Basic Principles of Inertial Navigation

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The five basic forms of navigation, Pilotage which essentially relies on recognizing landmarks to know. where you are It is older than human kind, Dead reckoning which relies on knowing where you started from. plus some form of heading information and some estimate of speed. Celestial navigation using time and the angles between local vertical. and known celestial objects e g sun moon or stars, Radio navigation which relies on radio frequency sources with. known locations including GNSS satellites LORAN C Omega Tacan. US Army Position Location and Reporting System, Inertial navigation which relies on knowing your initial position. velocity and attitude and thereafter measuring your attitude rates. and accelerations The operation of inertial navigation systems INS. depends upon Newton s laws of classical mechanics It is the only. form of navigation that does not rely on external references. These forms of navigation can be used in combination as well The. subject of our seminar is the fifth form of navigation inertial. navigation 2,A few definitions, Inertia is the property of bodies to maintain constant translational and rotational.
velocity unless disturbed by forces or torques respectively Newton s first law of. An inertial reference frame is a coordinate frame in which Newton s laws of motion. are valid Inertial reference frames are neither rotating nor accelerating. Inertial sensors measure rotation rate and acceleration both of which are vector. valued variables, Gyroscopes are sensors for measuring rotation rate gyroscopes measure rotation. rate and integrating gyroscopes also called whole angle gyroscopes measure. rotation angle, Accelerometers are sensors for measuring acceleration However accelerometers. cannot measure gravitational acceleration That is an accelerometer in free fall or. in orbit has no detectable input, The input axis of an inertial sensor defines which vector component it measures. Multi axis sensors measure more than one component. An inertial measurement unit IMU or inertial reference unit IRU contains a. cluster of sensors accelerometers three or more but usually three and. gyroscopes three or more but usually three These sensors are rigidly mounted. to a common base to maintain the same relative orientation. Basic principle of inertial navigation, Given the ability to measure the acceleration of vehicle it. would be possible to calculate the change in velocity and. position by performing successive mathematical, integrations of the acceleration with respect to time.
In order to navigate with respect to our inertial reference. frame it is necessary to keep track of the direction in which. the accelerometers are pointing, Rotational motion of the body with respect to inertial. reference frame may be sensed using gyroscopic sensors. that are used to determine the orientation of the, accelerometers at all times Given this information it is. possible to resolve the accelerations into the reference. frame before the integration process takes place,What does an INS consist of. An inertial navigation uses gyroscopes and accelerometers to. maintain an estimate of the position velocity and attitude rates of. the vehicle in or on which the INS is carried which could be a land. vehicle aircraft spacecraft missile surface ship or submarine. An INS consists of the following,Instrument support electronics. Navigation computers one or more calculate the gravitational. acceleration not measured by accelerometers and doubly integrate. the net acceleration to maintain an estimate of the position of the. host vehicle,Stabilized Platform and Strapdown,Technologies.
There are many different designs of INS with different performance. characteristics but they fall generally into two categories. gimbaled or stabilized platform techniques and, The original applications of INS technology used stable platform. techniques In such systems the inertial sensors are mounted on a. stable platform and mechanically isolated from the rotational. motion of the vehicle Platform systems are still in use particularly. for those applications requiring very accurate estimates of. navigation data such as ships and submarines, Modern systems have removed most of the mechanical complexity. of platform systems by having the sensors attached rigidly or. strapped down to the body of the host vehicle The potential. benefits of this approach are lower cost reduced size and greater. reliability compared with equivalent platform systems The major. disadvantage is a substantial increase in computing complexity. Gimbaled inertial platform,Gimbaled systems,A gimbal is a rigid with rotation bearings for. isolating the inside of the frame from external,rotations about the bearing axes At least three. gimbals are required to isolate a subsystem from,host vehicle rotations about three axes typically.
labeled roll pitch and yaw axes,The gimbals in an INS are mounted inside one. another Gimbals and torque servos are used to,null out the rotation of stable platform on which. the inertial sensors are mounted,How does gimbaled INS work. The gyros of a type known as integrating gyros give an. output proportional to the angle through which they have. been rotated, Output of each gyro connected to a servo motor driving the. appropriate gimbal thus keeping the gimbal in a constant. orientation in inertial space, The gyros also contain electrical torque generators which can.
be used to create a fictitious input rate to the gyros. Applications of electrical input to the gyro torque generators. cause the gimbal torque motors servos to null the difference. between the true gyro input rate and the electrically applied. bias rate This forms a convenient means of cancelling out any. drift errors in the gyro,Gimbaled INS example,Strapdown INS. Strapdown inertial navigation concept,Accelerometers mounted directly to airframe. strapdown and measure body acceleration,Horizontal vertical accelerations computed. analytically using direction cosine matrix,DCM relating body coordinated and local. level navigation coordinates,DCM computed using strapdown body.
mounted gyro outputs,RLG instrument cluster Marconi. FIN3110 strapdown INS,Two dimensional navigation for. stabilized platform,Two dimensional navigation for. 2 The five basic forms of navigation Pilotage which essentially relies on recognizing landmarks to know where you are It is older than human kind Dead reckoning which relies on knowing where you started from plus some form of heading information and some estimate of speed

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