Assamese Song Trends of Evolution INFLIBNET

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Kakoti Banikanta 1995 11 Chary padas were technically well composed and. thematically very sublime Though we don t know much about the musical. notation and features of Chary padas yet their external texture is equivalent to. the Borgeet and other lyrical compositions of its class in the later period Neog. Maheswar 1995 41 Chary padas are the examples of the practice of ancient. R ga music in Eastern India Lui Pa a Buddhist Monk used Patmanjari R ga. in his first song Bhuyan Sarala 2011 3 Besides being thematically profound. and complex the texts of Chary padas have got exquisite musical touch The. following two translated extracts Translation by Dilip Borah from Chary padas. are example of their profound philosophical and poetic touch. i K y Rupi Brikhyar P sot Koi D l,Sanchal Sitt T t Prabekhile K l Lui pa. ii H tar Kh ru S baloi in Nalab,Nijar Mon Tumi Nijei Bujib Kannareepa. Borah Dilip 2009 86 115, After Chary pada the musical trends of Oj p li are worth reckoning. During the period between the later half of 15th and the first half 16th century there. emerged a number of poets Pitamber Kabi Durgabar Mankar and Sukabi. Narayan Dev were prominent among them who were not much influenced by the. Vaishnavite movement which was already initiated by Shankardeva The theme. and the style of their composition also did not imbibe any trace of Vishnavite. ideology The literature by those poets may be called P nch li or Oj p li In. Oj p li there are five singers and musicians Its song also got five parts M lit. R g Dih B n and Thok Sharma Satyandranath 2001 84 93. Chronologically the artistic norms of Oj p li were from earlier period than. those of Satriy songs and music a special genre introduced by Shankadeva. Oj p li is a kind of semi dramatic presentation with music and dance On the. basis of subject and theme Oj p li has two parts,i M roi Gow or Sukannani Oj p li. ii Biy ha or Biy Gowa r Oj p li Known also as Sabh. Gow Oj Dutta Birendranath 2001 45 46, The R ga used in Oj p li bears the proof of the practice of R ga music.
even before the emergence of Sankardeva the pioneer of Vaishnavite movement. in Assam The themes and tones of Oj p li were brought down to the common. people s taste and understanding from a high ideological perception Social. mannerism rustic words and ideas are used to make it popular among the village. folk Its language is plain and close to colloquial dialect Neog Maheswar. 1995 94 95 Oj p li remains the most forceful original ancient trend of song. before Sankardeva Even from the accounts of Sankardeva s contemporary Ram. Saraswati it can be surmised that Oj p li was a very strong and popular medium. of its time,H te T l Dhari K to Dei Kart li,Ekejan Oj Hoe K to Hoe P li Ram Saraswati. Dutta Birendranath 2001 49, But the oldest trend of music that overwhelms the people s mind and soul. over the ages that transports the listeners to the utmost spiritual depth that. enchants them with its divine tone is Borgeet Borgeets are acknowledged to be. that special trends of song and music pioneered by Sankardeva 1499 1568 It is. said that Sankardeva wrote his first Borgeet Man Meri R m Saran hi L gu in. Badarikashram during his first pilgrimage Study Material M A IDOL Gauhati. University Part 3 2008 62 Following the foot step of his Guru Sankardeva. Madhavdeva 1489 1569 earnestly tried to spread the spirit of Bhakti through his. Borgeets among the common people Very often he used common household yet. sweet sounding words in his composition The sights scenes metaphors and. similes he used were also very commonplace and easily recognizable for the. general people An apt example of this is his evergreen Borgeet Tejare. Kamal pati Parabh ta Nind where the common scenes and sights of the. morning hour is delineated with a grand and poignant poetic touch The sublime. thought and exquisite expression of Borgeets touch everyone s soul and awaken. the latent spirit of Bhakti in him or her Borgeet has its own unique spiritual. divine melody fertile self revealing diction and very magnanimous sublime. thought and theme Banikanta Kakoti Kaliram Medhi etc scholars has termed. Borgeet as Songs Celestial Noble Numbers because of its spiritual depth and. sublimity Dutta Birendra Nath 2001 28 It is to be remembered here that. Sankardeva and Madhabdeva never used the term Borgeet for their songs they. called them Geet only However in the later period their disciples and followers. used the term Borgeet i e grand song because of the songs sublimity and. grandeur in different aspects Ibid 62 Through these grand Borgeets Sankardeva. and Madhavdeva have shown the possibilities and potentialities of Assamese. music The Borgeets are flawlessly complete in their music diction and theme all. go hand in hand complimenting one another in a very balanced manner Borgeets. are based on sublime moral and spiritual thought And this sublimity is achieved. in every way ranging from tone to the arrangements of the words We can take the. following extract of a Borgeet as an apt example,P we Pari Hari Karoho K tori. Pr na R khohi Mora,Bixaya Bixadhara Bixa Jarajara,Jibana Narahe Mora. Sankardev Borgeet 17, Here the use of the trill r is to be noted It is recurring over and over again all.
through the lines The laxity of the trill intensifies the effect of a sense of spiritual. surrender the thought endeavours to convey Sarma Anuradha 2010 129. Like Indian R ga music the music of Borgeet is also closely related to. R gas In the Borgeet of Sankardeva and Madhabdeva the following R gas can. be found Ahir Asow ri Kaly n Kan ra K mod Ked r Kow Gouri Tur Tur. Basanta Tur Bhatiy li Dhanashree N t N t Mall r Purbi Bar ri Baxanta. Below r Bhatiy li Bhup li Mall r M hur M hur Dhanashree R mgiri Lalit. Shy m Shy m Gar Shree Shree G ndh r Shree Gouri X reng Sindhur and. Xuh i Pujari Archana 2002 12 Excluding one or two of these almost all the. R gas are familiar to Indian M rgya music This is a proof of close proximity of. Borgeet to M rgiya music However as Jyotiprasad Agarwala says the R gas of. Sankardeva while being a part of Hindustani music maintains a distinctive. quality of their own For example he adds Kow R ga may be Sankardeva s own. creation or may be developed upon the prevalent devotional tune Bhakatiya Xur. Besides the eighteen Taalas i e rhythms contributed by Sankardeva though. they are identical to some Hindustani Taalas are quite distinctive The aspects of. technicality which separate Karnataki and Hindustani music i e the two branches. of Hindu music also do the same to these Assamese songs Hence they should. be recognized as the third branch of Indian music Sarma Satyendra. Nath ed 1986 487 490 Maheswar Neog calls Borgeet Assam s Classical Music. Study Material M A IDOL Gauhati University Part 3 2008 63 Besides. Sankardeva and Madhbdeva there are a few Vaishnavite poets who wrote songs in. the same manner of Borgeet They were Ramcharan Thakur Bhabanipuria Gopal. Ata Ata s daughter Padmapriya Borjadumoni Aniruddha Ahatguri s Sri Ram. Bipra etc Dutta Birendra Nath 2001 28 30 But the term Borgeet remains. restricted to the compositions of Sankardeva and Madhabdeva only. The post Sankardeva period was a period of repose and lax in terms of. literary creation Satyendranath Sarma said that during that period nothing new is. noticed in the composition of songs and dramas Sarma Satyendranath. 2001 231 There is a long stagnancy further lulled by social and political turmoil. And it resulted in a radical social change Assamese society and culture got shrunk. under the oppression of the British Empire There was an utterly changed. atmosphere It took years for the people to get into terms with these changes And. in between the prevalence of Assamese language was also challenged A shadow. of doubt was cast over the living power and potency of the Assamese language. which was not in use for almost four decades Is literature possible in. Assamese that was the question blinking in the mind of the people Assamese. song and literature sank into oblivion and Bengali songs and music started to make. its presence felt Bengali Khemt song Nidhibabu s Tappa and the songs of. Shyamlal and Dwijendralal were getting popular Even the most prominent. Assamese personality like Dhekial Phukan brought Bengali artists to perform in a. marriage ceremony at his place Hazarika Lakhi edt An article by Dilip Bora. In the year 1888 Satyanath Bora 1860 1925 made an attempt to revive the. Assamese song with his collection of songs Geetawali However his songs did not. have much to offer in terms of poignant thought and expression They were most. of the time commonplace and loose in construction The following one is an. example of the type,ji Maj Petu Pet Bhari Kh,Pet Bhari Pet Bhari Pet Bhari Kh. Au Theker Teng,Rahar Ki Daal,lu Bh j Kh ba Maj Pak Kharis. Bhuya Sarala 2011 142, From 1888 to about 1928 people like Satyanath Bora Lakhiram Baruah. Bhakat Ram Choudhury Benudhar Rajkhowa Padmadhar Chaliha Durlav. Chandra Daroga etc tried their every way to revive the Assamese song However. they could not succeed in giving a desired pace and scale to it Referring to that. state of music and song Dr Bhupen Hazarika said We had a very patchy and lean. state of Assamese song then Hazarika Lakhi edt An article by Dilip Bora. 1992 3 4 Satyanath Bora s Geetawali was an effort to put an end to the. dominance of Bengali song in the state In the introduction to Geetawali Mr Bora. said that this work of his was an endeavour to retrieve and reinstate the lost past. glory of the Assamese song Nath Prasanna Kumar 2001 21. In the year 1924 Prafulla Baruah got four Assamese songs recorded by. HMV Gramophone Company in Kolkata All the songs were sung by Mr Baruah. himself It was the first of its kind in the history of Assamese song The songs. were Axam Nirupam Janani i Akhangkhya Giri Durga R ni by Umesh. Chandra Choudhury Kiyano P har Axami Her By Radhanath Phukan. Phulo Phulile Jon ie H hile and Hriday Bid ri Uthe Xata Bedan re By. Prasanna Lal Choudhury What a herculean task it was However those songs. could not last through the ages and the composers also did not get their due. acknowledgement in a yet be conducive environment for Assamese songs and. music But still Prafulla Chandra Baruah s step is to be marked as one of the most. pioneering works in the field of Assamese songs and music Bhakat Ram. Choudhury s Pranay Gaan 1903 and Benudhar Rajkhowa s B hi 1906 Again. Durlav Chandra Daroga s Durlav Prem Sangeet 1926 and Padmadhar Chaliha s. Phulani were the published volumes of songs which made an earnest effort to get. some life back to Assamese music Lakhiram Baruah was yet another force. contributing towards the awaking spirit of Assamese music With his ripe. experience of songs and music he initiated a marked leap forward in the realm of. Assamese song In 1909 Mr Baruah published a volume of Assamese song. entitled Sangeet Kosh This volume was a collection of as many as 422 songs. Sangeet Kosh was followed by the publication of Sangeet Sadhana in 1910 Thus. the endeavour of Mr Lakhi Ram Baruah was a watershed in the history of. Assamese song, In the mean time people like Padma Nath Gohain Baruah 1871 1946. Chandra Kumar Agarwala 1874 1940 Laxminath Bezbaruah 1864 1938 and. Nalinibala Devi put their best effort in composing Assamese song Their works. really infused life and force into it Especially the songs by Laxminath Bezbaruah. own the peoples heart and soul In addition to Bezbaruah s national anthem O. Mor pun r Dex the other five songs are popular even today They are Prem. Prem Buli Parbator Dheki Lor Burh K k Kai Xakhi He Kikame Dukhare. Kath Kone No Baj ise B hi, Bezbaruah was a composer of great caliber The following extract from his.
song Lor Burh K k Kai is an example enough of his thought and excellence. Purani k x Phul m Tar re,Lor t Koio Lor,Purani Prithibi Phutuki Phulare. T t Koi Je Sar,Hazarika Lakhi ed 1992 6, Here Bezbaruah has achieved great depth of thought with so common place. diction images and tone With great musicality and ease he juxtaposed the old. past and the new present the bright and colorful present is in fact rooted in. grand and expansive past Thus in a very soft yet convincing tone and style. Bezbaruah welcomes the new, Bezbaruah also wrote a few songs which have got close proximity to the. folk songs and ballads in terms of style and tone In this respect citation can be. made of his song on historical character Badan Barphukan who invited in Maan. The Burmese to invade the state of Assam,Kiyano nili Manoi Badan Toy Kiyono nili M n. J uti Jugaloi Khy ti R khili Kat li Axamar K n, Xonare Axamat Dak it Meli Dili Nandanat Melili H ti.
Bargharar Majiy t Fetigom Erili Bhardupari R ti Ibid 6. This song also gives vent to his passionate patriotic spirit Besides this type of. song Bezbaruah wrote some so musically rhythmic and melodious poem that they. are better sung than read In the latter period they are further enriched with great. musical notation by some able singers and composers Of them Eketi Xurat B hiti. Bandh Prem Prem Buli Jagat Ghurilo Koi Jow D kow l Khoj Kiya Kobal. etc are the songs which are musically composed and sung by Bhupen Hazarika. Indeed the serene poignant tone of Bezbaruah s song and lyrics transport the. Assamese Song Trends of Evolution Down the vistas of the history of Assamese song there was a broad spectrum of folk songs and music They were the songs in the forms of marriage songs worship songs work songs etc The folk songs can be put in three groups i

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