Are higher education institutions and their leadership

Are Higher Education Institutions And Their Leadership-Free PDF

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Contemporary context for studying leadership in higher. As debates continue at the regional and national level about the merits. of selecting leaders with little or no political experience comparable. questions are of increasing relevance within colleges and universities. The timing for this analysis is particularly appropriate given high. profile hiring announcements of leaders appointed to US higher. education leadership roles from the political sector including former. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings at the University of North. Carolina the former governor of Indiana Mitchell Daniels at Purdue. University and the former Secretary of Homeland Security Janet. Napolitano at the University of California The recruitment of college. and university presidents whose primary leadership experience is in. business and industry is also becoming more common as illustrated by. the recent appointment of former businessman Bruce Harreld at the. University of Iowa The aspirations that may be brought to colleges. and universities by outsider leaders are promising in many ways At. the same time a number of controversial actions and comments by. some senior college and university leaders whose primary professional. experience was acquired outside of higher education have drawn. widespread criticism suggesting that experience and knowledge of the. culture of higher education may be a critical component for successful. leadership Some examples include the resignation of president and. former IBM executive Tim Wolfe at the University of Missouri. following his widely criticized handling of racially charged incidents. on campus and the decision to appear in a photograph wearing. stereotypical Mexican costumes by the president and former Kentucky. budget director and chief economist James Ramsey at Louisville. University Some recent comments by these outsider presidents have. also caused alarm including controversial comments by President. Bruce Harreld at the University of Iowa i e There was one way to. prepare lessons and any instructor who goes into a class without. having done so should be shot Woodhouse 2015 In another. recent case comments regarding student retention by the president and. former financial industry executive Simon Newman at Mount St. Mary s University contributed to his recent resignation e g You just. have to drown the bunnies Put a Glock to their heads Such. incidents led to a published debate by various scholars and authors in. The New York Times 2016 with some defending the merits of hiring. presidents with sophisticated business acumen and others pushing. 28 Higher Education Review Vol 49 No 3 2017 ISSN 0018 1609. back against this notion of hiring senior leaders from outside of the. Conceptual rationale, Stepping beyond the politicized debates regarding these controversies. that stir strong sentiments from proponents and detractors the larger and. more enduring issues of concern point to the need for a nuanced. exploration into organizations of higher education and the capabilities. needed to lead them effectively Specifically in what ways if at all are. colleges and universities truly unique as an organizational type and if. they are unique are there specialized competencies required to. effectively lead in higher education This article considers these. questions through an examination of the relevant scholarly literature. and concludes with a proposed two dimensional leadership. competencies framework that helps to identify critical concepts and. offers potential benefits as a research framework to address these. important higher education leadership questions In the spirit of. pursuing an introductory investigation into an issue of both scholarly. and applied importance the framework proposed is exploratory in. nature For these reasons our goal is to synthesize various theoretical. foundations and existing lines of research with the hope of framing a. perspective that clarifies the issues involved and inspires future. investigation on this topic Put another way the question of whether. university presidents appointed from outside the academy without prior. higher education experience can succeed and the extent to which such. appointments present significant benefits or challenges to their. institutions are of considerable importance for institutions of higher. education Providing a definitive answer to these questions lies beyond. the scope of this article rather the goal here is to suggest a framework. that may be helpful in delineating these significant issues and inspiring. and framing future empirical research on this topic. The outsider phenomenon in both contemporary political life and. across higher education nationally comes at a time when leaders. confront a myriad of complex challenges Within higher education. The challenges facing college and university presidents are not limited to examples. within the US Rather as pointed out by one of the anonymous reviewers more than. 25 percent of Canadian university presidents have failed to complete their first term. in office Paul 2016 Although these candidates do not hold outsider credentials. the cases at the University of British Columbia and Concordia University point to. the inherent difficulties of the presidential role and the challenges raised by Board. of Governor appointments, Higher Education Review Vol 49 No 3 2017 ISSN 0018 1609 29. specifically there is a need for senior leaders who can persuasively. articulate higher education s needs purposes and aspirations for. increasingly questioning publics Ruben et al 2017 As Molly Broad. outgoing president of the American Council on Education noted this is. a very important moment in the life of American higher education. where the rate of change the velocity of change and the forces of. change are making it ever more challenging to find successful leaders. Eckel and Hartley 2011 On campuses of all kinds leaders often. struggle to engage boards legislators faculty staff students and the. many other constituencies in efforts to create a shared sense of. institutional priorities and agendas for future action And at the unit. program and department level it is sometimes quite difficult to identify. attract and retain faculty and staff who are motivated and prepared to. assume the many needed leadership roles As described by Stephen Joel. Trachtenberg former president of George Washington University. An awful lot of presidents who are stepping down are doing so. under pressure that is not visible to the public at large. contributing to his concern that the next generation of. presidents concerned with job security are going to be less. entrepreneurial and less committed to change at exactly the time. that we need those characteristics Schmidt 2016, This article considers to what extent these leadership challenges and the. competencies required to address them are unique focusing first on the. issue of whether and how colleges and universities and the units within. them differ from organizations in other sectors The article continues. with a summary of the implications of this uniqueness analysis for the. selection and development of leaders based on a review of the scholarly. literature that has examined leadership in higher education The goal is. not to analyze or critique the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of senior. leaders with outsider credentials but rather to interrogate and explore. those characteristics that are and are not unique to higher education. characteristics that have the potential to significantly influence the way. we think about recruit develop and evaluate college and university. leaders Finally through a proposed two dimensional competency. framework we present one possible way of exploring the preparation. analysis and selection of leaders in higher education based on this. introductory analysis, The unique character of colleges and universities as organizations. There is a widely held view within the academy that colleges and. 30 Higher Education Review Vol 49 No 3 2017 ISSN 0018 1609. universities are unique as organizations in that they serve higher. special and particularly noble purposes Frank Rhodes 2001 xi. president emeritus of Cornell University captures this view in the. following passage, Higher education informs public understanding cultivates public.
taste and contributes to the nation s well being as it nurtures and. trains each new generation of architects artists authors business. leaders engineers farmers lawyers physicians poets scientists. social workers and teachers as well as a steady succession of. advocates dreamers doers dropouts parents politicians. preachers prophets social reformers visionaries and volunteers. who leaven nudge and shape the course of public life. In an analysis of the nature of higher education institutions Manning. 2012 presents a thoughtful summary of organizational perspectives. that reinforce a view that differentiates colleges and universities from. other organizations As indicated in Table 1 each perspective builds. upon an existing theoretical foundation and offers a vivid image as a. way of viewing higher education organizations Furthermore each of. these perspectives might be coupled with alternative ways of. Higher education organisational metaphors,Organizational Theoretical Metaphor. Perspective Foundation,Organized anarchy Political philosophy Anarchy. Collegium Sociology Circle,Political Sociology Jungle. Cultural Anthropology Carnival and theater,Bureaucracy Modernist Machine. New science Philosophy of Hall of mirrors,science hologram woven.
fabric the world as,a great thought,Feminist Feminist theory Web. Spiritual Psychology Journey,Adapted from Manning 2012. Higher Education Review Vol 49 No 3 2017 ISSN 0018 1609 31. understanding the dynamics of organizations and social behavior such. as constructivist approaches in order to provide a more nuanced and. holistic understanding of organizing and organizations. Beginning with the organized anarchy metaphor three properties of. higher education fit into this perspective problematic goals unclear. technology and fluid participation among members Cohen and March. 1986 The second frame collegium provides a perspective that. highlights collegiality cooperation and equality within the organization. Manning explores the nuances of faculty culture from this perspective. including faculty rank and expert power circular communication and. consensus decision making leadership as first among equals faculty. socialization academic freedom and tenure These concepts capture the. flat circular structure of colleges and universities e g lack of a. hierarchical structure autonomous and independent members. dependence on expert power rather than positional power. The political frame offers a provocative image of colleges and. universities as a jungle contexts that are found to be competitive. treacherous and suitable only for the most fit Manning 2012 68. Defining characteristics of the political perspective include conflict as. normal powerful interest groups and coalitions the prevalence of. inactivity fluid participation and the existence of attention cues to. which politically astute leaders must attend From this viewpoint the. knowledge of power authority and decision making in higher education. is critical to the success of academic leadership The fourth frame. presented by Manning cultural is grounded in anthropology and. highlights the ways in which meaning is constituted by members of the. organization A number of definitions of culture exist including an often. cited definition by noted anthropologist Clifford Geertz 1973 89. Culture denotes an historically transmitted pattern of meanings. embodied in symbols a system of inherited conceptions expressed in. symbolic forms by means of which men sic communicate perpetuate. and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life Or as. defined by Schein 2015 287 Culture is a pattern of shared basic. assumptions learned by a group as it solved its problems of external. adaptation and internal integration which has worked well enough to be. considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the. correct way to perceive think and feel in relation to those problems. Two images are portrayed by the cultural perspective carnival and. theater reflecting an emphasis on performance As Manning 2012 93. indicates Carnivals and theaters have actors and audiences performers. and observers who exercise vital roles in culture building The cultural. perspective highlights a number of characteristics associated with. 32 Higher Education Review Vol 49 No 3 2017 ISSN 0018 1609. colleges and universities including values and assumptions. subcultures history tradition and context storytellers language. organizational sagas symbols and architecture all of which play an. important role in shaping the experience of all organizational. stakeholders and leaders, Bureaucracy the fifth theoretical point of view explores issues of. order and rationality in higher education Drawing on the work of. Weber the key characteristics under consideration include a hierarchical. structure the appointment of staff based on expertise and credentials. the concentration of authority at the top of the hierarchy formal vertical. subcultures history tradition and context storytellers language organizational sagas symbols and architecture all of which play an important role in shaping the experience of all organizational stakeholders and leaders Bureaucracy the fifth theoretical point of view explores issues of order and rationality in higher education

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