Augmented Reality Linking real and virtual worlds A new

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Augment Approach Technology Applications,Users Wear devices VR helmets Medicine. on the body Goggles Field service,Data gloves Presentations. Physical objects Imbed devices Intelligent bricks Education. within objects Sensors receptors Office facilities. GPS electronic paper Positioning, Environment Project images and Video cameras Scanners Office work. surrounding objects record remotely Graphics tablets Film making. and users Bar code readers Construction,Video Projectors Architecture. Figure 1 Examples of augmented reality approaches,with relevant technologies and applications.
Figure 1 gives examples of different augmented reality calculates how best to present the information These. applications Each approach has advantages and applications require tight coupling between the electronic. disadvantages the choice depends upon the application and images and particular views of the physical world The. the needs of the users The key is to clearly specify how problem of registering real world objects and precisely. people interact with physical objects in the real world matching them to the corresponding electronic information. identify the problems that additional computational support is an active area of research in augmented reality. would address and then develop the technology to meet the. needs of the application Augment the object, Another approach involves augmenting physical objects. Augment the user directly In the early 1970 s Papert 19 created a floor. Beginning with the earliest head mounted display by turtle actually a small robot that could be controlled by a. Sutherland in 1968 21 researchers have developed a child with a computer language called Logo LEGO Logo. variety of devices for users to wear letting them see hear 20 is a direct descendant allowing children to use Logo to. and touch artificially created objects and become immersed control constructions made with LEGO bricks motors and. in virtual computer environments that range from gears Electronic bricks contain simple electronic devices. sophisticated flight simulators to highly imaginative such as sensors light sound touch proximity logic. games Some augmented reality researchers have borrowed devices and gates flip flops timers and action bricks. this virtual reality technology in order to augment the motors lights A child can add a sound sensor to the. user s interactions with the real world Charade 2 involves motor drive of a toy car and use a flip flop brick to make. wearing a data glove to control the projection of slides and the car alternately start or stop at any loud noise Children. video for a formal presentation Charade distinguishes and their teachers have created a variety of whimsical and. between the natural gestures a user makes when just talking useful constructions ranging from an alarm clock bed. or describing something and a set of specialized gestures that detects the light in the morning and rattles a toy bed to. that can be recognized by the system such as show the a smart cage that tracks the behavior of the hamster. next slide or start the video inside, Some applications are designed to let people get Another approach is ubiquitous computing 23 in which. information by seeing through them For example an specially created objects are detected by sensors placed. obstetrician can look simultaneously at a pregnant woman throughout the building PARCTabs fit in the palm of your. and the ultrasound image of her baby inside 1 A video hand and are meant to act like post it notes The notebook. image of the woman taken from a camera mounted on the sized version acts like a scratch pad and the Liveboard a. helmet is merged with a computer generated ultrasound wall sized version is designed for collaborative use by. image that corresponds to the current position of the live several people A related project at Xerox EuroPARC 17. image A similar approach enables plastic surgeons to plan uses Active Badges from Olivetti Research laboratory. reconstructive surgery 4 The surgeon can simultaneously England to support collaborative activities such as sharing. feel the soft tissue of a patient s face and examine a three documents and personal memory such as triggering. dimensional reconstruction of bone data from a CAT scan reminders of important or upcoming events or remembering. that is superimposed on the patient s head KARMA the people or meetings in the recent past. Knowledge Based Augmented Reality for Maintenance, Assistance 6 lets a repair technician look through a half Augment the environment. silvered mirror and see the relevant repair diagrams The third type of augmented reality enhances physical. superimposed onto a live video image the actual device environments to support various human activities In. being repaired The system tracks the viewer and the Krueger s Video Place 7 a computer controlled animated. components of the device being repaired in real time and character moved around a wall sized screen in response to a. person s movements in front of the screen Another early computer users keep two parallel filing systems one for. example was Bolt s Put That There 3 in which a their electronic documents and another for their paper. person sits in a chair points at objects that appear on a documents The two are often related but rarely identical. wall sized screen and speaks commands that move and it is easy for them to get out of sync Many software. computer generated objects to specified locations Elrod and application designers understand this problem and have tried. his colleagues 5 use embedded sensors to monitor light to replace paper altogether usually by providing electronic. heat and power in the building both to make the versions of paper forms While this works in some. environment more comfortable for the occupants when they applications for many others users end up juggling both. are there and to save energy when they are not paper and electronic versions of the same information. The Digital Desk 22 uses a video camera to detect where a We have been exploring a different approach Instead of. user is pointing and a close up camera to capture images of replacing the paper we augment it directly The user can. numbers which are then interpreted via optical character continue to take advantage of the flexibility of paper and at. recognition A projector overhead projects changes made by the same time manipulate information and communicate. the user back onto the surface of the desk For example the via a computer network The next section describes three. user may have a column of numbers printed on a particular applications of interactive paper We are not simply. page The user points to numbers the digital desk reads and interested in developing new technology In each case we. interprets them and then places them into an electronic began with observations of how people use a particular type. spreadsheet which is projected back onto the desk Using of paper document in a particular use setting We then use. his fingers the user can modify the numbers and perform participatory design techniques to develop a series of. whatif calculations on the original data figure 2 prototypes that link the paper to relevant computer. software The goal is to take advantage of the unique. benefits of both paper and electronic forms of information. creating a new style of user interface that is lightweight and. flexible computationally powerful and enhances users. existing styles of working,Ariel Blueprints that talk to the net. We studied the work practices of a group of construction. supervisors working on the Storebaelt bridge in Denmark. the world s longest suspension bridge Our original goal. was to provide them with a sophisticated multimedia. communication system that would let them talk to one. another and share information We discovered that they. must deal with thousands of engineering design drawings as. they manage and inspect the work of the bridge contractors. Yet on any given week they only use four or five, Figure 2 A user points to a column of numbers Another important discovery was that although they all.
printed on a paper document and then uses an have computers in their offices they rarely use them. electronic calculator projected on the desktop except occasionally for email mail and writing reports. Instead they travel constantly from their offices to the. In 15 we describe a set of applications that interpret bridge pylons in the waterway and back to the pre. information on paper along different dimensions numbers fabrication sites and administrative offices on shore The. can be calculated text can be checked for spelling or supervisors much prefer the convenience of paper drawings. translated into a different language two dimensional especially since they can easily make informal notes and. drawings can be turned into three dimensional images and sketch ideas for design changes These informal changes are. still images can become dynamic video sequences In all of extremely important as many as 30 of the changes made. these examples the user can see and interact with electronic are never transferred to the on line system Thus the paper. information without wearing special devices or modifying drawings are the most accurate record of the actual design of. the objects they interact with the bridge, INTERACTIVE PAPER We were interested in giving supervisors improved access to. Paper is an extremely versatile object used for many critical information as well as to each other Rather than. purposes in a variety of different ways Yet once written on designing yet another unused program for the supervisor s. or printed the information on paper is essentially static desktop computer we decided to use an augmented reality. The user can erase pencil marks and make new annotations approach Ariel 11 14 lets the engineering drawings. with a pen but usually once paper is printed it stays the themselves became the interface to the computer We. same If we want to modify information via the computer developed a series of prototypes in collaboration with the. we must return to the computer screen make the changes engineers to explore different interfaces and functionality. and print out a new version The result is that many Figure 3 shows the first prototype developed in Unix. drawing to make it easier to see the projected information. By placing a small led in the corner of the paper we create. a real as opposed to a virtual window that Ariel can. track as it is moved around the drawing,Figure 3 The first prototype of Ariel Unix uses. an A0 sized graphics tablet to capture,annotations and commands from the user and. projected information back onto the tablet, When the supervisor wants to connect the drawing to Ariel. she simply places it onto the desktop Ariel identifies the Figure 5 Macintosh interface Movable. drawing via a bar code figure 4 and uses a tiny video hotspots indicating annotations are projected. camera to capture the position of a light pen and a hand held onto the paper The user can move a paper. scanner to capture hand written notes We experimented. window anywhere on the surface Ariel detects, with various mechanisms for registering the exact location.
of the drawing with respect to the graphics tablet The most it via the red led in the corner. successful version involved asking the user to point to each. Every drawing contains information about the author of the. of the four corners of the drawing after identifying it so. drawing and other responsible individuals Ariel lets the. Ariel would know the correct size Ariel then adjusts the. user take advantage of this information to establish live. electronic image of the drawing to correspond to the actual. video connections with people at other Ariel sites via a. size of the paper drawing,media space figure 6 The supervisor can also send. multimedia mail and look at annotations made by her. colleagues,Figure 4 Identifying the drawing via a barcode. Figure 6 Users can access a media space and, Ariel uses a portable video projection panel to display communicate with others at different locations. computer images and interactive menus onto the drawing on the bridge. Figure 5 shows the MacIntosh interface in which the user. can make hypermedia annotations indicated by hotspots The main advantage of using engineering drawings as the. to add audio video or text notes in addition to the ones interface is that they are never down they always work. written in pencil Projection of computer images onto the Yet with Ariel these same drawings provide a simple and. paper drawing can occasionally be confusing One solution effective interface to a sophisticated distributed multimedia. is to place a piece of plain white paper over areas of the network with all its capabilities for information exchange. Video Mosaic Interactive paper storyboards, Film makers and video producers use paper storyboards to Camera. organize and illustrate the flow of a movie or video. Storyboards usually consist of a series of shots each Camera Projector. containing a best frame or sketch of a representative. image from a motion sequence the corresponding dialog or. voice over and notes about the shots or scene figure 7. Figure 8 Diagram of Video Mosaic layout,Figure 7 An example of an informal storyboard.
with a sketch of the video to the left a,description of the shot in the middle and the. Augmented Reality Linking real and provide a link into a computer network Doctors can image of the woman taken from a camera mounted on the

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