ANTENNATHEORY CERN

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1 Antennas 1,1 1 Introduction 1,1 2 Types of Antennas 4. 1 3 Radiation Mechanism 7, 1 4 Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna 17. 1 5 Historical Advancement 20,1 6 Multimedia 24,References 24. 2 Fundamental Parameters of Antennas 27,2 1 Introduction 27. 2 2 Radiation Pattern 27,2 3 Radiation Power Density 38.
2 4 Radiation Intensity 40,2 5 Banmwidth 42,2 6 Directivity 44. 2 7 Numerical Techniques 58,2 8 Antenna Efficiency 64. 2 9 Gain 65,2 10 Beam Efficiency 69,2 11 Bandwidth 70. 2 12 Polarization 70,2 13 Input Impedance 80,2 14 Antenna Radiation Efficiency 85. 2 15 Antenna Vector Effective Length and Equivalent Areas 87. 2 16 Maximum Directivity and Maximum Effective Area 92. 2 17 Friis Transmission Equation and Radar Range Equation 94. 2 18 Antenna Temperature 104,2 19 Multimedia 108,References 112.
Problems 114,VIII CONTENTS, 3 Radiation Integrals and Auxiliary Potential Functions 133. 3 1 Introduction 133, 3 2 The Vector Potential A for an Electric Current Source J 135. 3 3 The Vector Potential F for a Magnetic Current Source M 137. 3 4 Electric and Magnetic Fields for Electric J and Magnetic M. Current Sources 138, 3 5 Solution of the Inhomogeneous Vector Potential Wave Equation 139. 3 6 Far Field Radiation 142,3 7 Duality Theorem 144. 3 8 Reciprocity and Reaction Theorems 144,References 150.
Problems 150,4 Linear Wire Antennas 151,4 1 Introduction 151. 4 2 Infinitesimal Dipole 151,4 3 Small Dipole 162,4 4 Region Separation 165. 4 5 Finite Length Dipole 170,4 6 Half Wavelength Dipole 182. 4 7 Linear Elements Near or on Infinite Perfect Conductors 184. 4 8 Ground Effects 205,4 9 Computer Codes 214,4 10 Multimedia 217. References 218,Problems 219,5 Loop Antennas 231,5 1 Introduction 231.
5 2 Small Circular Loop 232,5 3 Circular Loop of Constant Current 246. 5 4 Circular Loop with Nonuniform Current 255, 5 5 Ground and Earth Curvature Effects for Circular Loops 261. 5 6 Polygonal Loop Antennas 263,5 7 Ferrite Loop 266. 5 8 Mobile Communication Systems Applications 268,5 9 Multimedia 269. References 273,Problems 275,6 Arrays Linear Planar and Circular 283.
6 1 Introduction 283,6 2 Two Element Array 284, 6 3 N Element Linear Array Uniform Amplitude and Spacing 290. 6 4 N Element Linear Array Directivity 313,CONTENTS ix. 6 5 Design Procedure 318, 6 6 N Element Linear Array Three Dimensional Characteristics 320. 6 7 Rectangular to Polar Graphical Solution 322, 6 8 N Element Linear Array Uniform Spacing Nonuniform. Amplitude 324,6 9 Superdirectivity 345,6 10 Planar Array 349.
6 11 Design Considerations 362,6 12 Circular Array 365. 6 13 Multimedia 369,References 370,Problems 371,7 Antenna Synthesis and Continuous Sources 385. 7 1 Introduction 385,7 2 Continuous Sources 386,7 3 Schelkunoff Polynomial Method 388. 7 4 Fourier Transform Method 393,7 5 Woodward Lawson Method 399. 7 6 Taylor Line Source Tschebyscheff Error 406,7 7 Taylor Line Source One Parameter 410.
7 8 Triangular Cosine and Cosine Squared Amplitude Distributions 417. 7 9 Line Source Phase Distributions 418,7 10 Continuous Aperture Sources 419. 7 11 Multimedia 423,References 423,Problems 424, 8 Integral Equations Moment Method and Self and Mutual. Impedances 433,8 1 Introduction 433,8 2 Integral Equation Method 434. 8 3 Finite Diameter Wires 442,8 4 Moment Method Solution 450. 8 5 Self Impedance 458,8 6 Mutual Impedance Between Linear Elements 468.
8 7 Mutual Coupling in Arrays 478,8 8 Multimedia 491. References 491,Problems 494,9 Broadband Dipoles and Matching Techniques 497. 9 1 Introduction 497,9 2 Biconical Antenna 500, 9 3 Triangular Sheet Bow Tie and Wire Simulation 506. 9 4 Cylindrical Dipole 508,X CONTENTS,9 5 Folded Dipole 515. 9 6 Discone and Conical Skirt Monopole 521,9 7 Matching Techniques 523.
9 8 Multimedia 541,References 542,Problems 543,10 Traveling Wave and Broadband Antennas 549. 10 1 Introduction 549,10 2 Traveling Wave Antennas 549. 10 3 Broadband Antennas 566,10 4 Multimedia 600,References 600. Problems 602, 11 Frequency Independent Antennas Antenna Miniaturization and. Fractal Antennas 611,11 1 Introduction 611,11 2 Theory 612.
11 3 Equiangular Spiral Antennas 614,11 4 Log Periodic Antennas 619. 11 5 Fundamental Limits of Electrically Small Antennas 637. 11 6 Fractal Antennas 641,11 7 Multimedia 648,References 648. Problems 650,12 Aperture Antennas 653,12 1 Introduction 653. 12 2 Field Equivalence Principle Huygens Principle 653. 12 3 Radiation Equations 660,12 4 Directivity 662,12 5 Rectangular Apertures 663. 12 6 Circular Apertures 683,12 7 Design Considerations 692.
12 8 Babinet s Principle 697, 12 9 Fourier Transforms in Aperture Antenna Theory 701. 12 10 Ground Plane Edge Effects The Geometrical Theory of. Diffraction 721,12 11 Multimedia 726,References 726. Problems 728,13 Horn Antennas 739,13 1 Introduction 739. 13 2 E Plane Sectoral Horn 739,CONTENTS A,13 3 H Plane Sectoral Horn 755. 13 4 Pyramidal Horn 769,13 5 Conical Horn 783,13 6 Corrugated Horn 785.
13 7 Aperture Matched Horns 792,13 8 Multimode Horns 794. 13 9 Dielectric Loaded Horns 797,13 10 Phase Center 799. 13 11 Multimedia 802,References 802,Problems 805,14 Microstrip Antennas 811. 14 1 Introduction 811,14 2 Rectangular Patch 816,14 3 Circular Patch 843. 14 4 Quality Factor Bandwidth and Efficiency 852,14 5 Input Impedance 855.
14 6 Coupling 856,14 7 Circular Polarization 859,14 8 Arrays and Feed Networks 865. 14 9 Multimedia 872,References 872,Problems 876,15 Reflector Antennas 883. 15 1 Introduction 883,15 2 Plane Reflector 883,15 3 Corner Reflector 884. 15 4 Parabolic Reflector 893,15 5 Spherical Reflector 934. 15 6 Multimedia 936,References 937,Problems 939,16 Smart Antennas 945.
16 1 Introduction 945,16 2 Smart Antenna Analogy 946. 16 3 Cellular Radio Systems Evolution 947,16 4 Signal Propagation 954. 16 5 Smart Antennas Benefits 957,16 6 Smart Antennas Drawbacks 958. 16 7 Antenna 958,16 8 Antenna Beamforming 962,16 9 Mobile Ad hoc Networks MANETs 977. 16 10 Smart Antenna System Design Simulation and Results 982. Xii CONTENTS, 16 11 Beamforming Diversity Combining Rayleigh Fading and.
Trellis Coded Modulation 990,16 12 Other Geometries 993. 16 13 Multimedia 994,References 995,Problems 999,17 Antenna Measurements 1001. 17 1 Introduction 1001,17 2 Antenna Ranges 1003,17 3 Radiation Patterns 1021. 17 4 Gain Measurements 1028,17 5 Directivity Measurements 1034. 17 6 Radiation Efficiency 1036,17 7 Impedance Measurements 1036.
17 8 Current Measurements 1038,17 9 Polarization Measurements 1038. 17 10 Scale Model Measurements 1044,References 1045. Appendix I f x sin x 1049,Appendix II A x N sin x,N 1 3 5 10 20 1051. Appendix III Cosine and Sine Integrals 1053,Appendix IV Fresnel Integrals 1057. Appendix V Bessel Functions 1063,Appendix VI Identities 1075.
Appendix VII Vector Analysis 1079,Appendix VIII Method of Stationary Phase 1089. Appendix IX Television Radio Telephone and Radar Frequency. ANTENNATHEORY ANALYSISANDDESIGN THIRDEDITION ConstantineA Balanis TWILEY INTERSCIENCE AJOHNWILEY amp SONS INC PUBLICATION Preface 1 Antennas Contents 1 1 Introduction 1 2 Types ofAntennas 1 3 RadiationMechanism 1 4 Current Distribution onaThin Wire Antenna 1 5 Historical Advancement 1 6 Multimedia References 2 FundamentalParametersof Antennas 2 1 Introduction 2 2 RadiationPattern 2 3

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