 52. 1 1 43 the main senses of the honey bee namely smell taste touch hearing gravity perception. heat perception and time sense 53, 1 1 44 the major research upon which our knowledge of the senses of the honey bee rests 56. 1 1 45 the reproductive system of the drone honey bee including structure development and. histology 56, 1 1 46 the reproductive system of the queen and worker honey bee including structure.
development and histology 57,1 1 47 spermatogenesis in the drone honey bee 58. 1 1 48 oogenesis in the queen and worker honey bee 58. 1 1 49 the fertilisation of the egg of the honey bee 59. 1 1 50 the storage of sperm in the spermatheca of the queen honey bee 59. 1 1 51 the effect of feeding on caste determination in females of the honey bee 59. 1 1 52 the composition of royal jelly and of brood food 60. 1 Honey bee Anatomy and Physiology, 1 1 The candidate will be able to give an in depth account with illustrations where. appropriate of,1 1 1 the structure of the egg of the honey bee. The honey bee egg is attached to the bottom of the cell at the posterior end. The egg has an outer pearly white Chorion shell which is marked on the outside The vitelline. membrane which is the true cell wall resides just inside the chorion layer. The nucleus of the cell is surrounded by cytoplasm and resides closer to the anterior end The. anterior end of the egg includes a micropyle through which the male gamete entered the egg. The cytoplasm within the cell is comprises a mesh of strands that enclose globules of yolk. The outer area just within the vitelline membrane is a denser area of cytoplasm forming the. 1 1 2 the development of the embryo within the egg of the honey bee and the. hatching of the larva, The nucleus undergoes a series of mitotic divisions to form an increasing number of nuclei each. nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm This process is known as syncytial cleavage the resulting. cleavage cells surrounded by cytoplasm are known as energids The initial mitotic divisions are. synchronised across all energids the energids are scattered throughout the yolk After a few cycles. the cleavage cells migrate towards the vitelline membrane forming a continuous cell layer known as. the blastoderm, The mitotic divisions at this stage are no longer synchronised with divisions taking longer in.
different parts of the blastoderm The blastoderm on the ventral side thicken whilst those on the. dorsal thin The thickening becomes the germ band which is the beginning of the embryo. The germ band becomes divided due to lengthwise grooves forming a median plate and a pair of. lateral plates The lateral plates expand and eventually join becoming the ectoderm The median. plate moves into the yolk and becomes the mesoderm Anterior and posterior rudiments form the. endoderm and in time these invaginations will form the fore and hind gut. From the ectoderm the nervous system tracheal system form as well as the legs wings mouthparts. and sting The nervous system comes from thickenings running the length of the ectoderm the. tracheal system from invaginations of buds and the external parts from further buds. Segmentation occurs early in the process, The mesoderm develops into the internal structures of the honeybee including the heart aorta. diaphragms and reproductive system The whole embryo is enclosed in a thin cellar membrane. called the amnion, The larva bursts the amnion and the chorion disappears possibly digested by larval enzymes. 1 1 3 the external and internal anatomy of the honey bee larva. The larva comprises 6 segments of the head 3 thoracic segments and 10 abdominal segments. The head segments are on the whole fused together and there are still disputes as to the total. The head comprises a rudimentary mouth with labrum upper lip and labium lower lip which along. with maxilla and mandibles form an opening used by the larva to suck in liquid food Other external. parts of the larva are discernable as buds i e wings legs optics antennae. There are 10 pairs of spiracles from the second thoracic through to 8th abdominal segment. The larva internal structure primarily comprises, Ventriculus which occupies the majority of the internal space. Small foregut, Hind gut that is not connected to mid gut Ventriculus. 4 Malpighian tubules that retain waste materials until guts are joined on 5th moult. Silk glands used to spin cocoon, The digestive system of the larva revolves around the Ventriculus as this is key to the growth of the.
larva The foregut is not required to be complex as the larva is provided with liquid feed processed. by the nurse bees containing all the required nutrients. The excretory system is basically the Malpighian tubules which store the waste the hind gut is not. connected at this point, The brain and sub oesophageal ganglion are formed from the segments making up the head Each. segment has its own ganglia pair apart from abdominal segments 8 10 which are fused to form one. The cavity of the larva is mainly filled with fat body and the heart exists with 11 chambers and 10. Ostia Need more description, 1 1 4 the metamorphosis of the honey bee larva including the effects of juvenile. Metamorphosis of Honey Bees, Development of honey bees is similar to the metamorphosis in butterflies The stages of development and the. duration of each stage for a worker bee are given by the following sequence. egg 3 days larva prepupa 8 days pupa 9 days adult,total development time 19 5 20 days. The egg and early larval stages live in uncapped brood cells The last two days of the larval stage the pupal. stage and the first half day of the adult stage occur beneath capped brood cells The following description of. honey bee metamorphosis contains references of time in days The reference point is the moment the egg was. laid by the queen bee,Table 1 Moults of the Honey Bee.
Time Workers Queens Drones,Day Stages Moults Stages Moults Stages Moults. 2 egg egg egg egg egg egg, 3 1st Larval 1st Moult 1st Larval 1st Moult 1st Larval 1st Moult. 4 2nd Larval 2nd Moult 2nd Larval 2nd Moult 2nd Larval 2nd Moult. 5 3rd Larval 3rd Moult 3rd Larval 3rd Moult 3rd Larval 3rd Moult. 6 4th Larval 4th Moult 4th Larval 4th Moult sealed 4th Larval 4th Moult. 8 gorging sealing gorging gorging,11 prepupa 5th Moult prepupa 5th Moult sealing. 12 prepupa,14 5th Moult,16 imago 6th Moult Emergence. 21 imago 6th Moult emergence,23 imago 6th Moult,24 Emergence.
During the first 4 larval moults the larva continues to take the form described in section 1 1 3 after. the shedding of each skin, It is not until after the 5th moult that the larva begins to take on the shape of a bee In fact the shape. is formed before it finally sheds its skin on the 5th moult this is called prepupa sometimes propupa. On capping of the cell the larva turns and stretches in the cell with its head towards the cap During. this process the mid and the hind gut are joined and the larva excretes into the cell The larva begins. to spin a cocoon using the debris within the cell along with silk spun from its spinneret The prepupa. retains the larval skin until the 5th moult completes between 3 5 days after capping. On shedding the larval skin the external characteristics of a honeybee are evident the head eyes. antennae mouthparts thorax legs and abdomen The wings at this stage are small and. undeveloped, During the pupae stage which occurs before the final 6th moult the musculature and the alimentary. canal are restructured the 4 malpighian tubules of the larva are replaced with 100 new ones The. reproductive organs begin to develop The brain increases in size through fusion of some ganglia. there remain 7 segmental ganglia The adult cuticle forms within the pupa cutilcle darkening with. time The wings complete their eversion at a very late stage of the pupa. The imago emerges from the last moult as a hairy insect covered in sensilla The imago remains in. the sealed cell for up to a day to allow its cuticle to harden and the wings hairs to dry out before. eating its way out of the cell as an adult bee Images redrawn from Dade and Davis. The shedding of the larval skin is in part controlled by the interplay of two hormones ecdysone and. juvenile hormone Ecdysone secreted by the prothoracic gland promotes the development of a new. exoskeleton Juvenile hormone suppresses the activity of ecdysone therefore delaying the shedding. of the larval skin Juvenile hormone is secreted by the Corpora Allata Juvenile hormone is also key in. caste determination age roles of adult bee and the production of germ cells. Queen bee lays the egg, Only one queen lives within a colony of honey bees She lays up to 2 500 eggs per day The. worker bees care for the queen and the young brood. A single egg is laid in a brood cell, The life of a worker honey bee begins when the queen lays a fertilized egg onto the base of a. worker sized brood cell,Step 2 A larva hatches from egg after three days.
Nurse bees feed brood food to the larva within minutes of hatching Glands in the head of. nurse bees secrete the liquid diet The nurse bees continue to feed the larva until the cell is. 1 1 5 ecdysis moulting and its control by hormones. The definition Snodgrass of moulting is the separation of the outer layer of the cuticle by a. dissolving of the inner layer endocuticle It is only when the epidermis is thus free of the old cuticle. that it can form a new cuticle and begin a new phase of growth The final emergence of the insect. from the larval skin is its ecdysis coming out, The process of moulting is controlled by the endocrine system The medium for sending control. signals are hormones, Brain neuro secretory cells release brain hormone in response to both internal and external stimuli. The brain hormone is passed down the nervous connectio. The Insects Structure and Function R F Chapman 5th edition The Honey Bee Inside Out Celia F Davis 2nd Edition The Honey Bee Around and About Celia F Davis 2nd Edition Anatomy and Dissection of the Honeybee H A Dade Form and Function in the Honey Bee Lesely Goodman Understanding Bee Anatomy Ian Stell

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