Biofloc Technology BFT A Review for Aquaculture

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302 Biomass Now Cultivation and Utilization, As a closed system BFT has primordial advantage of minimizing the release of water into. rivers lakes and estuaries containing escaped animals nutrients organic matter and. pathogens Also surrounding areas are benefitted by the vertically growth in terms of. productivity preventing coastal or inland area destruction induced eutrophication and. natural resources losses Drained water from ponds and tanks often contains relatively high. concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous limiting nutrients that induce algae growth. which may cause severe eutrophication and further anaerobic conditions in natural water. bodies In BFT minimum water discharge and reuse of water prevent environment. degradation and convert such system in a real environmentally friendly system with a. green approach Minimum water exchange maintain the heat and fluctuation of. temperature is prevented 7 allowing growth of tropical species in cold areas. Currently BFT has received alternate appellation such as ZEAH or Zero Exchange. Autotrophic Heterotrophic System 8 10 active sludge or suspended bacterial based. system 11 single cell protein production system 12 suspended growth systems 13 or. microbial floc systems 14 15 However researches are trying to keep the term BFT or. Biofloc Technology in order to establish a key reference mainly after the book release. Biofloc Technology A Practical Guide Book in 2009 16 Moreover BFT has been focus of. intensive research in nutrition field as a protein source in compounded feeds Such source is. produced in a form of biofloc meal mainly in bioreactors 17 In addition the fast spread. and the large number of BFT farms worldwide induced significant research effort of. processes involved in BFT production systems 14, The objective of this chapter is to review the application of Biofloc Technology BFT in. aquaculture and describes the utilization of biofloc biomass also described in this chapter. as biofloc meal as an ingredient for compounded feeds An addition goal is to help. students researchers and industry to clarify the basic aspects of such technology aiming to. encourage further research,2 History of BFT, According to 18 BFT was first developed in early 1970s at Ifremer COP French Research. Institute for Exploitation of the Sea Oceanic Center of Pacific with different penaeid species. including Penaeus monodon Fenneropenaeus merguiensis Litopenaeus vannamei and L. stylirostris 19 20 Such culture system was compared with an external rumen but now. applied for shrimp 21 At the same period Ralston Purina developed a system based on. nitrifying bacteria while keeping shrimp in total darkness In connection with Aquacop. such system was applied to L stylirostris and L vannamei both in Crystal River USA and. Tahiti leding considerations on benefits of biofloc for shrimp culture 22 In 1980 a French. scientific program Ecotron was initiated by Ifremer to better understand such system. Several studies enabled a comprehensive approach of BFT and explained interrelationships. between different compartments such as water and bacteria as well as shrimp nutritional. physiology Also in 1980s and beginning of 1990s Israel and USA Waddell Mariculture. Center started R D in BFT with tilapia and white shrimp L vannamei respectively in. Biofloc Technology BFT A Review for Aquaculture Application and Animal Food Industry 303. which water limitation environmental concerns and land costs were the main causative. agents that promoted such research Fig 1, Figure 1 Biofloc technology at Ifremer Tahiti A Sopomer farm Tahiti B Waddell Mariculture. Center C and Israel D Photos A and B Gerard Cuzon C courtesy of Wilson Wasielesky and D. courtesy of Yoram Avnimelech, Regarding to commercial application of BFT in 1988 Sopomer farm in Tahiti French.
Polynesia using 1000m2 concrete tanks and limited water exchange achieved a world record. in production 20 25 ton ha year with two crops 22 23 On the other hand Belize. Aquaculture farm or BAL located at Belize Central America probably the most famous. case of BFT commercial application in the world produced around 11 26 ton ha cycle using. 1 6 ha lined grow out ponds Much of know how of running worldwide commercial scale. BFT shrimp ponds is derived from BAL experience In small scale BFT greenhouse based. farms Marvesta farm located at Maryland USA probably is the well known successful. indoor BFT shrimp farm in USA can produce around 45 ton of fresh never frozen shrimp. per year using 570 m3 indoor race ways 24 Nowadays BFT have being successfully. expanded in large scale shrimp farming in Asia Latin and Central America as well as in. small scale greenhouses in USA South Korea Brazil Italy China and others Fig 2 In. addition many research centers and universities are intensifying R D in BFT mostly. applied to key fields such as grow out management nutrition BFT applied to reproduction. microbial ecology biotechnology and economics,304 Biomass Now Cultivation and Utilization. Figure 2 Biofloc technology commercial scale at BAL A and Malaysia B and pilot scale in Mexico. C and D Photos A B and D Maur cio Emerenciano and C courtesy of Manuel Valenzuela. 3 The role of microorganisms, The particulate organic matter and other organisms in the microbial food web have been. proposed as potential food sources for aquatic animals 25 In BFT microorganisms present. a key role in nutrition of cultured animals The macroaggregates biofloc is a rich protein. lipid natural source available in situ 24 hours per day 14 In the water column occurs a. complex interaction between organic matter physical substrate and large range of. microorganisms such as phytoplankton free and attached bacteria aggregates of particulate. organic matter and grazers such as rotifers ciliates and flagellates protozoa and copepods. 26 Fig 3 This natural productivity play an important role recycling nutrients and. maintaining the water quality 27 28, The consumption of biofloc by shrimp or fish has demonstrated innumerous benefits such. as improvement of growth rate 10 decrease of FCR and associated costs in feed 9. Growth enhancement has been attributed to both bacterial and algae nutritional. components which up to 30 of conventional feeding ration can be lowered due to biofloc. consumption in shrimp 29 In reference 9 was reported that more than 29 of daily food. consumed for L vannamei could be biofloc In tilapia in 30 was estimated that feed. utilization is higher in BFT at a rate of 20 less than conventional water exchange systems. Biofloc Technology BFT A Review for Aquaculture Application and Animal Food Industry 305. Also consumption of macroaggregates can increase nitrogen retention from added feed by. 7 13 31 32 In this context BFT has driven opportunities to use alternative diets Low. protein feeds and feeds with alternative protein sources different than marine based. products i e fishmeal squid meal etc have been successfully applied in BFT 28 33 35. leading green market opportunities, Figure 3 Grazers often observed in BFT such as flagellates protozoa A ciliates protozoa B. nematodes C and copepods D 10x magnification Source Maur cio Emerenciano. Regarding to maintenance of water quality control of bacterial community over autotrophic. microorganisms is achieved using a high carbon to nitrogen ratio C N 30 which. nitrogenous by products can be easily taken up by heterotrophic bacteria 36 High carbon. to nitrogen ratio is required to guarantee optimum heterotrophic bacteria growth 14 37. using this energy for maintenance respiration feeding movement digestion etc but also. for growth and to produce new cells High carbon concentration in water could supersede. the carbon assimilatory capacity of algae contributing to bacteria growth Aerobic. microorganisms are efficient in converting feed to new cell material 40 60 of conversion. efficiency rather than higher organisms that spend about 10 15 to rise in weight 16. Bacteria and other microorganisms act as very efficient biochemical systems to degrade. and metabolize organic residues 36 In other words they recycle very efficiently nutrients. in a form of organic and inorganic matter un consumed and non digested feed metabolic. residues and carbon sources applied as fertilizers into new microbial cells. 306 Biomass Now Cultivation and Utilization, The carbon sources applied in BFT are often by products derived from human and or.
animal food industry preferentially local available Cheap sources of carbohydrates such as. molasses glycerol and plant meals i e wheat corn rice tapioca etc will be applied before. fry post larvae stocking and during grow out phase aiming to maintain a high C N ratio. 15 20 1 and to control N compounds peaks Also a mix of plant meals can be pelletized. green pellet and applied into ponds 38 or low protein diets containing high C N ratio. can also be carried out 16 33 The carbon source serves as a substrate for operating BFT. systems and production of microbial protein cells 36 There are many considerations for its. selection such as costs local availability biodegradability and efficiency of bacteria. assimilation In Table 1 is summarized some studies with different species and carbon. source applied in BFT system,Carbon source Culture specie Reference. Acetate Macrobrachium rosenbergii 39,Cassava meal Penaeus monodon 40. Cellulose Tilapia 12,Corn flour Hybrid bass and hybrid tilapia 41 42. Dextrose Litopenaeus vannamei 43,Glycerol and,M rosenbergii 39. Glycerol Bacillus,Glucose M rosenbergii 39,Molasses L vannamei and P monodon 9 29 44.
Sorghum meal Tilapia 12,Tapioca L vannamei and M rosenbergii 31 45. Wheat flour Tilapia O niloticus 33, Farfantepenaeus brasiensis F paulensis and F 37 46. Wheat bran molasses,duorarum 47,Tilapia O niloticus x O aureus and tilapia. Starch 7 14,Mozambique, Table 1 Different carbon sources applied on BFT system Source adapted from 36. Not all species are candidates to BFT Some characteristics seems to be necessary to achieve. a better growth performance such as resistance to high density tolerance to intermediate. levels of dissolved oxygen 3 6 mg L settling solids in water 10 with a maximum of 15. mL L of biofloc volume measured in Imhoff cones 38 and N compounds presence of. filtering apparatus i e tilapia omnivorous habits and or digestive system adaptable to. better assimilate the microbial particles, Biofloc Technology BFT A Review for Aquaculture Application and Animal Food Industry 307.
4 Applications in aquaculture,4 1 Nursery and grow out. Nursery phase is defined as an intermediate step between hatchery reared early postlarvae. and grow out phase 48 Such phase presents several benefits such as optimization of farm. land increase in survival and enhanced growth performance in grow out ponds 49 51. BFT has been applied successfully in nursery phase in different shrimp species such as L. vannamei 44 48 P monodon 51 F paulensis 15 46 F brasiliensis 37 52 and F setiferus. 34 The primary advantage observed is related to a better nutrition by continuous. consumption of biofloc which might positively influence grow out performance a posteriori. 53 but was not always the case 54 In addition optimization of farm facilities provided. by the high stocking densities in BFT nursery phase seems to be an important advantage to. achieve profitability in small farms mainly in cold regions or when farmers are operating. indoor facilities, In 46 was observed that presence of bioflocs resulted in increases of 50 in weight and. almost 80 in final biomass in F paulensis early postlarval stage when compared to. conventional clear water system This trend was observed even when postlarvae were not. fed with a commercial feed biofloc without commercial feed In L vannamei nursery in BFT. conditions references 48 and 55 reported survival rates ranging from 55 9 to 100 and. 97 and 100 respectively In 51 was demonstrated that the addition of substrates in BFT. systems increased growth and further enhanced production while also contributing to more. favorable water quality conditions According to the same study growth and survival was not. affected by stocking density 2500 vs 5000 PL m2 therefore greater production outputs were. achieved at the higher density Furthermore in 37 was found that F brasiliensis postlarvae. grow similarly with or without pelletized feed in biofloc conditions during 30 d of nursery. phase which was 40 more than conventional clear water continuous exchange system. In grow out BFT has been also shown nutritional and zootechnical benefits In 9 was. estimated that more than 29 of the daily food intake of L vannamei consisted of microbial. flocs decreasing FCR and reducing costs in feed The reference 10 showed that juveniles of. L vannamei fed with 35 CP pelletized feed grew significantly better in biofloc conditions as. compared to clear water conditions In 28 was showed that controlling the concentration of. particles in super intensive shrimp culture systems can significantly improve shrimp. production and water quality Also the same authors demonstrated that environmentally. friendly plant based diet can produce results comparable to a fish based feed in BFT. conditions In 56 was evaluated the stocking density in a 120d of L vannamei BFT culture. reporting consistent survival of 92 81 and 75 with 150 300 and 450 shrimp m2. respectively Moreover the study 57 performed in a heterotrophic based condition. Biofloc Technology BFT A Review for Aquaculture Application and Animal Food Industry 303 which water limitation environmental concerns and land costs were the main causative agents that promoted such research Fig 1 Figure 1 Biofloc technology at Ifremer Tahiti A Sopomer farm Tahiti B Waddell Mariculture Center C and Israel D Photos A and B Gerard Cuzon C courtesy of

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