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May 1997 Soap Making Traditional Methods Lye Rain Water Wood Ash 03 01 2011. These materials have been prepared from information in many many soap making books which have some mention of old. pioneering methods which were used up to the end of last century in America Australia Canada and New Zealand. Although experiments were done the writer of these materials has not met anyone who was still using these Non caustic. soda methods on a regular basis, However many of these techniques are being used in some African countries at present. Before going into the detail of actually making soap there is an information section which looks at the methods and other. things in some detail,Table Of Contents Within This Page. Introduction,Caustic Soda Recipe,Materials Equipment. More on Oils,Information Sections,Traditional Soap Making Method. Perfuming Colours,Pouring Setting,Breaking Out,Failed Soap.
Other Web Sites,Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index. MATERIALS EQUIPMENT FOR SOAP MAKING, There are only five main things needed to make soap They are. 1 White wood ash,2 Rain or Spring Water,3 Animal fats grease. 4 Plant oils, In getting the fat ready sometimes lemon juice or vinegar potatoes or rice are needed. You will need some of the following objects, Plastic buckets or big fired clay jars or pots and large cast iron or stainless steel boiling pots can be used.
NEVER use aluminium or tin things AT ALL, Aliminium and tin are very badly corroded by the caustic chemical used in soap making. Wooden spoons or stirring sticks will also be needed Sometimes an old broom handle does the job well. Something in which to set the new soap will be needed as shown in the diagrams of these materials. Clean cloths or rags will also be needed to filter out unwanted things from some liquids. Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index,MAKING LYE WATER. http ourworld compuserve com homepages paul norman 3 soapmake htm 2. May 1997 Soap Making Traditional Methods Lye Rain Water Wood Ash 03 01 2011. Soap making uses a caustic solution known as Lye Water. When available Caustic Soda is used Here we will make Lye Water out of certain wood ashes and soft water. 1 White Ashes, Dried palm branches dried out banana peels cocoa pods kapok tree wood oak wood or for really white soap apple tree. wood make the best lye ashes Ordinary wood used in cooking fires will do. Whatever wood is used it should be burned in a very hot fire to make very white ashes. When cold these are stored in a covered plastic bucket or wooden barrel or stainless. steel container If these are not available a clay pot jar which has been fired in a. pottery making kiln not just dried in the sun, A wooden drum or barrel which has a tap at the right is best. 2 Soft Water, Water from a spring or from showers of rain is called soft water because it does not.
have metallic or acidic chemicals in it, This makes it useful for soap making as there are no other chemicals in it which would. get in the way of making soap, Ordinary bore well or river water can be used for making soap but this will sometimes need to have a washing soda or. baking soda in added to it Otherwise some of the chemicals in the water will get in the way of making the soap. If you are using ordinary water and you want to test it to see if some soda needs to be added simply try to make soap. bubble up foam in it, If the soap easily foams up the water is probably ok as it is. If not try adding a little bit of soda at a time stirring it to make it disappear until the water will foam the soap up. Then add the same amount of soda to the same amounts of the water that you wish to use to make the soap For example if. you were testing a 1 4 a quarter of a bucket of water and you ended up needing 1 8 an eighth of a cup of soda then you. would need 4 8 or 1 2 half a cup of soda for a full bucket of ordinary water. However you have got it store the soft water in covered wooden plastic or stainless steel buckets or containers Again. a clay jar as described above can be used if needed. SAFE CONTAINERS, Any of the types of containers buckets barrels or jars described in the White Ashes or Soft Water sections are called safe. containers,MAKING LYE WATER,Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index.
If you are going to use a large barrel or drum to make the lye water in and it has a tap or hole at the right place some kind. of filter on the inside of the barrel around the opening as shown in the diagrams. Fill the barrel with white ashes to about four inches 10 cm or O 1 metre below the top. Boil half 1 2 a bucket full of soft water about 10. pints or six litre and pour over the ashes, Slowly add more cold soft water until liquid drips. out of the barrel Close the tap or block the hole, http ourworld compuserve com homepages paul norman 3 soapmake htm 3. May 1997 Soap Making Traditional Methods Lye Rain Water Wood Ash 03 01 2011. Add more ashes to top the barrel up again and,more soft water Do not add so much water that the. ashes swim, Leave to stand for four or more hours or over night if you have the time Later pour. the brownish lye water into a plastic or other safe container s Then pour back through the ashes again Let the lye water. drip into safe containers, When the brown lye water stops coming out of the barrel or ash container then pour.
four to five pints 2 to three litre of soft water through the ashes collecting the lye. which comes out in a separate safe container as this lye may be weaker than the first. Repeat this using two to three pints one to two litre of soft water until no more brown. liquid comes out of the ashes, Either put the lye into safe bottles or cover the safe containers which it is in Dig. the ashes into the vegetable garden,KEEP LYE WATER AWAY FROM CHILDREN. LYE WATER IS DANGEROUS, Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index Back to Home Page. LYE WATER STRENGTH, If an egg or potato will float just below half way or a chicken feather starts to dissolve in it then the lye water is at the. right strength, If the egg will not float then the lye water could be boiled down if you wanted it to be stronger.
If the egg seems to pop up too far add a little bit of soft water. a cup at a time stirring the lye water until the egg floats so. that its head pops up,3 Animal Fat grease, The fat of most animals can be used in the making of soap. Grease made from beef fat makes the best soap Beef fat is taken from a cow calf steer. or bull cow or bullock, http ourworld compuserve com homepages paul norman 3 soapmake htm 4. May 1997 Soap Making Traditional Methods Lye Rain Water Wood Ash 03 01 2011. Once the meat of the animal has been cut away the fat is chopped into bits and placed in a cast iron frying pan or a not. too deep wide pot, Melted slowly over a low heat each pound 450 gm or 0 450 kg produces about one cup of useful grease. Pour the melted grease through straining cloths cheese cloth. The grease must now be washed,Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index. Add an equal amount of water and bring to the boil take off the heat and add one. quarter 1 4 as much cold water Leave the water and grease to cool When the fat has. hardened scrape the dirty stuff off the right If the fat still looks dirty wash it until. On the last washing use twice as much water and before boiling add one table spoon of. salt 80 ml salt crystals, If fat which has been used for cooking is to be used for soap making then you may need.
to get rid of smells, For each cup of smelly fat add two table spoons of vinegar or lemon juice in half a cup. of water and boil, Any fat which smells off should be treated in this way. Another method for treating smelly fat when lemon juice or vinegar is not available is. to use sour milk, Melt the fat and to each cup of fat add one cup of sour milk and cook When cooked. add cold water as before and let cool, Cooking potatoes or rice in fat can also help one medium sized potato for each three. cups of melted fat Strain off fat when cooked and pour in cold water as before. All these ways will help to purify fat if it is rancid or smelly. If the fat that you wish to use is discoloured Potassium permang anate if you can get. some will help to clean it, Dissolve a few crystals in two cups of soft water added to two cups of discoloured melted fat.
The cleaned fat will harden as it cools and be able to be taken off the top of the liquid Potassium permanganate is purple. in colour and is sometimes called Kondies Crystals It should not cost much at all. Washed fat can be stored in a cool airy place for a few weeks before being made into soaps. Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index,4 Plant Oils. Oils may sometimes be used instead of either some or all of the animal fats described later on as being used in making. soap Please read the section below on Fats Oils Caustic Soda. Mineral oils like the ones used in motors or engines are not ok. Any oils which are good for eating or cooking can be used in making soap. One of the best is said to be Coconut oil Groundnut Shea butter Cocoa butter Sun flower and many other vegetable oils. are also used,Common salt is used in making soap, http ourworld compuserve com homepages paul norman 3 soapmake htm 5. May 1997 Soap Making Traditional Methods Lye Rain Water Wood Ash 03 01 2011. Any salt made out of sea water or from some stagnant lakes which can be eaten with food should be ok. Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index Back to Home Page. FATS OILS CAUSTIC SODA, Lye water made from wood ashes or pot ash powder is not as easy to work with as lye made from caustic soda. Caustic Soda manages to work both oils and fats into soap saponification quite quickly and with little trouble However. the amounts of caustic soda and grease or oil have to be very carefully measured. As said earlier caustic soda is not able to be got in some places for one reason or another. The draw back of using wood ash lye is that it may not always work with all the oils that caustic soda is able to turn into. Coconut oil has been used successfully with wood ash lye but often needs a lot of beef tallow grease with it. It will take some trial and error with small amounts of oils and lye to see which of the oils you have available to you that. you can use with wood ash lye, In many cases you will at least be able to make a soft liquid soap using various oils even if you can not make hard bar. Sometimes extra boiling will help but there would be a limit to how much boiling was really worth while doing. Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index,If You Can Not Read The Table Below.
This table is from Peter Donkor s book Small Scale Soap Making Page. TYPES OF SOAP MADE BY THESE OILS FATS,Lathering Effect. Oil Texture Cleaning Uses,Bubbles On Skin,Fairly More Washing. Neem Good Antiseptic,Soft Stable Bathing,Very Plenty Very. Coconut No Effect Bathing,Hard Fairly Stable Good,Tallow Hard No Effect Bathing. Stable Good,Very Washing,Palm Oil Hard Less Stable No Effect.
Good Bathing,Palm Very Plenty Washing,Good No Effect. Kernal Hard Fairly Stable Bathing,Ground Very Washing. Soft Less Stable No Effect,pea Nut Good Bathing,Shea Fairly Washing. Fairly Good Good No Effect,Butter Hard Bathing,Cocoa Washing. Hard Good Good No Effect,Butter Bathing,If You Can Not Read The Table Above.
Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index, http ourworld compuserve com homepages paul norman 3 soapmake htm 6. May 1997 Soap Making Traditional Methods Lye Rain Water Wood Ash 03 01 2011. GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION OVERVIEW, The following information is to explain the basic steps of soap making Each of the seven points below are described more. fully then later the general method of Soap Making is gone through in depth. Simple hard soap making has seven main steps to it. 1 Getting the right mixture of lye and grease called proving. 2 Boiling down removing unwanted water and checking for what is called doneness. 3 Treating with salt to remove water impurities and glycerine a process called graining. 4 Adding colourings and or perfumes,5 Pouring into moulds called setting. 6 Breaking the green soap out of the moulds and splitting it into finished sizes. 7 Drying and airing the green soap, Freshly made soap is called green soap It is not green in colour But is dangerous to touch until dried and aired for a few. Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index Back to Home Page. PROVING Information 1, Getting the right mixture of grease and lye is perhaps the most important step of soap making.
If too much lye is left in the soap the soap will be able to burn the skin. Also the soap may not set properly Too much grease causes its own problems as well. Three different main ways of proving the soap are explained later on. Three because some people will find one way better while others will find another one works better for them. In proving the soap either one or more of the different ways can be used Only one has to be used not all of the different. ways have to be used, When making soap for the first few times however you may like to try them all out. Mixing Greases, If you are wanting to mix beef tallow grease with another fat grease like mutton sheep or lard pig it is better to only. replace one fifth 1 5th of the beef tallow grease with the other grease. For example if you were going to use four pints of melted beef tallow grease you could use one pint of another kind of. Back to Home Page Traditional Soap Making Soap T o C Clickable Flow Chart Soap Index Back to Home Page INTRODUCTION Today caustic soda is normally used in soap making However in some countries caustic soda is difficult or too expensive to obtain The aim here was to try and use old pioneering methods from the Western World that use substances which are easily found or made in most parts

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