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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE TUTORIAL,Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint com. tutorialspoint com,ABOUT THE TUTORIAL,Assembly Programming Tutorial. Assembly language is a low level programming language for a computer or other. programmable device specific to a particular computer architecture in contrast to most high. level programming languages which are generally portable across multiple systems. Assembly language is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to. as an assembler like NASM MASM etc, This tutorial has been designed for software programmers with a need to understand the. Assembly programming language starting from scratch This tutorial will give you enough. understanding on Assembly programming language from where you can take yourself at. higher level of expertise,Prerequisites, Before proceeding with this tutorial you should have a basic understanding of Computer. Programming terminologies A basic understanding of any of the programming languages will. help you in understanding the Assembly programming concepts and move fast on the learning. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning,Copyright Disclaimer Notice.
All the content and graphics on this tutorial are the property of tutorialspoint com Any content from. tutorialspoint com or this tutorial may not be redistributed or reproduced in any way shape or form. without the written permission of tutorialspoint com Failure to do so is a violation of copyright laws. This tutorial may contain inaccuracies or errors and tutorialspoint provides no guarantee regarding the. accuracy of the site or its contents including this tutorial If you discover that the tutorialspoint com site. or this tutorial content contains some errors please contact us at webmaster tutorialspoint com. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning,Table of Content. Assembly Programming Tutorial 2,Audience 2,Prerequisites 2. Copyright Disclaimer Notice 3,Assembly Introduction 8. What is Assembly Language 8,Advantages of Assembly Language 8. Basic Features of PC Hardware 9,The Binary Number System 9.
The Hexadecimal Number System 9,Binary Arithmetic 10. Addressing Data in Memory 11,Assembly Environment Setup 13. Installing NASM 13,Assembly Basic Syntax 15,The data Section 15. The bss Section 15,The text section 15,Comments 15. Assembly Language Statements 16,Syntax of Assembly Language Statements 16.
The Hello World Program in Assembly 16, Compiling and Linking an Assembly Program in NASM 17. Assembly Memory Segments 18,Memory Segments 18,Assembly Registers 20. Processor Registers 20,Data Registers 20,Pointer Registers 21. Index Registers 21,Control Registers 22,Segment Registers 22. Example 23,Assembly System Calls 24,Linux System Calls 24.
Example 25,Addressing Modes 27,TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning. Register Addressing 27,Immediate Addressing 27,Direct Memory Addressing 28. Direct Offset Addressing 28,Indirect Memory Addressing 28. The MOV Instruction 28,EXAMPLE 29,Assembly Variables 31. Allocating Storage Space for Initialized Data 31, Allocating Storage Space for Uninitialized Data 32.
Multiple Definitions 32,Multiple Initializations 33. Assembly Constants 34,The EQU Directive 34,Example 34. The assign Directive 35,The define Directive 35,Arithmetic Instructions 37. EXAMPLE 37,The DEC Instruction 37,EXAMPLE 37,The ADD and SUB Instructions 38. EXAMPLE 38,The MUL IMUL Instruction 40,EXAMPLE 41,EXAMPLE 41.
The DIV IDIV Instructions 42,EXAMPLE 43,Logical Instructions 45. The AND Instruction 45,Example 46,The OR Instruction 46. Example 47,TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning,The XOR Instruction 47. The TEST Instruction 48,The NOT Instruction 48,Assembly Conditions 49. The CMP Instruction 49,EXAMPLE 49,Unconditional Jump 50.
EXAMPLE 50,Conditional Jump 50,Example 51,Assembly Loops 53. Example 53,Assembly Numbers 55,ASCII Representation 56. BCD Representation 57,Example 57,Assembly Strings 59. String Instructions 59,Repetition Prefixes 64,Assembly Arrays 65. Example 66,Assembly Procedures 67,Example 67,Stacks Data Structure 68.
EXAMPLE 69,Assembly Recursion 70,Assembly Macros 72. Example 73,Assembly File Management 74,File Descriptor 74. File Pointer 74,File Handling System Calls 74,TUTORIALS POINT. Simply Easy Learning,Creating and Opening a File 75. Opening an Existing File 75,Reading from a File 75.
Writing to a File 76,Closing a File 76,Updating a File 76. Example 77,Memory Management 79,Example 79,TUTORIALS POINT. Simply Easy Learning,Assembly Introduction,What is Assembly Language. E ach personal computer has a microprocessor that manages the computer s arithmetical logical and. control activities, Each family of processors has its own set of instructions for handling various operations like getting input from. keyboard displaying information on screen and performing various other jobs These set of instructions are called. machine language instruction, Processor understands only machine language instructions which are strings of 1s and 0s However machine.
language is too obscure and complex for using in software development So the low level assembly language is. designed for a specific family of processors that represents various instructions in symbolic code and a more. understandable form,Advantages of Assembly Language. An understanding of assembly language provides knowledge of. Interface of programs with OS processor and BIOS, Representation of data in memory and other external devices. How processor accesses and executes instruction,How instructions accesses and process data. How a program access external devices,Other advantages of using assembly language are. It requires less memory and execution time, It allows hardware specific complex jobs in an easier way.
It is suitable for time critical jobs,TUTORIALS POINT. Simply Easy Learning, It is most suitable for writing interrupt service routines and other memory resident programs. Basic Features of PC Hardware, The main internal hardware of a PC consists of the processor memory and the registers The registers are. processor components that hold data and address To execute a program the system copies it from the external. device into the internal memory The processor executes the program instructions. The fundamental unit of computer storage is a bit it could be on 1 or off 0 A group of nine related bits makes a. byte Eight bits are used for data and the last one is used for parity According to the rule of parity number of bits. that are on 1 in each byte should always be odd, So the parity bit is used to make the number of bits in a byte odd If the parity is even the system assumes that. there had been a parity error though rare which might have caused due to hardware fault or electrical. disturbance,The processor supports the following data sizes.
Word a 2 byte data item,Doubleword a 4 byte 32 bit data item. Quadword an 8 byte 64 bit data item,Paragraph a 16 byte 128 bit area. Kilobyte 1024 bytes,Megabyte 1 048 576 bytes,The Binary Number System. Every number system uses positional notation i e each position in which a digit is written has a different. positional value Each position is power of the base which is 2 for binary number system and these powers begin. at 0 and increase by 1, The following table shows the positional values for an 8 bit binary number where all bits are set on. Bit value 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1,Position value as a,128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1.
power of base 2,Bit number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0, The value of a binary number is based on the presence of 1 bits and their positional value So the value of the. given binary number is 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 255 which is same as 2 1. The Hexadecimal Number System, Hexadecimal number system uses base 16 The digits range from 0 to 15 By convention the letters A through F. is used to represent the hexadecimal digits corresponding to decimal values 10 through 15. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning, Main use of hexadecimal numbers in computing is for abbreviating lengthy binary representations Basically. hexadecimal number system represents a binary data by dividing each byte in half and expressing the value of. each half byte The following table provides the decimal binary and hexadecimal equivalents. Decimal number Binary representation Hexadecimal representation. To convert a binary number to its hexadecimal equivalent break it into groups of 4 consecutive groups each. starting from the right and write those groups over the corresponding digits of the hexadecimal number. Example Binary number 1000 1100 1101 0001 is equivalent to hexadecimal 8CD1. To convert a hexadecimal number to binary just write each hexadecimal digit into its 4 digit binary equivalent. Example Hexadecimal number FAD8 is equivalent to binary 1111 1010 1101 1000. Binary Arithmetic, The following table illustrates four simple rules for binary addition. i ii iii iv, Rules iii and iv shows a carry of a 1 bit into the next left position.
TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning,Decimal Binary. 60 00111100,42 00101010,102 01100110, A negative binary value is expressed in two s complement notation According to this rule to convert a binary. number to its negative value is to reverse its bit values and add 1. Number 53 00110101,Reverse the bits 11001010,Number 53 11001011. To subtract one value from another convert the number being subtracted to two s complement format and add. the numbers,Example Subtract 42 from 53,Number 53 00110101. Number 42 00101010,Reverse the bits of 42 11010101.
Number 42 11010110,53 42 11 00001011,Overflow of the last 1 bit is lost. Addressing Data in Memory, The process through which the processor controls the execution of instructions is referred as the fetch decode. execute cycle or the execution cycle It consists of three continuous steps. Fetching the instruction from memory,Decoding or identifying the instruction. Executing the instruction, The processor may access one or more bytes of memory at a time Let us consider a hexadecimal number. 0725H This number will require two bytes of memory The high order byte or most significant byte is 07 and the. low order byte is 25, The processor stores data in reverse byte sequence i e the low order byte is stored in low memory address and.
high order byte in high memory address So if processor brings the value 0725H from register to memory it will. transfer 25 first to the lower memory address and 07 to the next memory address. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning,x memory address. When the processor gets the numeric data from memory to register it again reverses the bytes There are two. kinds of memory addresses, An absolute address a direct reference of specific location. The segment address or offset starting address of a memory segment with the offset value. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning,Assembly Environment Setup. A ssembly language is dependent upon the instruction set and the architecture of the processor In this. tutorial we focus on Intel 32 processors like Pentium To follow this tutorial you will need. An IBM PC or any equivalent compatible computer,A copy of Linux operating system. A copy of NASM assembler program,There are many good assembler programs like.
Microsoft Assembler MASM,Borland Turbo Assembler TASM. The GNU assembler GAS,We will use the NASM assembler as it is. Free You can download it from various web sources, Well documented and you will get lots of information on net. Could be used on both Linux and Windows,Installing NASM. If you select Development Tools while installed Linux you may NASM installed along with the Linux operating. system and you do not need to download and install it separately For checking whether you already have NASM. installed take the following steps,Open a Linux terminal.
Type whereis nasm and press ENTER, If it is already installed then a line like nasm usr bin nasm appears Otherwise you will see justnasm then. you need to install NASM,To install NASM take the following steps. TUTORIALS POINT,Simply Easy Learning, Check The netwide assembler NASM website for the latest version. Download the Linux source archive nasm X XX ta gz where X XX is the NASM version number in the. Unpack the archive into a directory which creates a subdirectory nasm X XX. cd to nasm X XX and type configure This shell script will find the best C compiler to use and set up. Makefiles accordingly,Type make to build the nasm and ndisasm binaries. Type make install to install nasm and ndisasm in usr local bin and to install the man pages. This should install NASM on your system Alternatively you can use an RPM distribution for the Fedora Linux. This version is simpler to install just double click the RPM file. Assembly language is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler like NASM MASM etc Audience This tutorial has been designed for software programmers with a need to understand the Assembly programming language starting from scratch This tutorial will give you enough understanding on Assembly programming language from where you can take yourself at

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