Arabic Handwriting boa unimib it

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DEDICATION,To my sister my best friend, For all the times you started but you was never able to complete your PhD. Aknowledgments, After two degrees at two universities in two different countries I have. learned one thing I could never have done any of this particularly the. research and writing that went into the dissertation without the support and. encouragement of a lot of people, First I would like to thank my advisor Professor Natale Stucchi I owe. you so much You have given so much of yourself to help me succeed You. provided me with invaluable advice and comments on both my research and. my future research career plans Whatever path I do take I will be prepared. because of you, I ve been very lucky throughout most of my life in Phd graduate. school in that I ve been able to collaborate with Prof Pascal Zesiger. Univ Geneva and also Prof Edouard Gentaz Univ Grenoble who gave me. the chance to work in his laboratory with his team I have learned so much. from all of you, Special thanks for Prof Bouzaoueche Univ Tunis with whom I also.
collaborate You was my professor and I will never stop learning from you. Thank you for your generous help and interest, The experimental research could never be done without the help and. participation of teachers parents children and students Thank you. Especially Chaouachi Dir of Melassine School Tunis. I have been also fortunate to have a great group of friends and. colleagues too numerous to name This is the key to getting through Ph D. program having good friends to have fun with and to complain to Thank you. Mme Fausta you have been more than a friend Special thanks to Chiara. Cantiani Gelsomina Perrone Irene Senna and Matteo Forgiarini with whom. I shared the best and the worst of my Ph D, I would like to thank Dr Linton and Dave Thank you for helping me. and being my English reviewer for the dissertation. Finally I would like to dedicate this work to my family Ali Naziha. Amor Kadhem Kaouthar and my lovely nephews Elyes Wael and Anas. Also a special person Lilianna Without your unending support and love. from childhood to now I never have made it through this process any of the. tough times in my life Thank you for existing,TABLE OF CONTENTS. DEDICATION p2,AKNOWLEDGMENTS p3,TABLE O CONTENTS p5. Introduction and Motivation p9, Chapter 1 Theoretical section Arabic Writing and Methods for the.
Measurment of Handwriting Difficulties,1 Writing system. 1 1 Arabic Handwriting System P16,1 2 Features of Arabic handwriting P17. 1 3 Differences between the Arabic and English writing systems P18. 1 4 Arabic and Hebrew handwriting P19,2 Handwriting Evaluation Scale. 2 1 The Test of Legible handwriting TOLH P23, 2 2 The Concise Evaluation Scale for Children s BHK P24. 2 3 The Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation HHE P25, 2 4 Merits and limitations of Handwriting Evaluations Scales P25.
2 4 1 The evaluator P26,2 4 2 The criteria P26,2 4 3 The assignment P26. 2 4 4 The instructions P27,2 4 5 Pen and paper P27. 2 4 6 Variability in personal writing style P28,2 4 7 Writing speed measurement P28. 2 4 8 Applicability of the scales to different populations P28. 3 The use of Computerized Temporal and Spatial Measurements in. Evaluating Handwriting Performance,3 1 Automation of stroke generation P31. 3 2 Speed P32,3 3 Variability P33,3 3 1 Neuromotor Noise P33.
3 3 2 On air movements P33,3 4 Axial pressures P34. 4 Individual variability,4 1 Pen Grip,4 2 Handedness P35. 4 3 Gender P36, 4 4 Extrinsic factors affecting handwriting performance p 36. 4 5 Orthographic characteristics and writing p 36,4 6 Graphophonological constraints p 37. 5 Software packages for the study of handwriting production. 5 1 The most used p 37,5 2 VB Digital Draw p 38, 6 Chapter 2 Experimental Section Arabic Handwriting Analyses.
Experiment 1 Description of Arabic Handwriting difficulties in p 42. 6 1 Method,6 1 1 Participants and selection procedure p 42. 6 1 2 Evaluation session p 43,6 1 3 Procedure p 43. 6 2 Analysis and results p 44,6 3 Discussion p 47,6 4 Conclusion p 47. 7 Experiment 2 Cinematic and Geometric Analyses of Arabic. Handwriting,7 1 Method,7 1 1 Participants p 48,7 1 2 Stimuli p 49. 7 1 3 Digitizing tablet and on line data collection p 49. 7 1 4 Procedure p 49,7 2 Data analysis p 50,7 3 Results p 50.
7 3 1 Stroke p 51,7 3 2 Dysfluency p 52,7 3 3 Time p 53. 7 3 4 Velocity p 54,7 3 5 Length p 55,7 3 6 Pressure p 56. 7 4 Discussion p 57,7 5 Conclusion p 62,Chapter 3 Theoretical section. 8 Perception and Implicit Motor Knowledge p 64, 8 1 Detecting anticipatory events in handwriting p 65. 8 2 Perceptual asymmetry p 57,8 3 Fixation in reading p 68.
8 4 Directional reading habits p 71,8 5 Mirror handwriting p 73. Chapter 4 Experimental section, 9 Experiment 3 The role of Reading and Writing habits in priming p 76. letter recognition,9 1Method p 74,9 1 1 Participants p 74. 9 1 2 Stimuli p 75,9 2 Procedure p 77, 9 2 1 The first absolute threshold assessment p 78. 9 2 3 The familiarization task p 78,9 2 3 Reading and Space tasks p 78.
9 2 4 The second absolute threshold assessment p 79. 9 3 The experimental task p 79,9 4 Design p 79,9 5 Analyses and Results p 80. 9 5 1 Reaction Time p 80,9 5 1 1 Group and Task p 80. 9 5 1 2 Quadrant p 81,9 5 1 3 Character p 82,9 5 2 Accuracy p 83. 9 5 3 Eye Landing Point p 83,9 5 3 1 Reaction Time p 85. 9 5 3 2 Accuracy p 86,9 6 Discussion p 87,9 7 Conclusion p 84.
9 8 Limitations and future investigations p 94,10 General Discussion. APPENDIX 1,APPENDIX 2 p 109,APPENDIX 3 p 114,APPENDIX 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY p 119,Da grande voglio essere un cuoco. Perch vorrei tanto usare le mie mani a fare tutt altro che. Introduction and Motivation, We are aware of the appearance and the importance of our writing legibility. and anything that comes as abnormal is perceived as disturbing At any moment over. the years when I have presented my research question there are members in the. audience who stop writing or make remarks expressing concern that their child s or. friend s handwriting may not be normal Professional observations and authentic. informal interviews confirm anecdotal beliefs in the correct handwriting. With the background of 8 years as a student in stage in the department of. Pedopsychiatry of Tunis Hospital and before beginning my PhD I pictured in my. mind how normal functioning hand would be writing but it has completely changed. afterward When I started the experiments in the classrooms I was confused as I. observed pupils representing extremes in academic performance and handwriting. different gender and social ability I was shocked when I knew that those children. labelled as poor writers could not have any structured rehabilitation intervention. since no clinical tools exist for Dysgraphia or handwriting difficulties in Tunisia The. lack of such knowledge and material constituted and still the motivation of my. researches The question that I posed myself was and still is what are the tools to. measure the handwriting deficits for Arabic writers Unfortunately there are no. clinical tools available Hence there is a necessity for a method that looks at. individual needs of the pupils and helps them to sustain the skills they are learning by. identifying the characteristics of their handwriting this is the aim of the experiment I. The first step was to understand the handwriting process proper of a. language to identify its cognitive and motor requests and secondly to create. psychometric tools that allow the measurement description and quantification of. the deficits in order to restore it, Increasing awareness of the socioeconomic costs of learning disabilities has.
prompted developed and developing countries to engage in an ongoing interest in. reading and writing disabilities Research on developmental dyslexia has witnessed. remarkable progress over the last twenty years in the Arabic speaking world and. cross linguistic studies of dyslexia in other languages are becoming increasingly. popular Belajouza et al 2005 However studies on the occurrence of handwriting. difficulties in Arabic have hitherto been rare and far between This study attempted to. investigate how such deficit manifests itself amongst Tunisian children by exploring. the characteristics of their handwriting movements However methodological. mistakes can be avoided when controlling the variability of the studies reviewed in. the literature on writing In fact Rosenblum Weiss Parush 2003a explained and. argued the development of methods used to evaluate handwriting difficulties and. concluded that a combined approach to handwriting evaluation on that takes. advantage of strengths of both human and digitizer based evaluation procedures. Handwriting is a fundamental skill that impacts various fields of one s. everyday life and professional performance Despite of the widespread use of. keyboard handwriting is still an important means of communicating through space. and time especially in childhood and in adolescence It plays a crucial role due to its. implications in motor and cognitive development children s performance in school as. well as their self esteem depends on their handwriting Pupils spend 30 al 60 of. their time in school on handwriting and fine motor tasks Learning to produce a. legible handwriting takes a lot of time and effort even for typically developing. children Smith Engelsman 1995, Handwriting requires a high level of fine motor coordination and. high precision force regulation and also perceptual cognitive and language abilities. Van Galen 1991 It is a complex interaction between motor and cognitive. processes Some components of the handwriting process are considered of low level. such as motor planning and execution Other components are considered high level. as strategies for generating language at the sentence and text levels linguistic and. lexical and reviewing and revising written text Visual motor integration bilateral. motor integration motor planning proprioception visual perception and sustained. attention are important components that attribute to complex fine motor skills like. handwriting and drawing, In addition it has been established that writing movements can help subjects. whose reading abilities are impaired for instance patients with pure alexia who were. no longer able to recognize letters visually sometimes succeed in doing so when they. were asked to trace the outline of the letters with their fingers Bartolomeo et al. 2002 Seki et al 1995 There are evidences which strongly suggest that writing. movements are involved in letter memorisation Naka 1998 Visual recognition was. also studied by Hulm 1979 who compared children s learning of a series of abstract. graphic forms depending on whether they simply looked at the forms or looked at. them as well as tracing the forms with their index finger The tracing movements. seemed to improve the children s memorisation of the graphic items thus it was. suggested that the visual and motor information might undergo a common. representation process, Such evidence confirms my belief that writing and reading are intimately. linked I assume that the main process when reading is influenced by motor activity. Such process is also based on spatial competences In fact various studies discussed. Christman and Niebauer 1997 the influence of scanning habits This bias has an. ecological origin as the organism is supported to be engaged in visual search for. objects that are relatively far away and hence in the upper VF For this reason I. proposed the experiment III, The general purpose of the study was twofold One aim was to contribute. evidence on the literature that children with handwriting difficulties will demonstrate. significant difference in the legibility and kinematics of their writing movement. compared to proficient writers The main goal of the study was to determine whether. these difficulties are linked somehow to the characteristic of the Arabic writing. system The specific purpose of the thesis was to investigate whether the reading. habits may influence the performance of Arabic and Italian adults in a character. recognition task,The structure of the thesis is as follow.
CHAPTER 1 Presents the characteristics of Arabic handwriting and the basic. explanations of its writing system comparing to Roman and Hebrew It also. introduces the topic of the studies reviewing the related researches on handwriting. evaluations relevant for the experiment I and II More specifically I will focus on. two types of methods for the measurement of handwriting difficulties 1 scale of. evaluations of handwriting and 2 the computerized methods This includes an in. depth discussion of the existing methods and their application Furthermore it. demonstrates why the existing work is essential, CHAPTER 2 introduces two experiments carried out with Tunisian children. and their respective results and discussions The first experiment is a pilot study that. aid to describe the common errors of Arabic handwriting in scholar The description. is based exclusively on the handwriting product The second experiment aimed to. investigate the kinematics of the handwriting and analyze it using a digitizer tablet. An important aim of this thesis is to develop a tool that permits to analyze. Arabic Handwriting Cinematic and Geometric descriptors no longer able to recognize letters visually sometimes succeed in doing so when they were asked to trace the outline of the letters with their fingers Bartolomeo et al 11 2002 Seki et al 1995 There are evidences which strongly suggest that writing movements are involved in letter memorisation Naka 1998 Visual recognition

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